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Why is the ring numbered the way it is? What is it about the double bond that makes it so?

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Acoording to the IUPAC rules for nomenclature of the halo compounds the $\ce{Cl}$ here is treated like $\ce{CH3}$. And also according to rule, the double bond have preference over the groups other than functional groups.

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    $\begingroup$ Note that you can significantly improve your answer by quoting the exact IUPAC rule you are referring to, e.g. see how it's done in one of the answers on related topic. $\endgroup$ – andselisk May 17 '19 at 5:51

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