# How to derive the conductivity titration curve which accounts for salt formation

I derived an equation that gave me the volume of base required to get a certain $$\mathrm{pH}$$:

In a titration between a weak acid $$\ce{HA}$$ and weak base $$\ce{B}$$ (adding base into acid solution) the following equations apply:

\begin{align} \ce{HA &<=> H+ + A- & K_{a}&=\frac{[H+][A-]}{[HA]}}\\ \ce{B + H2O & <=> HB+ + OH- & K_{b}&=\frac{[HB+][OH-]}{[B]}}\\ \ce{H2O & <=> H+ + OH- &K_{w}&=[H+][OH-]=10^{-14}} \\ \ce{Deg[A-] &= \frac{K_{a}}{K_{a} +[H+]} &Deg[HB+]&=\frac{K_{b}}{K_{b} + [OH-]}} \end{align}

These can be substituted into a charge balance and solved for $$V_{b}$$ (volume of base added):

\begin{align} \ce{[A-] + [OH-] &= [H+] + [HB+]}\\ \ce{\frac{K_{a}}{K_{a} + [H+]}\times\frac{C_{a}V_{a}}{V_{a} +V_{b}} + \frac{K_{w}}{[H+]} &=[H+] + \frac{K_{b}}{K_{b} + \frac{K_{w}}{[H+]}}\times\frac{C_{a}V_{a}}{V_{a} +V_{b}}}\\ \cdots&\cdots\\ \ce{V_{b} &=\frac{\left([H+] - \frac{K_{w}}{[H+]}-\frac{C_{a}K_{a}}{K_{a} + [H+]}\right)\times V_{a}}{\frac{K_{w}}{[H+]} -[H+] - \frac{K_{b}C_{b}}{K_{b} + \frac{K_{w}}{[H+]}}}} \end{align}

I used this to generate a pH curve and conductivity curve for the titration using the concentration of the various chemical species in solution: For calculating the conductivity of the solution:

$$\kappa_{\rm{soln}}=\lambda_{\ce{A-}}\times\left[\ce{A-}\right] + \lambda_{\ce{HB+}}\times\left[\ce{HB+}\right]+\lambda_{\ce{H+}}\times\left[\ce{H+}\right] + \lambda_{\ce{OH-}}\times\left[\ce{OH-}\right]$$

Where $$\lambda\chi$$ is the conductivity constant for chemical species $$\chi$$

I was told (by a person we shall call $$X$$) that this model is incorrect as the weak acid/weak base titration does not have a sharp gradient change at the equivalence point but is rather sloped/gently curved due to the following equilibrium:

$$\ce{HBA <=> HB+ + A-}\tag{K_{\rm{sp}}=[\ce{HB+}][\ce{A-}]}$$

Is there a more mathematical explanation and is it possible to incorporate this equilibrium expression into the titration curve.

Please note that I know that a strong acid/base-weak base/acid conductivity curve does not have a well defined equivalence point (being rather curved), and upon asking $$X$$, she said that the weak acid/weak base conductivity curve was also curved at equivalence and not as distinctly sharp as my model predicts

• It is possible to calculate reasonable curves, but I'm too lazy to sort all this out. I'll ask one question however. Did you account for the volume change? 100 ml of 0.1 molar HCl netralizes 100 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH, but the result is 200 ml of 0.05 NaCl.
– MaxW
Jul 13, 2019 at 16:48
• Yes I believe I have hence the $V_{a}+V_{b}$ term. It can also be seen in some of the other graph I produced using this model, one such example is in a strong acid-strong base titration, the conductivity curve plateaus when large volumes of base are added, which is a result of volume increase Jul 13, 2019 at 23:50
• Ok, I'll nibble on this some more what are the acid and base pK values? Looks like the acid has a pKa of about 3.8. The top of the titration curve is pretty flat so I'm guessing a pKb of 2 or less. So to me the titration curve looks like a weak acid being titrated with a relatively strong base.
– MaxW
Jul 14, 2019 at 0:18
• All the values are at the left of the image of the graph, but you can change them ass appropriate and it's not relevant to what I'm asking. I would like for the values of ka and kb to be variable rather than set values and i don't see how setting them to a certain value helps. Jul 14, 2019 at 5:50
• If $Q_\ce{sp}=\ce{[HB+][A-]}$ through titration don't exceed $K_\ce{sp}$ value, don't will be need incorporate the salt formation equilibrium and the curve don't be affected. Jul 28, 2019 at 16:54

I believe have found a answer. It's valid mathematically, make sense physically but I don't know if chemically is true. I posted to community appreciation.
There we go!

