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I’ve read in many places that carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid with water since the carbon is partially positive and thus the oxygen bonds with it. But isn’t carbon dioxide in its entirety non polar since the 180 angle removes any dipole moment, so how would oxygen be attracted to the carbon?

Is it that individually each atom has partial charge but not collectively? Or am I wrong in some way?

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I can only repeat myself here: Polarity is an ill-defined concept that has a nice potential for confusion.

In most cases, when specifying a molecule as polar, one is colloquially referring to the presence of an dipole moment, i.e. one actually categorises the molecule as dipolar. As described by ron in "Why is carbon dioxide nonpolar?", $\ce{CO2}$ has no dipole moment, it is therefore not dipolar, or colloquially it is not polar.

However, $\ce{CO2}$ has two very dipolar bonds, and a significant quadrupol moment. If one were to extend the nomenclature, one would say the molecule is quadrupolar. However, this may lead to complications down the line.

On the other hand, as I have written on the linked question, toluene is often considered as an unpolar/non-polar solvent, which is not really true considering it has a small dipole moment.

There are a couple of things one can predict with the concept of polarity, and fortunately, the more complex the molecules become, the better the approximation becomes. It is small highly symmetric molecules, which brake these approximations.

Related reading:

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A molecule of carbon dioxide has a slight negative charge near the oxygen and a slight positive charge near the carbon. CO2 is soluble because water molecules are attracted to these polar areas. The bond between carbon and oxygen is not as polar as the bond between hydrogen and oxygen, but it is polar enough that carbon dioxide can dissolve in water.

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A molecule is said to be "non-polar" as a whole and carbon dioxide falls into this category. However, it does not mean that parts of the molecule aren't indeed polar, even if their effects cancel out when considering the whole molecule.

EDIT: So the CO2 molecule is indeed very polar and, more especially, the central carbon atom is really electrophilic. That is why it reacts with water.

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