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Basic question about lewis Lewis dot structures and exceeding the octet

Hey guys I'm confused about the octet rule - as. As far Asas I understand, you need to complete the valancevalence shell of the elements by sharing electrons. 

Now, carbon has 6 electrons which means it has 4 valancevalence electrons, but because it has 6 electrons in total it exceeds the first shell with 4 electrons. The second shell has 4 orbitals with 2 electrons each, so to complete the second shell I need 8 valancevalence electrons. But, but I had read somewhere that the octet rule holds true until down to the 4th period? But how. How can that be when say, magnesium, has 12 total electrons and thus it exceeds the the second shell with 4 electrons but the third shell needs 18 valence electrons to be complete, not just 8?

Secondly, I read that if the central atom has more then 8 electrons thats, then that's ok too? But whatWhat happens if I have a choice of exceeding the 8 electrons by forming another bond with an adjacent atom or sticking those electrons on the opposite side of the adjacent atom? 

Is one strictly wrong/preferable?

I probably have some major misconceptions in this post since I just read up on this topic today - if so please be as kind as to shed light on my misunderstandings.

Thanks a ton if you address one of the two questions!

Basic question about lewis dot structures

Hey guys I'm confused about the octet rule - as far As I understand you need to complete the valance shell of the elements by sharing electrons. Now carbon has 6 electrons which means it has 4 valance electrons because it has 6 electrons in total it exceeds the first shell with 4 electrons. The second shell has 4 orbitals with 2 electrons each so to complete the second shell I need 8 valance electrons. But I read somewhere that the octet rule holds true until down to the 4th period? But how can that be when say magnesium has 12 total electrons and thus it exceeds the the second shell with 4 electrons but the third shell needs 18 valence electrons to be complete, not just 8?

Secondly, I read that if the central atom has more then 8 electrons thats ok too? But what happens if I have a choice of exceeding the 8 electrons by forming another bond with an adjacent atom or sticking those electrons on the opposite side of the adjacent atom? Is one strictly wrong/preferable?

I probably have some major misconceptions in this post since I just read up on this topic today - if so please be as kind as to shed light on my misunderstandings.

Thanks a ton if you address one of the two questions!

Lewis dot structures and exceeding the octet

I'm confused about the octet rule. As far as I understand, you need to complete the valence shell of the elements by sharing electrons. 

Now, carbon has 6 electrons which means it has 4 valence electrons, but because it has 6 electrons in total it exceeds the first shell with 4 electrons. The second shell has 4 orbitals with 2 electrons each, so to complete the second shell I need 8 valence electrons, but I had read somewhere that the octet rule holds true until down to the 4th period. How can that be when say, magnesium, has 12 total electrons and thus it exceeds the the second shell with 4 electrons but the third shell needs 18 valence electrons to be complete, not just 8?

Secondly, I read that if the central atom has more then 8 electrons, then that's ok too? What happens if I have a choice of exceeding the 8 electrons by forming another bond with an adjacent atom or sticking those electrons on the opposite side of the adjacent atom? 

Is one strictly wrong/preferable?

1
source | link

Basic question about lewis dot structures

Hey guys I'm confused about the octet rule - as far As I understand you need to complete the valance shell of the elements by sharing electrons. Now carbon has 6 electrons which means it has 4 valance electrons because it has 6 electrons in total it exceeds the first shell with 4 electrons. The second shell has 4 orbitals with 2 electrons each so to complete the second shell I need 8 valance electrons. But I read somewhere that the octet rule holds true until down to the 4th period? But how can that be when say magnesium has 12 total electrons and thus it exceeds the the second shell with 4 electrons but the third shell needs 18 valence electrons to be complete, not just 8?

Secondly, I read that if the central atom has more then 8 electrons thats ok too? But what happens if I have a choice of exceeding the 8 electrons by forming another bond with an adjacent atom or sticking those electrons on the opposite side of the adjacent atom? Is one strictly wrong/preferable?

I probably have some major misconceptions in this post since I just read up on this topic today - if so please be as kind as to shed light on my misunderstandings.

Thanks a ton if you address one of the two questions!