The reactions

1. ionization of weak acid: $$\ce{HA + H2O <=> H3O+ + A-}\qquad K_\ce{a}=\frac{\ce{[H3O+][A-]}}{\ce{[HA]}} \tag{1} \label{eq:KWeakAcid}$$

2. ionization of weak base: $$\ce{B + H2O <=> BH+ + OH-}\qquad K_\ce{b}=\frac{\ce{[HB+][OH-]}}{\ce{[B]}} \tag{2} \label{eq:KWeakBase}$$

3. self-ionization of water: $$\ce{2 H2O <=> H3O + OH-}\qquad K_\ce{w}=\ce{[H3O+][OH-]} \tag{3} \label{eq:KWater}$$

4. equilibrium of poorly soluble salt: $$\ce{HBA <=> HB+ + A-}\qquad K_\ce{sp}=\ce{[HB+][A-]} \tag{4} \label{eq:KSalt}$$

Charge balance

$$\ce{[H3O+] + [HB+] = [OH-] + [A-]}\tag{5}\label{eq:ChangeBalance}$$

Mass balance

To mass balance we can use an expression based on amount of substance:

1. Weak acid:

\begin{align} {n_\ce{HA}}_\text{total}&={n_\ce{HA}}_\text{solution}+{n_\ce{A-}}_\text{solution}+{n_\ce{A-}}_\text{ppt}\\ C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}&=\left(\ce{[HA] + [A-]}\right)V_\text{solution}+{n_\ce{A-}}_\text{ppt}\\ \\ \ce{[HA] + [A-]}&=\frac{C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}-{n_\ce{A-}}_\text{ppt}}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} \tag{6} \label{eq:AcidMassBalance}\\ \end{align}

1. Weak base:

\begin{align} {n_\ce{B}}_\text{total}&={n_\ce{B}}_\text{solution}+{n_\ce{HB+}}_\text{solution}+{n_\ce{HB+}}_\text{ppt}\\ C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}&=\left(\ce{[B] + [HB+]}\right)V_\text{solution}+{n_\ce{HB+}}_\text{ppt}\\ \\ \ce{[B] + [HB+]}&=\frac{C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}-{n_\ce{HB+}}_\text{ppt}}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} \tag{7} \label{eq:BaseMassBalance}\\ \end{align}

The general equation

Combining ($$\ref{eq:KWeakAcid}$$) and ($$\ref{eq:AcidMassBalance}$$) equations we have:

$$\ce{[A-]}=\frac{K_\ce{a}}{\ce{[H3O+]}+K_\ce{a}}\frac{C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}-{n_\ce{A-}}_\text{ppt}}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} \tag{8} \label{eq:Anion}$$

Combining ($$\ref{eq:KWeakBase}$$), ($$\ref{eq:KWater}$$) and ($$\ref{eq:BaseMassBalance}$$) equations we have:

$$\ce{[HB+]}=\frac{K_\ce{b}}{\displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}}+K_\ce{b}}\frac{C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}- {n_\ce{HB+}}_\text{ppt}}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} \tag{9} \label{eq:Cation}$$

From ($$\ref{eq:KSalt}$$) equation we have $${n_\ce{HB+}}_\text{ppt}={n_\ce{A-}}_\text{ppt}= n_\ce{HBA}=n_\text{ppt}=n$$ and replacing ($$\ref{eq:KWater}$$), ($$\ref{eq:Anion}$$) and ($$\ref{eq:Cation}$$) equations in ($$\ref{eq:ChangeBalance}$$) equation we have:

$$\ce{[H3O+]} + \frac{K_\ce{b}}{\displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}}+K_\ce{b}} \frac{C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}-n}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} = \frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}} + \frac{K_\ce{a}}{\ce{[H3O+]}+K_\ce{a}} \frac{C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}-n}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} \tag{10} \label{eq:TitrationCurve}$$

