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Nitrogen typically has five outer valence electrons. So how does a triply-bonded nitrogen in 8-hydroxyquinoline end up quadruply bonded in tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum?

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    $\begingroup$ Ever heard of a coordinate bond? $\endgroup$ – Ivan Neretin Mar 29 '19 at 7:12
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    $\begingroup$ It may be easier to first understand a simpler system, particularly the pyridinium cation. $\endgroup$ – Nicolau Saker Neto Mar 29 '19 at 8:03
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    $\begingroup$ Come to think of it, why not start with ammonium cation? $\endgroup$ – Ivan Neretin Mar 29 '19 at 8:16

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