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Is there any kind of metal that melts very quickly with very low heat or temperature, and at the same time, becomes hard very quickly?

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  • $\begingroup$ Mercury is liquid at room temperature and gallium melts in your hand: youtube.com/watch?v=HMekQGnnQjI . But this just addresses melting points, I'm not sure what you mean by 'quickly' - the heat dispersion rate? Solder works good for this, if you don't mind the 300 degrees or so it takes to melt it. $\endgroup$ – Ehryk Apr 16 '14 at 0:30
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The melting points of some eutectic mixtures are tabulated in an article by French.1 Some options for low-melting point metals/mixtures are:


Reference

  1. French, S. J. Melting Points of Eutectics. Ind. Eng. Chem. 1936, 28 (1), 111–113. DOI: 10.1021/ie50313a026.
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Some bismuth alloys have rather low melting points.

Wood's metal (50% bismuth, 25% lead, 12.5% cadmium and 12.5% tin) melts around 70 °C.

Field's metal (51% indium, 32.5% bismuth and 16.5% tin) melts around 62 °C.

An alloy of 44.7% bismuth, 22.6% lead, 19.1% indium, 8.3% tin and 5.3% cadmium melts around 47 °C.

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There is a game, which is a tradition in Germany around New Year, to predict good fortune for the upcoming year: Molybdomancy (german - Bleigießen) While this is unscientific jibber jabber, there is actually some real physics involved.

Tin has a (very) low melting point ($\approx \pu{230 ^\circ C}$) which can easily be achieved with a candle. If you pour the molten tin into water, it will immediately become solid again. (This also works with lead $\approx \pu{330 ^\circ C}$, but that is very toxic.)

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