The ionization enthalpy for elements along a group generally reduces. But there is an exception for group 13 elements and the order is not uniform.

The order is: B>Tl>Ga>Al>In

According to my textbook, the reason for this is the weak screening effect of electrons in d and f orbitals. What does this mean?

The following is from the textbook i referred:

The ionization enthalpy values as expected from the general trends do not decrease smoothly down the group. The decrease from B to Al is associated with increase in size. The observed discontinuity in the ionization enthalpy values between Al and Ga, and between In and Tl are due to inability of d- and f-electrons ,which have low screening effect, to compensate the increase in nuclear charge.


  • $\begingroup$ Except for boron, the differences between the ionization enthalpies in G13 seem quite small, no? $\endgroup$ – Oscar Lanzi Jan 12 at 10:46

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