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Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives  , Whywe might ask, "Why do they contain so many nitro groups them ?"

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial.The The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

EgE.g.: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route,then then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. urotropinUrotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETNPentaerythritol tetranitrate)] Production production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. pentaerythritolPentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product.  3.

    A SYMMETRICAL precurserprecursor pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX It is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis ofof hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. 4.AA SYMMETRICAL precurserprecursor is used.4

enter image description here

  • Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC. TNC is synthesized from cubane, which is SYMMETRIC.5

Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC . TNC is synthesized from cubane.(SYMMETRIC)5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione)

    Heptanitrocubane It is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

    HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione) is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

summarizing,Summarizing

synthetic routsSynthetic routes used ,in production lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density  . For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density.

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD

Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives  , Why so many nitro groups them ?

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial.The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

Eg: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route,then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. urotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)] Production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. pentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product.  3.

    A SYMMETRICAL precurser pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX It is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. 4.A SYMMETRICAL precurser is used.4

enter image description here

  • Heptanitrocubane

Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC . TNC is synthesized from cubane.(SYMMETRIC)5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione)

    Heptanitrocubane It is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

summarizing,

synthetic routs used , lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density  . For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD

Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives, we might ask, "Why do they contain so many nitro groups?"

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial. The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

E.g.: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route, then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. Urotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. Pentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product.3

    A SYMMETRICAL precursor pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. A SYMMETRICAL precursor is used.4

enter image description here

  • Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC. TNC is synthesized from cubane, which is SYMMETRIC.5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione) is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

Summarizing

Synthetic routes used in production lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density. For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density.

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD

2 reformatted
source | link

Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives , Why so many nitro groups them ?

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial.The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

Eg: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route,then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. urotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)] Production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. pentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product. 3.

    A SYMMETRICAL precurser pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX It is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. 4.A SYMMETRICAL precurser is used.4

enter image description here - Heptanitrocubane

  • Heptanitrocubane

Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC . TNC is synthesized from cubane.(SYMMETRIC)5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione)

    Heptanitrocubane It is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

summarizing,

synthetic routs used , lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density . For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD

Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives , Why so many nitro groups them ?

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial.The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

Eg: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route,then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. urotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)] Production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. pentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product. 3.

    A SYMMETRICAL precurser pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX It is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. 4.A SYMMETRICAL precurser is used.4

enter image description here - Heptanitrocubane

Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC . TNC is synthesized from cubane.(SYMMETRIC)5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione)

    Heptanitrocubane It is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

summarizing,

synthetic routs used , lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density . For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD

Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives , Why so many nitro groups them ?

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial.The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

Eg: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route,then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. urotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)] Production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. pentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product. 3.

    A SYMMETRICAL precurser pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX It is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. 4.A SYMMETRICAL precurser is used.4

enter image description here

  • Heptanitrocubane

Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC . TNC is synthesized from cubane.(SYMMETRIC)5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione)

    Heptanitrocubane It is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

summarizing,

synthetic routs used , lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density . For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD

1
source | link

Before discussing symmetrical nature of explosives , Why so many nitro groups them ?

The answer is in estimation of energetic properties that relies on the empirically derived Kamlet and Jacobs equations 1 .

In these equations the heat released by the decomposition, the number of moles of gas produced, and the molecular weight of these gases are all critical factors. Density too is crucial.The more molecules of a high-energy material that can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket the better.

Eg: Nitrocubanes carrying five or more nitro groups contain enough oxygen to oxidize all constituent carbon and hydrogen atoms to gaseous CO, CO2, or H2O. Each of these, along with N2, "explodes" from the solid to 12 gaseous molecules. The expansion from the dense solid to a lot of gas (much expanded by the released heat) produces the desired effect in propellants and explosives.

If one examines the synthetic route,then

  • RDX is synthesized with treating Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine, also known as hexamine or urotropin with fuming nitric acid. urotropin is a SYMMETRIC molecule synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia.2

enter image description here

  • PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)] Production is by the reaction of pentaerythritol with concentrated nitric acid. pentaerythritol is prepared via a base-catalyzed poly-addition reaction (aldol) between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product. 3.

    A SYMMETRICAL precurser pentaerythritol is used. enter image description here

  • HMX It is obtained by a two-stage nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in acetic acid, using the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. 4.A SYMMETRICAL precurser is used.4

enter image description here - Heptanitrocubane

Heptanitrocubane is obtained from nitration of TNC . TNC is synthesized from cubane.(SYMMETRIC)5

enter image description here

  • HHTDD (hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione)

    Heptanitrocubane It is essentially an open analogue of the cyclic nitroamine cage compounds such as CL-20.[6]

enter image description here

summarizing,

synthetic routs used , lead to symmetrical compounds in which more molecules of a high-energy material can be packed into the limited volume of a shell or rocket leading to greater density . For a given explosive, the detonation pressure is proportional to the square of its density

References

1 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/discussion1.html

2 https://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/delepine-reaction.shtm

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentaerythritol

4 http://www.chemikinternational.com/pdf/2012/01_2012/CHEMIK_2012_p58-63.pdf

5 http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/wang/nitro5.html

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHTDD