4
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Because there are at most seven consecutive carbon atom, and four alkyl groups attached to the chain of carbon, I would name it 2,4-tetramethyl heptane.

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12
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Yes, it's tetramethyl heptane, where are the 4 methyls? 2,4,4,6-tetramethylheptane.

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9
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You are nearly right. You forgot to include that there is also a methyl group on carbon atom 6 and the name should also reflect that there are actually 2 methyl groups on carbon 4, so it's 2,4,4,6-tetramethylheptane.

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It is 2,4,4,6-tetramethylheptane. The parent chain is circled in red. And there are 4 methyl substituents.2,4,4,6-tetramethylheptane

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