Thermodynamics deals with changes between systems at equilibrium, which is to say that the initial and final states of a process are regarded as equilibrium states. As explained in the comments, the surroundings are usually defined as an ideal reservoir of infinite size and thus infinite heat capacity and constant temperature, clearly an approximation, but the key point remains that stated in the previous sentence.
It does not make sense to define an equilibrium diathermal state in which the surroundings and the system have a different temperature. Since in the stated problem the system undergoes exchange of heat with its surroundings, and the system is at an initial and final T of 263 K after the transition, then the surroundings have to be at 263 K throughout.
One potential point of confusion regarding this type of problem concerns the metastable nature of the supercooled state. This is not a true thermodynamic equilibrium but is regarded as sufficiently stable to be regarded as such. An additional point of confusion may be that heat is transferred to the surroundings even though system and surroundings are at the same T. This is possible because the surroundings have infinite size and heat capacity. One way to envision such surroundings is as a reservoir of a substance with a melting point of 263 K.