The purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a desired product.

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55 views

Mechanism for hydroxyethylation on nucleobases (e.g. Thymine)

I'm trying to figure out the following reaction mechanism There's a reference paper by Yanagi and Akiyoshi(1959) showing the hydroxyethylation of imides resulting in the following I have two ...
2
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2answers
85 views

Is it possible to create a 100% identical copy of a chemical?

For example a 100% identical copy of vitamin A, same shape, same formula, same structure.
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1answer
44 views

Synthesis of benzophenone

Would his be a valid synthesis? I'm just unsure about the oxidative clevage step. I know that there is a Benzylic hydrogen. So should oxidative clevage work here? What happens to the fragment that is ...
0
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0answers
27 views

Synthesis of synthetic detergent with Friedel Crafts Acylation

I propose the following synthesis. 1) Oxidation of aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. This sets me up for FC acylation once I ... 2) Attack the -OH with thionyl chloride ad form the acid chloride. 3) ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Simple experiments involving enantiomer synthesis

I want to do an experiment to investigate factors affecting the synthesis of chiral molecules. The only problem is, my institution doesn't have much money, and it seems like the chemicals required for ...
0
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2answers
70 views

Synthesis of 1-hexene from 1-octyne

This is my synthetic pathway. For one, is it plausible? For another, is it efficient? 1) Reduction of 1-octyne with hydrogen gas and Lindlar's catalyst to 1-octene. 2) Oxymercuration to install a ...
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3answers
238 views

Carbon decrease from 1-octyne to 1-hexene

I am to turn 1-octyne to 1-hexene. Method 1 1) Reduction using sodium metal in pure ammonia to an alkene. 2) Halohydrin formation; the -OH installs at the more substituted carbon due to its ...
5
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2answers
486 views

Pedagogical exercise - How to synthesize methamphetamine

I am asked to synthesize "methamphetamine." Note that there is no configuration designated for this molecule, and methamphetamine refers to a very specific configuration. In any case, here are the ...
3
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1answer
162 views

Bromination Pathways with alkane, alkene, and alkyne substrates

I'm confused about halogenation pathways. From what I understand, there are multiple halogenation pathways. I'll try summarizing them below; let me know if I do anything incorrectly. Halogenation ...
0
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2answers
79 views

Reaction Pathways - Substitution and elimination [closed]

This one was a bit involved. The alkyl halide turning into an alcohol with retention of stereochemistry suggested that an SN1 mechanism was at work. The addition of NaOH and the inversion of ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Ethene to ethanol: electrophillic additions involving ethyl sulfates

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/eladd/symh2so4.html I was reading my textbook and this website. I just cannot find the mechanism for what happens when we go from CH3CH2OSO3H to ethanol by the ...
-1
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1answer
22 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanisms of these synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the following synthesis ? 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 --> 2NH3 + 2H2O + CaCl2 (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH --> 2NH3 + 2H2O + NaSO4
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1answer
37 views

Synthetical formation of diamonds

As everyone knows a diamond won't last forever. It will eventually turn into a graphite over a long period of time, as the free energy of graphite is lower than that of diamond, hence making the ...
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3answers
82 views

How to add the two hydroxy groups to my raw material with as high as possible yield?

From the raw material (above), how to add the two hydroxy groups in red(below)? Is there any proven successful synthesis route with higher yield (40% or above)?
2
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1answer
112 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of these two synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the two synthesis given below ? $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{H2/Pd}][\ce{EtOH}] Ar-NH2}$ $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{Sn + HCl} \text{ or } \ce{Fe + HCl}] Ar-NH2}$
0
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0answers
66 views

How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
0
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1answer
97 views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made and sold as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse engineered ?
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0answers
51 views

Reactivity of thiosemicarbazide

How to form Schiff's Base at both the ends of the thiosemicarbazide? $\ce{NH2}$ of hydrazine part reacts easily to form Schiff's base i.e. imine. But $\ce{NH2}$ attached to $\ce{C=S}$ does not. How ...
1
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1answer
454 views

Can I oxidize toluene to benzoic acid using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?

I want to know that, Can I convert Toluene in to Benzoic acid, using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?
3
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0answers
74 views

How is Melatonin Synthesised?

I should like to know roughly how the hormone melotonin is synthetically made for the pharmaceutical industry (i.e. not how it is made in living beings). I can't seem to find any reference to its ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

Synthesizing Aspirin Question

Take as example this http://njcmr.njit.edu/distils/lab/aspirins/nap4.html or even better this http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/consumer/aspirincons/aspirincons.htm Wash the crystals with 2-3 ml of ...
1
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0answers
41 views

What are the possible side reactions when preparing iron(III) naphthenate?

I am trying to prepare some iron(III) naphthenate. And the raw materials are : ferric(III) chloride, and naphthenate acid, NaOH, toluene, deionized water Everything worked well in lab scale: final ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Is it possible to synthesis adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine at home?

I'm wondering if there is any way to create adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine from chemicals available to anyone, using basic lab equipment.
4
votes
1answer
132 views

Problem with synthesis - converting organic carbonate to formate ester

I'm currently working on a chemistry project in which I need to convert the first organic compound to the second organic compound.(see image) I only have a simple background in organic chemistry (and ...
1
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2answers
101 views

Preparation of phenylamine/aniline

This is the procedure I carried out in class: Reduction of nitrobenzene by using tin and $HCl$ acid After the completion of the reaction, $NaOH$ added to neutralize excess acid and dissolve any ...
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2answers
80 views

Product of Reaction?

What would be 'A' in the reaction (see image)? Any help would be deeply appreciated. I know that Alc KOH does elimination but I was confused whether it would eliminate one bromine each from two ...
1
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3answers
75 views

Reaction at Alpha Carbon?