Besides that combining the ($$\ref{eq:KSalt}$$), ($$\ref{eq:Anion}$$) and ($$\ref{eq:Cation}$$) equations we have:

$$K_\ce{sp}=\overbrace{ \frac{K_\ce{b}}{\displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}}+K_\ce{b}}\frac{C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}-n}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} }^{\ce{[HB+]}} \overbrace{ \frac{K_\ce{a}}{\ce{[H3O+]}+K_\ce{a}}\frac{C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}-n}{V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}} }^{\ce{[A-]}} \tag{11} \label{eq:Kppt}$$

If we ignore the poorly soluble salt formation, the ($$\ref{eq:TitrationCurve}$$) equation is exactly the same which you deduced.

From your image we have $$V_\ce{HA} = \pu{1.00 L}$$, $$C_{A} = \pu{0.01 mol L^{-1}}$$, $$K_\ce{a} = \pu{2.0E-4}$$, $$C_\ce{B} = \pu{0.20 mol L^{-1}}$$, $$K_\ce{b} = \pu{2.0E-4}$$, and $$K_\ce{w} = \pu{1.0E-14}$$ for which the titration curve would be: The plot of the concentrations of $$\ce{[HB+]}$$ and $$\ce{[A-]}$$ through titration would be: Using the conductivity equation of the solution

$$\kappa_\ce{solution} = \lambda_\ce{A-}\ce{[A-]} + \lambda_\ce{HB+}\ce{[HB+]} + \lambda_\ce{H3O+}\ce{[H3O+]} + \lambda_\ce{OH-}\ce{[OH-]} \tag{12} \label{eq:ConductivitySolution}$$

and $$\lambda_\ce{A-} = \pu{ 90.0E-4 m^2 S mol^{-1}}$$, $$\lambda_\ce{HB+} = \pu{172.0E-4 m^2 S mol^{-1}}$$, $$\lambda_\ce{H3O+} = \pu{849.6E-4 m^2 S mol^{-1}}$$, and $$\lambda_\ce{OH-} = \pu{398.0E-4 m^2 S mol^{-1}}$$ from your image is possible to plot the conductivity curve: If we look to contribution of each species to conductivity curve we can understand its final shape. Some considerations

To take account the formation of $$\ce{HBA}$$, suppose that $$K_\ce{sp} = \pu{7.5E-5}$$. The $$Q_\ce{sp}$$ plot through titration would be: While $$Q_\ce{sp} we have $$n=0$$, because $$\ce{[HB+][A-]}$$ is less than critical concentrations to start precipitation and the titration curve follows as usual. When $$Q_\ce{sp}=K_\ce{sp}$$ we have the precipitation eminence and $$n=0$$. When $$Q_\ce{sp}>K_\ce{sp}$$ I'm not sure what will happen.

The $$V_\text{critical}$$ in which $$Q_\ce{sp}=K_\ce{sp}$$ can be found graphical or analytical way. The last way in not so easy, but I believe then can be done. Personally I will use the graphical way.

Solving ($$\ref{eq:TitrationCurve}$$) equation to $$V_\ce{B}$$ (with $$n=0$$) we can write:

$$V_\ce{B}=\frac{V_\ce{HA}\left(\displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}}-\ce{[H3O+] + C_\ce{HA}\alpha_\ce{A-}}\right)}{C_\ce{B}\alpha_\ce{HB+} - \left(\displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}}-\ce{[H3O+]}\right)} \tag{13} \label{eq:Vtit}$$

Again, the ($$\ref{eq:Vtit}$$) equation is exactly the same which you deduced.

