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I'm not sure how the concept and math work on this problem. Can someone show me how you can get the answer, both conceptually and using math?

Indicators and their pH ranges

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You can look at the question this way: when we have a strong acid/strong base titration, at the equivalence point we would end up with a neutral solution (the $\mathrm{pH}$ would be ~$7$).

If we had a weak acid/strong base titration, at the equivalence point we would end up with $\mathrm{pH}$ above 7 (basic solution has $\mathrm{pH}$ between $8-10$).

If we had a weak base/strong acid titration, we would end up with an acidic solution with $\mathrm{pH}$ $4-6$)

Coming back to your question: since it is asked about the methyl red indicator, we are going to need something which at the equivalent point would have acidic solution which means you need weak base/strong acid combinations,only option (C) fulfils this.

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