Mostly the reaction will proceed from left to right, unless you have ridiculous amount of acetic acid. Hydrochloric acid is much stronger, so it suppresses dissociation of acetic acid.
However, this is only part of the truth. In fact, in water solutions many compounds (partially) dissociates:
$HCl = H^+ + Cl^-$
The process is strongly endothermic in vacuum, but subsequent interaction of ions with water makes it mostly energy neutral or even highly exothermic for some compounds. This means, that in you case the solution would actually contain $H^+$, $OH^-$ (very little), $CH_3COO^-$, $CH_3COOH$, $HCl$ (almost none, may be ignored in most cases), $Na^+$. The actual reaction would be
$CH_3COO^- + H^+ = CH_3COOH$
The actual direction of the reaction would depend on initial concentraion and guarded by equilibrium constant.
The keywords for googling/textbook reading are 'electrolitic dissociation', 'ionic reaction', 'chemical equilibrium', 'equilibrium constant'. Generally, the procedure of determining which concentration of which ions the system will have requires solution of system of equations, including equilibrium constants, electroneutrality equation and material balance equations. The system often may have no analytic solutions, in which case it is usually approximated by simpler system, dropping some elements of sums in the system.