Solving ($$\ref{eq:Kppt}$$) to $$V_\ce{B}$$ (with $$n=0$$) we have:

$$V_\ce{B}=\displaystyle\frac{-\left[V_\ce{A}\left(2 - \displaystyle\frac{C_\ce{HA}\alpha_\ce{A-}C_\ce{B}\alpha_\ce{HB+}}{K_\ce{sp}}\right)\right]- \sqrt{\left[V_\ce{A}\left(2 - \displaystyle\frac{C_\ce{HA}\alpha_\ce{A-}C_\ce{B}\alpha_\ce{HB+}} {K_\ce{sp}}\right)\right]^2 - 4V_\ce{HA}^2}}{2} \tag{14} \label{eq:Vcritical}$$ where $${\alpha}_\ce{HB+}=\frac{K_\ce{b}}{\displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{w}}{\ce{[H3O+]}}+K_\ce{b}}$$ and $${\alpha}_\ce{A-}=\frac{K_\ce{a}}{\ce{[H3O+]}+K_\ce{a}}$$

The $$V_\ce{B}\ vs.\ \ce{pH}$$ plot to ($$\ref{eq:Vtit}$$) and ($$\ref{eq:Vcritical}$$) equations allows to find $$V$$ and $$\ce{pH}$$ for which the curves cut across each other. Another (graphical) way could be the $$Q_\ce{sp}$$ plot. Any way the values found are $$\pu{45.20 mL}$$ and $$4.685$$ respectively.
What happens with $$\ce{pH}$$ when $$V_\ce{B}$$ is greater than $$V_\text{critical}$$? Some hypothesis can been proposed.

Hypothesis #1

$$\ce{HBA}$$ will precipitate and the titration curve don't be affected.

In this case the ($$\ref{eq:Kppt}$$) equation can be solved to $$n$$:

$$n=\displaystyle\frac{\left(n_\ce{HA}+n_\ce{B}\right)- \sqrt{\left(-\left(n_\ce{HA}+n_\ce{B}\right)\right)^2 - 4\left(n_\ce{HA}n_\ce{B}- \displaystyle\frac{K_\ce{sp}\left(V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}\right)^2} {{\alpha}_\ce{HB+}{\alpha}_\ce{A-}}\right)}}{2} \tag{15} \label{eq:nppt}$$

where $$n_\ce{HA} = C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}$$ and $$n_\ce{B} = C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}$$.

The ($$\ref{eq:nppt}$$) equation allows calculate the amount of precipitate is formed given a $$V_\ce{B}$$ and $$\ce{pH}$$ value. But given a $$V_\ce{B}$$, what is $$\ce{pH}$$ value? I believe that, if this hypothesis is true, the $$\ce{pH}$$ value can be calculated from ($$\ref{eq:TitrationCurve}$$) equation and the titration curve don't be affected.

The the $$n\ vs.\ V_\ce{B}$$ plot of ($$\ref{eq:nppt}$$) equation is and the $$n\ vs.\ \ce{pH}$$ plot of ($$\ref{eq:nppt}$$) equation is The effect of precipitation can be seen in plots below. The $$\ce{[HB+]}$$ and $$\ce{[A-]}$$ plot The $$Q_\ce{sp}$$ plot The plot of contribution of each species to conductivity The total conductivity plot Hypothesis #2

$$\ce{HBA}$$ don't precipitates and the $$\ce{pH}$$ rises.

In this case the $$V_\ce{B}\ vs.\ \ce{pH}$$ plot gives some clue.

The ($$\ref{eq:Kppt}$$) equation can be rearranged to give:

$$\ce{[H3O+]}^2 - \ce{[H3O+]}\left( \frac{K_\ce{a}C_\ce{HA}V_\ce{HA}C_\ce{B}V_\ce{B}} {K_\ce{sp}\left(V_\ce{HA}+V_\ce{B}\right)^2} - K_\ce{a} - \frac{K_\ce{w}}{K_\ce{b}}\right) + \frac{K_\ce{a}K_\ce{w}}{K_\ce{b}}=0 \tag{16} \label{eq:TitrationCurvePpt}$$

Note that, using one of the roots from ($$\ref{eq:TitrationCurvePpt}$$) equation, the $$\ce{pH}$$ jumps from $$4.685$$ to $$9.315$$ (see titration curve below) when $$V_\ce{B}=V_\text{critical}$$ and, while $$V_\ce{B}$$ increases, the titration curve is look like as usual.

