The purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a desired product.

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Which matter is easier to be controlled in synthesis & decomposition? More or less dense matter? [on hold]

Which matter is easier to be controlled in synthesis & decomposition? More or less dense matter? For example, lithium is lighter than carbon. Is it easy to be controlled? Also, in synthesis ...
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57 views

Organic synthesis problems

I am an A-level student going into university and I am looking for a source of organic synthesis problems and answers that is freely available on the internet. The difficulty level I am looking for is ...
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1answer
51 views

What's wrong with tin?

I just read this In the Pipeline post and I was slightly confused by a statement on the use of tin. Lowe reports on this paper, which describes a synthetic route to spiro heterocycles using tin ...
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1answer
18 views

What is a sacrificial agent?

I came across this reading a journal article. Here I have the context: Here we report for the first time the synthesis of $\ce{TiO2}$ NPs on a layered $\ce{MoS2}$/graphene (MG) hybrid for use in ...
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2answers
110 views

Cyclohexane to cyclopentane synthesis

Does this route work? 1) Free-radical halogenation. 2) Elimination with strong base to form cyclohexene. 3) Ozonolysis to make di-aldehyde. 4) Oxidation to make di-carboxylic acid. 5) ...
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36 views

Could you suggest me a good coupling method for amide synthesis between tetrahydroisoquinoline and a carboxylic acid?

I want to synthesize an amide using tetrahydroisoquinoline and an unsaturated carboxylic acid which is light sensitive. I tried using DCC as coupling agent and DCM as the solvent at room temperature , ...
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1answer
54 views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
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36 views

Creation of ester from acetylene derivative

I took a much different approach from the solutions manual. My synthesis: 1) H2 and Lindlar's catalyst to stop at the alkene. 2) Oxidative cleavage to form benzoic acid. Works here because we ...
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20 views

Equivalencies and catalytic hydrogenation

Can we actually control catalytic hydrogenation by introducing specific molar quantities of hydrogen gas? My prof insists on no. No we cannot use a certain equivalency of hydrogen gas to stop at a ...
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1answer
36 views

Resonance and reductions with sodium borohydride

I know that sodium borohydride doesn't work particularly well on resonance-stabilized carbonyl groups (i.e. esters) but what about this carbonyl in the center of the above picture? This appears to ...
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2answers
129 views

Designing synthetic route to dicarbonyl compound

Sorry, not great at formatting. Here's the link in case the picture doesn't show up. http://imgur.com/axfUw25. It's the last one, where 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane breaks apart into...something. ...
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38 views

Decarboxylation under acid, water, and extreme heat

I am asked whether dimethyl malonate or methyl acetoacetate decarboxylate when hit with acid, water, and extreme temperatures. I believe the answer is both because both are esters, and esters, upon ...
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79 views

Synthesis of Pseudopelletierine, Mannich reaction base catalysed

The synthesis of Pseudopelletierine starts from glutardialdehyde, which reacts with methylamine and acetonedicarboxylic acid in a two-fold Mannich reaction. This is the reaction: I need to write ...
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32 views

Formation of methyl esters

Can't we perform Fischer esterification using methanol to make a methyl ester from a carboxylic acid? If so, why might we use diazomethane? Would the release of nitrogen gas confer an entropic ...
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3answers
104 views

Wittig reaction with benzaldehyde

Somehow I am told that my product is incorrect. Why is my product incorrect? As far as I can see this is a Wittig reaction resulting in a two carbon increase with removal of the oxygen. The only ...
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2answers
78 views

Can imines be catalytically hydrogenated?

Can imines be catalytically hydrogenated? According to the DEA this appears to be possible. However I cannot find any other references to catalytic hydrogenation of imines anywhere else. ...
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2answers
120 views

Reductive amination of (protected) 3-Oxopropanenitrile: Will azetidin-2-ol be formed via intramolecular ring closure?

What happens during this reductive amination? I got the first product; the lithium aluminium hydride will reduce the nitrile to an amine. But what about the reductive animation step? As far as I can ...
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1answer
40 views

Why gives NaBH4 more Felkin-Anh product than LiAlH4 gives?

In lecture we discussed the nature of the nucleophile for the attack of the carbonyl. LiAlH4 acts as a better nucleophile (hydride) than NaBH4. I know there is no hydroboration! So I would have ...
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58 views

Sodium cyanoborohydride and iminium reductions

I understand that the LAH will reduce the nitrile into a primary amine. The addition of acid will likely destroy the acetal mask and leave us with ethylene glycol and a molecule with both a ketone ...
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1answer
29 views

Synthesis; effect of hydrogen gas and platinium

I'm pretty sure the last step in there is just something to throw us off. From what I understand, the first step will give us a Grignard, which will attack the carbonyl in formaldehyde to give us a ...
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1answer
60 views

Phenol protection

Would an acceptable way to protect a phenolic alcohol be through a Williamson ether synthesis? As in: 1) Deprotonating phenol with sodium hydroxide. 2) Addition of methyl iodide. 3) Deprotection ...
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2answers
59 views

Mechanism for hydroxyethylation on nucleobases (e.g. Thymine)

I'm trying to figure out the following reaction mechanism There's a reference paper by Yanagi and Akiyoshi(1959) showing the hydroxyethylation of imides resulting in the following I have two ...
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88 views

Is it possible to create a 100% identical copy of a chemical?

