I’m confused as to whether both terms “dipole” and “dipole moment” are the same or different, does the moment have something to do with the molecular geometry? I know the vectors of the charges cancel out however carbon dioxide has no dipole moment because of 180 degrees, this makes it non polar, but it still has partial charges right? So isn’t it still polar?
The (electric) dipole moment is a mathematically clearly defined quantity, the product of charge difference and distance
A dipole is anything (e.g. a molecule, or a part of a molecule), that has a non-zero dipole moment.
And a polar molecule is one that has at least local dipoles. CO2 is polar if you get close (i.e. in a condensed phase). From a slightly larger distance, it's unpolar, because the centers of the positive and negative charge distributions in it are identical, the two local C=O dipoles cancel each other out.
I’m confused as to whether both terms “dipole” and “dipole moment” are the same or different, does the moment have something to do with the molecular geometry?
Yes, in colloquial usage you will hear dipole, dipole moment used interchangeably. I think you will feel better if you use the full name: electric dipole moment. This is what the mother of all chemistry related terminologies, IUPAC, tells us to do so.
Dipole moment is a general term because in advanced physics classes you will hear magnetic dipole moment. There you would have to differentiate between electric vs. magnetic dipole moments.
In order to understand O=C=O, you can say that this molecules has two bond dipole moments, since these vectors are 180 degrees apart, there is no net electric dipole moment.
Regarding molecular geometry and dipole: Yes the molecular geometry will let you decide whether there is a net electric dipole moment or not. Nobody in the real world determines the molecular structure on the basis of bond electric dipole moments or the presence of so-called lone pairs. This is good for first year textbooks only. Both molecular geometry and electric dipole moments are experimentally determinable parameters. Electric dipole moments will help to eliminate certain possible molecular geometries. For example, one can be confident that O=C=O is not bent. If it were, it would have a net electric dipole moment.
Dipole moment refers specifically to the second moment in a multipole expansion. An electric dipole moment appears in the expression for the second moment in the multipole expansion of the electric field (or potential) produced by a distribution of electrical charges. "Dipole" is generally a casual abbreviated way to refer to the same thing$\dagger$.
In the case of the distribution of electrical charge in a molecule, the field is divided into a sum of contributions from various multipoles. At large distances from the molecule the sum over the contributions of a small number of terms often suffices to describe the molecule's electric field. The multipole expansion may be applied to the field generated by charges in a local region involving only a pair of bonded atoms, in which case the dipole moment can fairly be referred to as a bond dipole moment. It will differ from the dipole moment for the entire molecule.
$\dagger$ For instance, in the wikipedia entry for electric dipole moment it is stated that
Theoretically, an electric dipole is defined by the first-order term of the multipole expansion;
In this example, "dipole" is used where "dipole moment" is meant. An electric dipole in strict usage consists of two charges separated by a finite distance. The dipole moment is a property of any distribution, including a real dipole, obtained when attempting to approximate the field generated at large distances from the charge distribution by performing a multipole expansion. The higher order multipoles of a true dipole are nonzero, that is, such a dipole will have a dipole moment and other non-zero moments. This is because a dipole moment is a theoretical abstraction used to help represent the field generated by a real distribution.
The wikipedia is a little more careful in making this distinction in the description that follows the above statement:
it [the dipole] consists of two equal and opposite charges that are infinitesimally close together. This is unrealistic, as real dipoles have separated charge. However, because the charge separation is very small compared to everyday lengths, the error introduced by treating real dipoles like they are theoretically perfect is usually negligible. The dipole's direction usually points from the negative charge towards the positive charge.