For questions relating to water (H2O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in chemistry.

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28 views

Interaction between Ozone and Carbon Dioxide

We are trying to predict what will happen when carbon dioxide gas is introduced into a contact chamber that serves as an ozone contact chamber. These contact chambers presently oxidize compounds found ...
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0answers
27 views

How to test for heavy metal in water?

Is there a way to test if water has toxic heavy metals. Samples to both the water and people who drink it are available. Preferably, it should be done with at hold materials. I could also borrow ...
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2answers
130 views
+50

Relative strength of desiccants

Is it meaningful to characterize the relative strength of desiccants? For example, is there a measure of hygroscopy, or an ordering of desiccants, such that higher ones will always dry lower ones? ...
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0answers
31 views

Frequency of Mpemba Effect

What are the chances of warm water freezing faster than cold water? (How many percent?) Does it have to do with container size or something in it?
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0answers
24 views

Relating 'temperature' difference to 'vapour pressure'

I am aware of the fact that with the increase in temperature, the number of molecules with more kinetic energy increases and thus, the vapour pressure increases. When we increase the temperature ...
2
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1answer
46 views

I drink city water, city has lead pipe, how is this safe?

6 years ago, I needed to replace the main water shut off valve to my house. This required the city to turn off the water at the street. Incompetent city employee drives key through water pipe. ...
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1answer
32 views

Hydrogen bonding

It is mentioned in my textbook: "Hydrogen atoms of water molecule create strong electrical field due to their small sizes" How is the size related to electrical field and its strength? A little ...
7
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0answers
50 views

What makes water a liquid (when it is)?

I'm curious about what the minimal conditions for some collection of water molecules to be liquid water are. What is the minimum number? What sort of bonds must hold? What other sorts of things I ...
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1answer
52 views

How to remove tap water hardness?

I am looking for ways of removing water hardness from tap water, specifically permanent hardness. I have tried working on some methods, e.g., to perform precipitates using sodium hydroxide and ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Do (simple, inorganic) salts ionize completely in water when they dissolve?

Specifically: Suppose I add equal parts (i.e. the same number of moles of each) sodium bicarbonate and potassium sulfate into a container of distilled water large enough to dissolve them completely. ...
5
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1answer
47 views

How does water defy gravity in paper towels?

How can water be absorbed into a paper towel such that it continues to be absorbed up into the material against the force of gravity? What property of paper towels/water causes this? I can understand ...
6
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0answers
39 views

Bromate forming in open water

According to this article, Los Angeles is facing a problem where bromate, a suspected carcinogen, has been forming in their open water supplies. They believe that the formation of bromate has to do ...
20
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2answers
4k views

What happens if you cool water in a container too small for it to freeze?

Freezing a full bottle of water tends to shatter the glass bottle. What if you used something tougher than glass, like diamond? What would happen if you kept dropping the temperature, but restrained ...
4
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2answers
46 views

The Salt Room, is there salt in the air?

I work in a restaurant where we dry age our uncut steaks in a cooler. Dry aging is a wonderfully complex process that improves the flavor of richly marbled steaks. Our particular type of aging cooler ...
3
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2answers
89 views

Can we determine the amplitude of vibration of O-H bonds in water?

This is going to be a long shot, and I might be wrong in any and all of my assumptions, be warned (... and please correct me). I might also be trivially right, I have no idea. At equilibrium, each ...
5
votes
1answer
74 views

Does sodium produce water when it reacts with water?

My 10th grade chemistry book states that: "Metals react with water and produce a metal oxide and hydrogen gas. Metal oxides that are soluble in water dissolve in it to further form metal ...
3
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0answers
30 views

What is the cause of hygroscopy?

Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract and hold water molecules from the surrounding environment. Why are some compounds hygroscopic and others are not? What is it about their ...
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0answers
21 views

Converting sodium lauryl sulfate into a powder

I need to turn sodium lauryl sulfate into a powder form. I have the substance in a gel form, and I tried mixing it with corn starch to dry it out but I failed. Any ideas on what to do?
3
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0answers
41 views

Why do chloride ions not bond to water molecules/hydronium ions when hydrochloric acid dissociates? [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I was reading a textbook and it gave me the equation of this hydrochloric acid which was put into water and the products formed were hydronium and chlorine. $\ce{HCl ...
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0answers
20 views

How does water electrolysis work as a process for creating alkaline ionized water?

There is a system that produces alkaline ionized water via electrolysis, and it has 5 electrolytic cells which are made from platinum and titanium. They supposedly decompose water molecules into ...
3
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1answer
302 views

Can a reverse osmosis system remove radioactive elements in contaminated water?

I am curious to know if a reverse osmosis system can clean water from radioactive elements like cesium-134 and cesium-137. If it can, how efficient can it be?
0
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1answer
23 views

Reduced-pressure (vacuum) evaporation/drying of 15 liters of aqueous solution

I have 15 liters of aqueous solution inside an aluminum stock pot which rests upon a hot plate. I want to reduce the boiling point from 150°C to 100°C using reduced pressure. What is the most ...
0
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1answer
36 views

Why some cloths become rough after drying?

I line dry my cloths and every now, they become rough after drying. This mostly happens with socks. They are regular cotton socks and once I start to wear them they become soft again. Any idea why ...
7
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1answer
331 views

What makes oceanic desalination so expensive?

What specifically makes oceanic desalination so expensive?
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0answers
28 views

Can Electrolysis be used to produce -OH

Water that is broken apart with electrolysis, will produce: Two atoms of hydrogen, which bond together to make di-hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$) or ($\ce{H-H}$) 1 atom of oxygen, or monatomic oxygen ...
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1answer
26 views

Electrons jumping from 1 water molecule to another

Electrons can be anywhere in the universe and where they are is random. But they are still discrete particles and thus it takes energy for electrons to move. Is it possible for an electron to jump ...
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1answer
12 views

Nitrates in water

In my previous question, someones answer among other things, said that boiling the water increases the concentration of nitrates and nitrites. I searched on google and it's true, but how does that ...
4
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0answers
56 views

Why ginger reacts with sparkling water?

I think that the ginger ale is born this way. Anyway, if you put the ginger in a glass and add sparkling water, small drops splash out of the glass, the water is fizzier, more effervescent. Why? ...
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0answers
10 views

Trend in results for reproducibility of iron and phosphate

Periodically in our lab, we have a reproducibility test for the various samples that we analyze. One such sample is boiler water. Two of the parameters that we test are phosphate in boiler water and ...
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3answers
1k views

Why is condensation in dyed beverages colorless?

Does food coloring somehow evaporate and turn into nothing? Or does the beverage itself being much more color intensive? I had a bottle of Gatorade, colored Lemon-Lime (and flavored as such). I ...
9
votes
3answers
991 views

How is dissolving a physical change and not a chemical change?

When salt dissolves in water it dissociates and it is no longer in a lattice structure. The electrostatic forces are no longer there and are replaced by water-ion interactions. To me that sounds like ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Plastic membrane that lets water in from the outside only?

I'm looking for a type of plastic membrane that would let water through it from the outside, but wouldn't allow water to escape once it's inside the membrane. Ideally available in a roll. Does such ...
-1
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1answer
28 views

Energy required to electrolyze water [closed]

What voltage DC current would I need to electrolyze 1 liter of water in 1 hour using 1 gram $\ce{NaOH}$ for a electrolyte
5
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1answer
132 views

Aluminium and water safety

I have a 8000 gallon water tank that has always had pristine clear water. I have a brass float valve at the top input to the tank. Someone put an aluminum ladder in the tank (15 ft deep tank) and ...
4
votes
1answer
74 views

Is there a type of detergent/surfactant that evaporates at STP?