I'm having trouble with the products of these reactions below... I feel like I'm on the right track but don't know why it comes up wrong Figured out the aldehyde - but not the ester one!
0
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2answers
61 views

Is photosynthesis endothermic and exothermic at the same time? … somehow?

Photosynthesis is obviously an endothermic reaction, I mean, what would be the point otherwise, right? This is probably just sheer and utter stupidity on my behalf, but why does Wikipedia say the heat ...
1
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1answer
109 views

Would this recipe on stink bomb work?

I found this recipe on how to make a stink bomb: The recipe basically says to mix ammonia and match heads to create ammonium sulfide. However, I am skeptical, because It seems that match heads have ...
2
votes
2answers
411 views

Conversion of an amide to an imine

We haven't learned this in class yet, but after looking online, and through my textbook, I can't seem to find a definite answer. I am hopelessly and utterly lost.
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1answer
83 views

Cleavage of an amide under acidic conditions

I think I'm doing it correctly but perhaps I'm missing something? Do they both need to be protonated
0
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1answer
52 views

Single Displacement Reactions: A + AX =?

This seems like a stupid question, but how would I find the product of a single displacement reaction like the following? $$\ce{Pb + Pb(NO3)2 -> \ ?}$$ Normally, a single displacement reaction ...
1
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1answer
195 views

Make tin nitrate?

How can tin nitrate be synthesized? Mixing nitric acid and tin makes tin oxide (I did this in chemistry class) so how can tin nitrate be created?
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1answer
45 views

What aspects of a molecule's chemical makeup determine which portions of it will react?

Is there a specific way to know how two or more arbitrary molecules will react? An example that prompted this question: $\ce{(HOC6H4)2CMe2 + 2 NaOH → (NaOC6H4)2CMe2 + 2 H2O}$ (from here). How can ...
2
votes
2answers
335 views

How do I convert Benzoic Acid to m-nitro Benzyl alcohol using 2 steps?

The question asks to carry out the following conversion in not more than 2 steps: Benzoic acid to m-nitro benzyl alcohol I first used nitration (conc. $\ce{HNO3}$ /conc.$\ce{H2SO4}$) and then I'm ...
0
votes
1answer
143 views

How to make Sodium dichromate

I've been trying to make Sodium dichromate $\ce{Na2Cr2O7}$ by following these steps: Dissolve an inox spoon in $\ce{H2SO4}$ Filter the solution Dissolve the obtained sludge in $\ce{NaClO}$ Heat the ...
1
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1answer
66 views

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

I am having trouble understanding how this reaction works or how an electrophile is formed. I feel like the product should be something like $$\ce{C11H12O4}$$
5
votes
3answers
93 views

How do I create a concentrated solution of singlet oxygen (in the dark)?

Without appealing to reactions that require photons / light, how do chemists achieve a very high concentration of continually produced, though quite short lived, singlet oxygen in aqueous solution ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Do these compounds Na$_x$IrO$_2$ and NaOsO$_2$ exist?

Based on some physics background, I want to know whether have we synthesized these two materials: $\ce{Na_{x}IrO2}$ and $\ce{NaOsO2}$ in the lab, if so, what properties do they have? I will be very ...
1
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2answers
136 views

The weedkiller paraquat can be produced from methyl-pyridinium chloride using a cyanide catalyst: what is the mechanism?

Paraquat is 4,4'dipyridinium chloride. There are two common ways to synthesise it starting with pyridine. In one reaction that can be done on a large scale in water or liquid ammonia, ...
5
votes
2answers
314 views

Mercury assisted deprotection of dithiane

1,3 dithianes are used in umpolung reactions and can be deprotected by mercury containing compounds - but could anyone help explain what the exact mechanism is? Many texts seem to skim over this by ...
4
votes
1answer
238 views

Can I synthesize iron acetate like this?

The oxidation state of the iron doesn't matter too much; I am just trying to make an attractive red-brown ink. Here are some instructions I prescribed to a friend. Here's an approximately decent ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

Are there any significant industrial processes that use liquid ammonia as a solvent?

There are some interesting laboratory reactions that use liquid ammonia as a solvent (for example, the Birch Reduction where an alkali metal is dissolved in liquid ammonia). There have also been some ...
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2answers
283 views

Alcohol Reaction Product prediction? [closed]

Please help me predict the products of this reactions.
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1answer
151 views

Free automatic organic synthesis Linux command line program

I'm trying to find a free automatic organic synthesis Linux command line program which take mol or smile files as input. I have random molecules and I'd like to know how difficult above a baseline ...
2
votes
1answer
165 views

Why was anhydrous magnesium carbonate “upsalite” discovered so late?

What complicated the synthesis of upsalite (anhydrous MgCO3), for it to be synthesized and published in 2013 as opposed to the 20th century, as one would expect for such a simple salt?
3
votes
1answer
190 views

How did the first amino acids appear on earth?

Is there a prove or a theory that the first amino acid synthesis was influenced by a change in heat, gravitation, radiation or something like that?
1
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1answer
75 views

preparation methods of nicotinoyl glycine

How can we prepare nicotinoyl glycine from nicotinic acid ?Is that possible by reaction between nicotinic acid and glycine?
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3answers
951 views

Potassium chlorate from potassium chloride and hydrogen peroxide

Why can't you make potassium chlorate using the chloride anion from the potassium chloride and having oxygen bond with it from hydrogen peroxide? Thank you very much!
3
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1answer
152 views

Is it possible to react two distinct carboxylic acids to form a dicarbonyl ester?

By a dicarbonyl ester I mean something like this: where R1 and R2 are alkyl substituents and the reacting carboxylic acids are: