Wikipedia data page on electron affinities shows second and third electron affinities. Of course, they are negative, because one tries to attach electron to anion. But how are they measured or calculated in practice?

Electron affinity in Wikipedia

  • $\begingroup$ You have an electron rich source and measure the ratios of different charge states. $\endgroup$
    – Jon Custer
    Nov 29, 2018 at 23:11
  • $\begingroup$ @JonCuster Thank you. But i still not clearly undestand it in detail. Could you point to some publications or relevant keywords for search? $\endgroup$ Nov 30, 2018 at 5:24
  • $\begingroup$ There are spectroscopic methods, which calculates number of atoms ejected of a salt MX (X has -2 oxidation state) is calculated and equilibrium constant between X2- —>X+2e is calculated and then electron affinity. Here is the pdf google.co.in/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://… $\endgroup$
    – knoftrix
    Nov 30, 2018 at 17:13
  • $\begingroup$ @SauravSingh Thank you! Could you write this as answer? $\endgroup$ Dec 3, 2018 at 18:51


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