Are there any type of detergent/surfactant chemicals that would be good for removing dirt and grease from fabric that also would evaporate from the clothes within, say, 24 hours leaving no residue?
3
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0answers
39 views

Is there a food-safe hydrophobic liquid with a substanially higher denisty than water?

Requirements In short, I am looking for a fluid that meets these criteria: Hydrophobic Denser than water Low viscosity Food safe Background We are working on adding a pool and designing a ...
2
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0answers
54 views

What is that process called in which we add water molecules to an ion to form a complex?

An example would be $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^2+}$ in which it has 6 water molecules associated with it. What is the process of adding these water molecules called?
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2answers
306 views

Why there is no change in water level when salt is added?

Let us say we have one glass of water and after that when we add one or two spoon of salt then we notice that salt dissolves in it but when we measure the water level we found that there is no ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Quality of water for drinking purposes

As I’m reading about water cations and anions, I read that the benefits we gain from water are of course lots, but the most important of them is the neutralisation of acids ($\ce{H+}$) from the anions ...
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0answers
39 views

Why are H2O asymmetric while CO2 is not? [duplicate]

What is the reason for water molecules $\ce{H_2O}$ being asymmetric while other molecules like $\ce{CO_2}$ being completely symmetric? See the pictures below: In both case there is an ...
2
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1answer
54 views

how to define proper ppm concentrations for water solvent vs alcohol solvents?

1 ppm is 1 mg / kg Water density: 999.97 kg/m³ methanol density: 791.80 kg/m³ solution 1 with water as solvent: at 1 $\ce{\mu}$g / mL is considered 1 ppm solution 2 with methanol as solvent: at 1 ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Solubility and Evaporation - Would the concentration still be 1 ppm?

A certain salt has a solubility of 1 mg/1 L. I have 1 mg of this certain salt dissolving in 1 L of water, I have a concentration of 1 ppm. 1st Question: If the solution is left open to evaporation, ...
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0answers
24 views

how to clean pesticide solutions in volumetric glass and graduated cylinder properly?

I have pesticide (Dimethoate) dissolved in methanol in volumetric flasks and graduated cylinders. How do I clean these glassware properly before moving on to the next dilution of a different pesticide ...
-1
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1answer
61 views

Final concentration … How to calculate it? [closed]

My question is here but i just want to find out how to go about it? If 50.0 mg of $\ce{CO3^2-}$ and 50.0 mg of $\ce{Ca^{2+}}$ are present in 1 liter of water, what will be the final ...
2
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2answers
47 views

What is the difference between these equations for the Contact process?

Some webpages describe the contact process as this (I left out $\ce{SO2}$, $\ce{SO3}$ production): $\ce{SO3 + H2SO4 -> H2S2O7}$ After this, it is controllable to add water to the oleum therefore ...
0
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1answer
106 views

Cleaning an overhead water tank using Alum or other chemicals?

Alum is generally used in water tanks to settle down solid impurities. Since it contains aluminium I suspect it to be toxic to humans. So are there any safe chemicals to clean large overhead tanks ...
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0answers
28 views

How the heat a large amount of water that is safe to use?

I would like to know how heat up a large amount of water ( assumption : 100 liter ) that people could use to take their bath and also it would not be dangerous even if they accidentally ingested it ? ...
2
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0answers
39 views

The Health Effects of Alkaline Ionized Water?

I came across alkaline ionized water as my aunts bought a system called Kangen Water from Enagic Inc. The water produced by this system is claimed to contain smaller water clusters (4-6 molecules) ...
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0answers
32 views

Sugar dissolution test

Is there a way to detect whether sugar is completely dissolved in a cup of water other than looking at the bottom of the cup? I was wondering if there is a test or something that can be carried out ...
4
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1answer
162 views

Difference between Superheated steam and Superheated water?

I'm working on a project (school level) and in it I'll be dealing with the pressure generated by water when superheated. I could understand the concept of superheated water but superheated steam is ...