The purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a desired product.

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59 views

What are the steps to creating synthetic glucose?

I need to know how to go about creating synthetic glucose with generally available materials. As I am aware of both photosynthesis and glucose in nature, I will not need lessons in how plants produce ...
7
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1answer
46 views

Selective alkylation of carboxylic acid vs. phenol

A is the reactant and b is the product. There are two couplings to be done. 1 and 2. Which sequence should be followed, ie. 1 should be coupled first or 2 should be coupled first? for coupling 1 , ...
4
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39 views

Clemmensen reduction vs. Wolff-Kishner reduction

In which cases is the Clemmensen reduction is preferred over the Wolff-Kishner reduction? One thing is that the Clemmensen reduction is done under acidic conditions whereas the Wolff-Kishner ...
2
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1answer
48 views

Grignards and anhydrous ethanol

I remember using both 95% ethanol and absolute ethanol quite a few times. You'd need absolute ethanol for a reaction that would fail if water was present, such as a Grignard reaction. I can't ...
4
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1answer
64 views

Preparation of 6-bromo-1-hexanol

I am refluxing $\ce{HBr}$ with 1,6-hexanediol for 16 hours at $80\ ^\circ\mathrm{C}$ in toluene. How can I be sure that more than $90\,\%$ of the product is brominated only at one terminal? If the ...
4
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1answer
38 views

Ketone to alkene regiochemistry

What are the reagents for the following reactions: Typically, when thinking about ketone to alkene reactions, one thinks of the Wittig reaction. However, I don't see an appropriate form of that ...
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1answer
23 views

Can 4-pyridones be synthesised analogously to 2-pyridones?

I understand that 2-pyridone derivatives can be synthesized by oxidizing an N-methyl pyridinium salt with $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^3-}$ under basic conditions. Can a similar method be used to produce ...
3
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1answer
47 views

Possible Synthesis of a Polymer

Following a question I have asked previously, what I intend to inquire this time is quite similar as well, except, with a polymer. So previously I asked whether such monomer PCDO is possible to ...
11
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1answer
72 views

Interlocked Cyclic Compounds

Being new to chemistry, there may ought to be some properties I couldn't understand fully. One of them being cyclic compounds. One particular question about this is, whether these cyclic compounds, ...
5
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62 views

Method of deriving some properties or possible method of synthesis of a specific monomer

This is kind of like two questions but since they're related I have put them together. Consider a monomer under a hopefully anatomically correct name 'Phenyl Carbolithia Divinylene Oxide ...
2
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1answer
94 views

Synthesis of bromobutane

What will be the cost efficient and high yielding method of synthesis for 1-bromobutane? I can react butanol with $\ce{HBr}$ but I am worried butanol is not present at the moment in lab. But I need ...
14
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1answer
99 views

Propose a chemical formula for the white solid that forms during the initial stages of the reaction of Sn with benzyl chloride

In my inorganic class, we carried out the synthesis of Chlorotribenzyltin, $\ce{SnCl(CH2C6H5)3}$. The synthesis begins with a reflux I'll describe below: In a hood, place 2.0 g (17 mmol) of 325 ...
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58 views

How to reduce an acyl group on a benzene without disturbing nitro group

In nucleophilic aromatic substitutions, I was wondering how to reduce the acyl group down to get a chain of hydrocarbons, but still keep the nitro group intact without its reduction to an amino group. ...
5
votes
1answer
211 views

Is it possible to oxidize ether to ester?

Is it possible to synthesize ester from an ether directly (only one step)? For example if I had an ether $\ce{(R-CH2-OR')}$ and oxidize it so it will be an ester $\ce{(R-CO-OR')}$.
4
votes
1answer
155 views

Nitration of pyrrole

Would 2,5-dinitropyrrole be a product of nitration of pyrrole with $\ce{H2SO4/HNO3}$ ? It seems from this paper that it is not formed using acetic anhydride/nitric acid - is this just because of the ...
4
votes
2answers
134 views

Origin of alkenes from Wurtz Reaction

According to Wikipedia: Also, since the reaction involves free radical species, a side reaction occurs to produce an alkene. This side-reaction becomes more significant when the alkyl halides are ...
5
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1answer
66 views

Clemmensen reduction of 1,3 diketones

As part of a synthesis I was considering the following reaction: How selective is the Clemmensen reduction? I know that the Clemmensen reduction favours ketones adjacent to benzene rings but will ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Mechanism of enolether formation with ethyl orthoformate in estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (Djerassi's norethisterone synthesis)

The second step of Djerassi's synthesis of 19-nor-17α-ethynyltestosterone (norethindrone), involves the protection of the ketone in position 3 via enolether formation, as in the picture: What is ...
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1answer
62 views

Why might the O—H stretch in the IR of MY triphenylmethanol product be less intense than expected?

Why might the O—H stretch in the IR of MY triphenylmethanol product be less intense than expected when compared to the expected IR for triphenylmethanol? I'm interpreting the IR I took of my product, ...
6
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1answer
111 views

Synthesis of ethyl methyl ketone from 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl methyl ketone

Is it possible to reduce raspberry ketone (4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one) to ethyl methyl ketone? How would I do this in practice?
6
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2answers
83 views

Why can you not make a compound with a quaternary alpha carbon using malonic ester?

So my textbook tells me that using malonic ester to make a quaternary alpha carbon is impossible (I get that this might be hyperbole). However, it doesn't explain why and I don't understand why. My ...
7
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0answers
31 views

Will the sulfur-iodine cycle and Haber Method work at lower pressures and temperatures?

I have a year-long research project next year in my senior year of high school, in which we have to make some product or prototype to solve some issue. My interest was in the Liquid Fluoride ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Interaction between metalic nanoparticles and aggregation

I can't find any publication to deal with aggregation of colloidal metalic nanoparticles. What type of interaction(s) is/are there between aqeous metalic nanoparticles which give(s) rise to ...
3
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2answers
337 views

Conversion of Methane to Propane

Is it possible to chemically convert Methane into Propane? If so what is involved and is it economical? Thanks.
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33 views

How to synthesize Boron tri-fluoride using Boron Oxide

I am finding different equations for the synthesis. My lecture handout suggests a reaction with Sodium tetrafluroborate and Sulfuric acid. This is fine but I have to remember this for an exam and that ...
7
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2answers
172 views

Non-halogen intermediate between alkane and alcohol under basic conditions?

Using organic chemistry I have failed to find a method that doesn't involve halogens (gasseous especially). Please ignore the enzyme mono-oxygenase, which adds $\ce{O2}$ directly to alkanes to form ...
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133 views

Fluorescein synthesis

What is the mechanism of the fluorescein synthesis performed by von Baeyer?
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1answer
63 views

Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane from benzoic acid

I think that it is a Diels Alder reaction, but I don't recognize the start materials! First I make the tertiary alcohol from carboxylic acid with organo-lithium reagent; after I try to make a Diels ...
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1answer
99 views

Why, during aspirin synthesis in acidic conditions, anydride carbonyl oxygen is protonated rather than salicylic acid carbonyl oxygen ?

The common route for aspirin synthesis (described here) employs acetic anhydride and salicylic acid, in acidic conditions. The first step of such a reaction mechanism is the protonation of the ...
4
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1answer
54 views

Attack of amine on amide

I am confused with the last step of clozapine synthesis: How can the amine group attack the amide group to form the amidine in such acidic environment? Is the intermolecular reaction between an ...
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2answers
377 views

Oxidation of acetophenone to benzoic acid

According to the solutions manual, the oxidation of acetophenone to benzoic acid can be achieved through addition of chromic acid and application of heat. The solutions manual refers me to a section ...
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1answer
33 views

Permanent Balloon?

Is it possible to create a container for helium that it can't permeate through, like a permanent balloon? Or, if not, what kind of material would have the lowest permeability for that application? I ...
4
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1answer
195 views

Diels-Alder rate of reaction

Why is cyclopentadiene more reactive than 9-anthracenemethanol when acting as a diene? Both molecules are locked in an s-cis conformation, which is favourable. I'm thinking that it's due to the ...
7
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1answer
63 views

How do I synthesize 3-phenyl oxirane-2-carbaldehyde from chloroacetonitrile?

I start with the hydrolysis of the nitrile in carboxylic acid and esterification of this. After I use the Darzens' reaction (using benzaldehyde), then I reduce the ester function with DIBALH in ...
0
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1answer
46 views

Intramolecular hydrazide condensation

Say I have the compound $\ce{CH3CONHNH2}$. Is it possible, that when I add an acid, an intramolecular condensation reaction occurs, forming the cyclic compound: Furthermore, in general, the ...
4
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1answer
53 views

Grignard formation and vicinal dihalides

So let's say I have a symmetric 1,2-dihalide (the halides are identical) and I wanted to make a Grignard and I only add 1 eq. of magnesium metal ... Will I get 1 eq. of asymmetric Grignards (i.e. ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Dialkylation reactions

In the synthesis of ethyl 2-benzyl-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, is the nucleophilic substituion of a benzyl (chloride) group an Sn1 reaction? The experiment is conducted in ethanol (protic) and is under ...
3
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1answer
120 views

Thionyl Chloride and enols, carboxylic acids, alcohols

Propanol + SOCl2 -> Expected alkyl halide product. Propanoic acid + SOCl2 -> Expected acid chloride product. Acetone enol + SOCl2 -> doesn't work in the expected manner. My prof says the SOCl2 ...
3
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1answer
47 views

How do I synthesize 3-hydroxydihydrofuran-2-one from formaldehyde?

I want to synthesize 3-hydroxydihydrofuran-2-one from formaldehyde but I do not know of a method. I tried a Mannich reaction and lactonization after dehydration.
4
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1answer
175 views

What type of organic compounds are used in OLED technology?

I know that there are organic compounds that exhibit electroluminescence, and are those types of materials difficult to synthesize?
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115 views

P-phenylenediamine Production Process

How p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is produced? PPD is used as raw material for Kevlar (Para amid Fiber).
2
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1answer
49 views

Friedel-Crafts synthesis - How is HCl produced?

In the mechanism for the acetylation of bromobenzene, how is $\ce{HCl}$ gas produced? The reactants are acetic anhydride, bromobenzene, $\ce{AlCl3}$ and dichloromethane. Initially, ...
4
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1answer
129 views

Acetylation reaction

In the Friedel - Crafts acetylation of bromobenzene, how is it possible to obtain a black-coloured product? When the acetic anhydride was slowly added to the reactants - $\ce{AlCl3}$, DCM, ...
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1answer
264 views

Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol from Grignard Reagent

The question is this: 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol can be synthesized by three different combinations of a grignard reagent and a ketone. Show each combination. I can only think of one. Butanone with ...
3
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1answer
257 views

Synthesis of 4-iodonitrobenzene

I was trying to synthesize 4-iodonitrobenzene in the lab today - however, the appearance of my product really confused me. At first, I added conc. sulphuric acid to water and 4-nitroaniline. This ...
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1answer
44 views

Why don't we use an alkyl halide directly in Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis?

In Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis, why do we use $\ce{KOH}$ in first step rather than directly adding an alkyl halide?
3
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1answer
51 views

How is the process of creating PVC fabrics harmful for the environment?

I often hear that the production process for PVC fabrics (such as those used in Gucci and Versace handbags) is very harmful to the environment. What part of the process is harmful and can this be ...
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98 views

What compound can give off heat when it comes in contact with ice?

What compound is able to produce heat when it comes in contact with ice? The compound has to be able to produce heat multiple times. I was thinking of a compound that is similar to Calcium Chloride. ...
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1answer
51 views

Electrolysis used to cause a Chemical Reaction?

Electrolysis is used to separate compounds like Water into Hydrogen and Oxygen. Can it be used to induce a synthesis reaction rather than splitting reactants apart? For example, could you use ...
2
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1answer
210 views

Product of pyridine with acetic anhydride and acetic acid.

I have a reaction for acetylation of lignin with pyridine and acetic anhydride. I need to know, what's the product of reaction between pyridine and acetic anhydride and acetic acid.