# Nitrogen lone pair electrons on 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline

The nitrogen lone pair is in plane with the ring because it is in one of the three $sp^2$ hybrid orbitals of N. The other two hybrid orbitals form $\sigma$ bonds to the adjacent carbons, and all three are in plane, with an angle of 120° between them. The $p_z$ orbital of N which is perpendicular to the ring plain forms the $\pi$ bond of the C=N double bond. The acetyl substituent should also lie in plane with the ring because this would allow energetically favorable conjugation between the two double bonds (C=N and C=O).