Good question. If you show these three ions (as written) to a super intelligent being person who never took chem or physics, they will not be able to tell you which ion is amphoteric. In short, there is no simplr short-cut! This requires some knowledge of some formula writing conventions.
For simple inorganic ions, if H is written with a p-block element, that H is ionizable and it is an acid in water
HCl, HBr, H2SO4, H2S, H3PO4, H2CO3
From HCl, we can remove one H+
From H2SO4, we can remove two H+, one at a time
From H3PO4, we can remove three H+, one at a time.
So if you happen to see ions of these acids, SO4(2-), you can immediately guess from the minus two charge that this ion can accept two protons.
If you see, HPO4 (2-), you should be able to guess that HPO4(2-) can accept one or two proton(s), however it can also lose the last one.
For small organic ions, it is slightly tricky, the ionizable H is written in the end with "COO" group