Mathematically in this hypothesis no precipitate is formed, but the solution cross the region where there should be precipitate. The consequence this is the concentrations of $$\ce{[A-]}$$ and $$\ce{[HB+]}$$, which depends on $$\ce{pH}$$ values, jumps too.

Hypothesis #3

$$\ce{HBA}$$ don't precipitates and the $$\ce{pH}$$ falls.

Again the $$V_\ce{B}\ vs.\ \ce{pH}$$ plot gives some clue.

Using the other root from ($$\ref{eq:TitrationCurvePpt}$$) equation, the titration curve have a discontinuity at $$V_\text{critical}$$ and then the $$\ce{pH}$$ values falls while $$V_\ce{B}$$ increases. No jumps, neither on concentrations or pH, are observed. If hypothesis #3 is true, the plot of the concentrations of $$\ce{[HB+]}$$ and $$\ce{[A-]}$$ through titration is the $$Q_\ce{sp}$$ plot is the conductivity curve to each species and finally the conductivity curve is To those interested follows the gnuplot code to produce these graphs. All equations needed to reproduce this answer are available.

The present code creates several graphs used in this answer but no all. Some of them are combination of two or more data sets or a graph from an equation available.

#
#  Implements a lot of equations and create a couple of graphs showing what
#  happens with pH, concentrations, conductivity, and Qsp when a poorly soluble
#  salt is formed during a titration.
#
#  To more details see the original question/answer
#
#  Question: https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/q/117984/80491
#
#  Author: GRSousaJr (https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/users/80491/grsousajr)
#  gnuplot 5.2 patchlevel 7
#

# ========== INITIAL CONFIGURATION ===============================================
reset               # return all graph-related options their default values
set encoding utf8   # selects a character encoding

# Save each graph as pdf file
set terminal pdfcairo size 8 in, 6 in font "Times New Roman,18" enhanced

# Colors of lines
set style line 1 lc "#e41a1c"   # red
set style line 2 lc "#377eb8"   # blue
set style line 3 lc "#4daf4a"   # green
set style line 4 lc "#984ea3"   # purple

# Margins
set lmargin screen 0.110    # left margin
set tmargin screen 0.940    # top margin
set bmargin screen 0.130    # bottom margin

set grid ls -1 lc "gray"    # style for grid
set tics out nomirror       # tics marks on axis
set samples 1000            # number of points to each curve
set dummy pH                # "pH" as "x" for all plot-commands
unset key                   # turn-off the legend (key) exhibition

# ========== INPUT PARAMETERS ====================================================
# ---------- Weak acid (HA) ------------------------------------------------------
VA    = 1.0     # L, HA volume (mandatory)
CA0   = 0.01    # mol/L, HA concentration (mandatory)
pKa   = 3.69897 # Ka = 0.00020 (mandatory)

# ----------- Weak Base (B) ------------------------------------------------------
CB0   = 0.2     # mol/L, B concentration (mandatory)
pKb   = 3.69897 # Kb = 0.00020 (mandatory)
VBmax = 120.0   # mL, B volume (optional)

# ----------- Poor soluble salt (HBA) --------------------------------------------
pptn  = "True"  # "True/False" (mandatory) indicates if occurs precipitation
Ksp   = 7.5E-5  # HBA poor soluble salt (mandatory if pptn = "True")

# ----------- Solvent ------------------------------------------------------------
pKw   = 14.0    # H2O self-ionization

# ----------- Conductivity constants ---------------------------------------------
array lambda
lambda =  90.00 # (E-4) A-
lambda = 172.00 # (E-4) HB+
lambda = 849.60 # (E-4) H+
lambda = 398.00 # (E-4) OH-

# ========== DERIVATE PARAMETERS =================================================
# ---------- Equilibrium constants -----------------------------------------------
Ka     = 10**(-pKa)     # Ka from pKa
Kb     = 10**(-pKb)     # Kb from pKa
Kw     = 10**(-pKw)     # Kw from pKw
# ---------- Logical test to VBmax------------------------------------------------
if (!exists("VBmax")){
VBmax = 2.0*VA*CA0/CB0  # Double that required for neutralization
} else{
VBmax = VBmax/1000.0    # Converting mL to L
}

# ========== FUNCTIONS ===========================================================
# ---------- H+ and OH- concentrations (as a function of pH) ---------------------
H(pH)  = 10**(-pH)      # H+ from pH
OH(pH) = 10**(pH-14.0)  # OH- from pH

# ---------- Ionization fractions (as a function of pH) --------------------------
aA(pH)  = Ka/(H(pH) + Ka)       # A-
aB(pH)  = Kb/(Kw/H(pH) + Kb)    # HB+

# ---------- B volume (as a function of pH) --------------------------------------
VB(pH) = (VA*(Kw/H(pH) - H(pH) + aA(pH)*CA0))/(aB(pH)*CB0 - (Kw/H(pH) - H(pH)))

# ---------- Amount of substance (as a function of pH) ---------------------------
nA       = CA0*VA         # HA
nB(pH)   = CB0*VB(pH)  # B

# Amount of precipitate formed
nppt(pH) = ((nA + nB(pH)) - sqrt((-(nA + nB(pH)))**2 - \
4*(nA*nB(pH) - (Ksp*(VA + VB(pH))**2/(aB(pH)*aA(pH))))))/2.0

# Logical test to know if precipitation must be taken account
if (pptn eq "True" ){
n(pH) = nppt(pH) <= 0 ? 0 : nppt(pH)  # Disregards negative values of 'n'.
sufix = "_with_ppt"
} else {
n(pH) = 0   # No occurs precipitation
sufix = "_without_ppt"
}

# ---------- A- and HB+ concentrations (as a function of pH) ---------------------
CA(pH) = aA(pH)*(nA - n(pH))/(VA + VB(pH))       # [A-]
CB(pH) = aB(pH)*(nB(pH) - n(pH))/(VA + VB(pH))   # [HB+]

# ---------- Qsp (as a function of pH) -------------------------------------------
Qsp(pH) = CB(pH)*CA(pH)

# ---------- Individual and Total conductivities (as a function of pH) -----------
kappaA(pH)   = lambda*CA(pH)
kappaB(pH)   = lambda*CB(pH)
kappaH(pH)   = lambda*H(pH)
kappaOH(pH)  = lambda*OH(pH)
kappaSol(pH) = kappaA(pH) + kappaB(pH) + kappaH(pH) + kappaOH(pH)

# ---------- Initial and final pH ------------------------------------------------
pH0   = -log10((-Ka + sqrt(Ka**2 + 4*CA0*Ka))/2.0)    # Initial pH
pHmax = pKw + log10((CA0*2*VA - CA0*VA)/(VA + VBmax)) # Estimate for pHmax at VBmax

#---------- Finding pHmax by iteration -------------------------------------------
while (VB(pHmax) > VBmax || VB(pHmax) < 0){
pHmax = pHmax - 0.0001
}

# ========== CREATING THE GRAPHS =================================================
# ---------- Titration curve -----------------------------------------------------
filename = "Titration_Curve" . sufix # Define a filename to pdf file

# Plotting using a data block (like a temp file)
set table $Titration_Data plot [pH0:pHmax] 1000*VB(pH) unset table set xlabel "Volume of titrant / mL" # name for x-axis (the same to all plot-commands) set ylabel "pH" # name for y-axis set xrange [0:VBmax*1000] # VBmax in mL set yrange [0:14] # pH 0 to 14 set xtics 10 # tics at each 10 mL set ytics 1 # tics at each 1 pH unit set output filename . ".pdf" # Create the pdf file plot$Titration_Data using 2:1 with lines linestyle 1 linewidth 2

# ---------- Concentrations curves ------------------------------------------------
filename = "Concentrations_Curve" . sufix

set table $ConcB_Data plot [pH0:pHmax] CB(pH) unset table set table$ConcA_Data
plot [pH0:pHmax] CA(pH)
unset table

set ylabel "Concentration / mol L^{–1}"
set yrange [0:CA0]
set ytics .001
set format y "%.3f" # number with 3 decimal places

