The Phys.org article Iron selenide revealed as 'garden-variety iron-based superconductor' is quoted below. Normally I would hesitate to quote so much but in this case it all seems germane.
Question: What is "detwinning" as a crystallography technique? It seems a bit complicated for 2D crystals, with phrases like "... reasoning that the pressure needed to align the larger sample would also cause the layers of iron selenide to snap into alignment." it sounds like manual re-arrangement at almost the atomic scale.
Tong Chen, a Rice PhD student "detwinned" iron selenide crystals by gluing them atop much larger crystals of barium iron arsenide. Using a 2014 method developed at Rice, the larger crystals are placed under pressure and detwinned, causing the smaller iron selenide crystals to also snap into alignment. Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University
Physicists refer to this directionally dependent behavior as anisotropy or nematicity, and while structural nematicity is known to occur in iron selenide, Dai said it has been impossible to measure the exact electronic and magnetic order of the material because of a property known as twinning. Twinning occurs when layers of randomly oriented 2-D crystals are stacked. Imagine 100 baseball diamonds stacked one atop the other, with the line between home plate and second base varying randomly for each.
"Even if there is directionally dependent electronic order in a twinned sample, you cannot measure it because those differences average out and you wind up measuring a net effect of zero," Dai said. "We had to detwin samples of iron selenide to see if there was nematic electronic order."
Study lead author Tong Chen, a third-year Ph.D. student in Dai's research group, solved the twinning problem by cleverly piggybacking on a 2014 study in which Dai and colleagues applied pressure to detwin crystals of barium iron arsenide. It was impossible to apply the same method to iron selenide because the crystals were 100 times smaller, so Chen glued the smaller crystals atop the larger ones, reasoning that the pressure needed to align the larger sample would also cause the layers of iron selenide to snap into alignment.
Chen spent weeks creating several samples to test in neutron scattering beams. About 20 to 30 1-millimeter squares of iron selenide had to be aligned and placed atop each crystal of barium iron arsenide. And applying each of the tiny squares was painstaking work that involved a microscope, tweezers and special, hydrogen-free glue that cost almost $1,000 per ounce.
The work paid off when Chen tested the samples and found the iron selenide was detwinned. Those tests with neutron scattering beams at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Technical University of Munich and U.K.'s Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory also showed iron selenide's electronic behavior is very similar to that of other iron superconductors.