4 added 3 characters in body edited Dec 6 '17 at 16:48 Gert 1,65122 silver badges1111 bronze badges In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atomsnuclei because both have the same electronegativitysame electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below, schematised, the permanent dipole of $$\ce{XY}$$, with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below, schematised, the permanent dipole of $$\ce{XY}$$, with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded nuclei because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below, schematised, the permanent dipole of $$\ce{XY}$$, with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". 3 added 14 characters in body edited Dec 6 '17 at 15:33 Gert 1,65122 silver badges1111 bronze badges In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below, schematised, the permanent dipole of $$\ce{XY}$$, with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below the permanent dipole with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below, schematised, the permanent dipole of $$\ce{XY}$$, with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". 2 added 401 characters in body edited Dec 6 '17 at 15:25 Gert 1,65122 silver badges1111 bronze badges In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below the permanent dipole with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". In a "100 %" covalent bond, like the $$\sigma_{ss}$$ bond in the dihydrogen molecule, the electron probability density is perfectly symmetrically divided between the two bonded atoms because both have the same electronegativity. Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a 100 % covalent bond: But when the two atoms have different electronegativities, the electron probability density will be higher towards the more electronegative atom, see e.g. $$\ce{HCl}$$. We say the bond is polarised. See below the permanent dipole with partial charges $$\delta +$$ and $$\delta -$$: Below: the schematised electron density $$\psi^2$$, for a bond between atoms with differing electronegativity (highest electronegativity to the right): If the electronegativity difference is really high, see e.g. $$\ce{NaCl}$$, the bond starts being so strongly polarised (electron probability density strongly skewed to towards the $$\ce{Cl}$$ atom) that the bond starts taking on an ionic character. Ionic and covalent must be considered relative to each other: in a "75% ionic" bond the electron distribution is strongly skewed toward the electronegative element. There is however no meaningful way to measure this "percentage". 1 answered Dec 6 '17 at 13:11 Gert 1,65122 silver badges1111 bronze badges