# Labels
set label 1 "{/:Bold [HB^{+}]}" at 20.0, 0.003 tc ls 1 font ',20' offset 0,0.75
set label 2 "{/:Bold [A^{–}]}"  at 05.0, 0.003 tc ls 2 font ',20' offset 0,0.75

set output filename . ".pdf"

plot \
$$ConcB_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 1 lw 2 ,\
$$ConcA_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 2 lw 2

unset for [i=1:2] label i   # Clean the labels
unset format                # Clean the format

# ---------- Individual conductivity curves --------------------------------------
filename = "Individual_Conductivity_Curve" . sufix

set table $ConducA_Data plot [pH0:pHmax] kappaA(pH) unset table set table$ConducB_Data
plot [pH0:pHmax] kappaB(pH)
unset table

set table $ConducH_Data plot [pH0:pHmax] kappaH(pH) unset table set table$ConducOH_Data
plot [pH0:pHmax] kappaOH(pH)
unset table

set ylabel "{/:Italic κ} / S m^{–1}"
set yrange [0:2]
set ytics .2
set format y "%.2f"

set label 1 "{/=24 {/:Italic κ}_{/=12 A^{–}}}"      at 95, 0.70 center tc ls 1
set label 2 "{/=24 {/:Italic κ}_{/=12 HB^{+}}}"     at 95, 1.50 center tc ls 2
set label 3 "{/=24 {/:Italic κ}_{/=12 H_{3}O^{+}}}" at 07, 0.90 center tc ls 3
set label 4 "{/=24 {/:Italic κ}_{/=12 OH^{–}}}"     at 95, 0.15 center tc ls 4

set output filename . ".pdf"

plot \
$$ConducA_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 1 lw 2 ,\
$$ConducB_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 2 lw 2 ,\
$$ConducH_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 3 lw 2 ,\
$$ConducOH_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 4 lw 2

unset for [i=1:4] label i
unset format

# ---------- Total conductivity curves -------------------------------------------
filename = "Total_Conductivity_Curve" . sufix

set table $ConducSolution_Data plot [pH0:pHmax] kappaSol(pH) unset table set yrange [0.75:3] set ytics .25 set format y "%.2f" set output filename . ".pdf" plot $$ConducSolution_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 1 lw 2 unset format # ---------- Qsp curves ---------------------------------------------------------- filename = "Qsp_Curve" . sufix set table$Qsp_Data
plot [pH0:pHmax] Qsp(pH)
unset table

set yrange [0:0.000100]
set ytics 0.00001
set ylabel "{/:Italic Q}_{sp}"
set format y "%h" # scientific notation format

set label 1 "{/:Bold {/:Italic Q}_{sp}}"\
at 32.0, 3.0E-5 tc ls 1 font ",20" offset 0,0.75
set label 2 "{/:Italic Q}_{sp} = {/:Italic K}_{sp}" \
at 70.0, Ksp    tc ls 1 font ",20" offset 0,0.75

set output filename . ".pdf"

plot $$Qsp_Data u (1000*VB($$1)):2 w l ls 1 lw 2


• What software did you use to plot the graphs? It looks really clean. Aug 1, 2019 at 16:03
• @Blaise I used gnuplot. Aug 1, 2019 at 16:08
• @sabhoque When $Q_\ce{sp} > K_\ce{sp}$ the chemical intuition say that there will be precipitation, and the amount of precipitate will be calculated by (15) equation. I'm still working on understanding of this equation and its consequeces on titration and conductivity curves. How soon as possible I'll complete the answer with some conclusions. Aug 2, 2019 at 14:32
• With regard to hypothesis 1, I believe you are correct in saying the pH value can be calculated from (10) equation and the titration curve don't be affected because the precipitation reaction does not change the concentration of $\ce{H+}$ (as I am aware of). It is mainly the conductivity curve I am struggling to get a grasp of. I will test out your derivations and everything after my upcoming exams Aug 3, 2019 at 7:19
• @sabhoque I'm refer to hypothesis #3. I made some edits on answer to clarify. Additionally, I included some graphs on hypothesis #1. Aug 3, 2019 at 17:33