If we want to draw all the orbitals of an atom, for example the atom of krypton, how will the space form of orbitals be when they are drawn together? in all scientific books,s,p,d and f orbitals shape are drown individually and not enter link description heretogether. thank you so much.


closed as unclear what you're asking by airhuff, Jon Custer, Mithoron, Todd Minehardt, Tyberius Dec 26 '18 at 16:16

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  • $\begingroup$ Orbitals add up to sphere so your question doesn't make much sense. $\endgroup$ – Mithoron Dec 23 '18 at 20:19

If you take a look at all the of electron density of an isolated atom, it must be spherically symmetric over a time average. Why? Because space is isotropic, that is, it looks identical in any direction. Specifically, our choice for $x$-, $y$-, $z$- axes is arbitrary.

If you say that the electron distribution is not symmetric, there must be some preferred direction, call it $z$. But our choice of $z$ is arbitrary in space, so some other $z$ will do just as well, and we expect that the atom will have the same preferred direction, which is a contradiction. The original assumption of non-spherical distribution is wrong.

  • $\begingroup$ However OP could be consistent and fix a reference frame. I would say that it is matter of drawing all of them in it. That this is graphically a big challenge :) is something else. It seems he is asking something in this direction. $\endgroup$ – Alchimista Dec 24 '18 at 12:11

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