For example a 100% identical copy of vitamin A, same shape, same formula, same structure.
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83 views

Synthesis of benzophenone

Would his be a valid synthesis? I'm just unsure about the oxidative clevage step. I know that there is a Benzylic hydrogen. So should oxidative clevage work here? What happens to the fragment that is ...
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1answer
56 views

Synthesis of synthetic detergent with Friedel Crafts Acylation

I propose the following synthesis. 1) Oxidation of aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. This sets me up for FC acylation once I ... 2) Attack the -OH with thionyl chloride ad form the acid chloride. 3) ...
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80 views

Simple experiments involving enantiomer synthesis

I want to do an experiment to investigate factors affecting the synthesis of chiral molecules. The only problem is, my institution doesn't have much money, and it seems like the chemicals required for ...
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93 views

Synthesis of 1-hexene from 1-octyne

This is my synthetic pathway. For one, is it plausible? For another, is it efficient? 1) Reduction of 1-octyne with hydrogen gas and Lindlar's catalyst to 1-octene. 2) Oxymercuration to install a ...
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3answers
271 views

Carbon decrease from 1-octyne to 1-hexene

I am to turn 1-octyne to 1-hexene. Method 1 1) Reduction using sodium metal in pure ammonia to an alkene. 2) Halohydrin formation; the -OH installs at the more substituted carbon due to its ...
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542 views

Pedagogical exercise - How to synthesize methamphetamine

I am asked to synthesize "methamphetamine." Note that there is no configuration designated for this molecule, and methamphetamine refers to a very specific configuration. In any case, here are the ...
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1answer
270 views

Bromination Pathways with alkane, alkene, and alkyne substrates

I'm confused about halogenation pathways. From what I understand, there are multiple halogenation pathways. I'll try summarizing them below; let me know if I do anything incorrectly. Halogenation ...
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173 views

Reaction Pathways - Substitution and elimination [closed]

This one was a bit involved. The alkyl halide turning into an alcohol with retention of stereochemistry suggested that an SN1 mechanism was at work. The addition of NaOH and the inversion of ...
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1answer
51 views

Ethene to ethanol: electrophillic additions involving ethyl sulfates

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/eladd/symh2so4.html I was reading my textbook and this website. I just cannot find the mechanism for what happens when we go from CH3CH2OSO3H to ethanol by the ...
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29 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanisms of these synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the following synthesis ? 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 --> 2NH3 + 2H2O + CaCl2 (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH --> 2NH3 + 2H2O + NaSO4
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43 views

Synthetical formation of diamonds

As everyone knows a diamond won't last forever. It will eventually turn into a graphite over a long period of time, as the free energy of graphite is lower than that of diamond, hence making the ...
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86 views

How to add the two hydroxy groups to my raw material with as high as possible yield?

From the raw material (above), how to add the two hydroxy groups in red(below)? Is there any proven successful synthesis route with higher yield (40% or above)?
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266 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of these two synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the two synthesis given below ? $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{H2/Pd}][\ce{EtOH}] Ar-NH2}$ $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{Sn + HCl} \text{ or } \ce{Fe + HCl}] Ar-NH2}$
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How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
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1answer
132 views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made and sold as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse engineered ?
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60 views

Reactivity of thiosemicarbazide

How to form Schiff's Base at both the ends of the thiosemicarbazide? $\ce{NH2}$ of hydrazine part reacts easily to form Schiff's base i.e. imine. But $\ce{NH2}$ attached to $\ce{C=S}$ does not. How ...
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667 views

Can I oxidize toluene to benzoic acid using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?

I want to know that, Can I convert Toluene in to Benzoic acid, using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?
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How is Melatonin Synthesised?

I should like to know roughly how the hormone melotonin is synthetically made for the pharmaceutical industry (i.e. not how it is made in living beings). I can't seem to find any reference to its ...
5
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1answer
148 views

Why is crystalline aspirin washed with chilled water in the purification process?

Take as example this or even better this: Wash the crystals with 2-3 ml of chilled water. Why does the aspirin need to be cooled down? And why do we wash the aspirin with chilled water?
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What are the possible side reactions when preparing iron(III) naphthenate?

I am trying to prepare some iron(III) naphthenate. And the raw materials are : ferric(III) chloride, and naphthenate acid, NaOH, toluene, deionized water Everything worked well in lab scale: final ...
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1answer
96 views

Is it possible to synthesis adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine at home?

I'm wondering if there is any way to create adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine from chemicals available to anyone, using basic lab equipment.
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1answer
169 views

Converting organic carbonate to formate ester

I'm currently working on a chemistry project in which I need to convert the first organic compound to the second organic compound.(see image) I only have a simple background in organic chemistry (and ...
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2answers
149 views

Preparation of phenylamine/aniline

This is the procedure I carried out in class: Reduction of nitrobenzene by using tin and $HCl$ acid After the completion of the reaction, $NaOH$ added to neutralize excess acid and dissolve any ...
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2answers
84 views

Product of Reaction?

What would be 'A' in the reaction (see image)? Any help would be deeply appreciated. I know that Alc KOH does elimination but I was confused whether it would eliminate one bromine each from two ...
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Reaction at Alpha Carbon?

I'm having trouble with the products of these reactions below... I feel like I'm on the right track but don't know why it comes up wrong Figured out the aldehyde - but not the ester one!
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Is photosynthesis endothermic and exothermic at the same time? … somehow?

Photosynthesis is obviously an endothermic reaction, I mean, what would be the point otherwise, right? This is probably just sheer and utter stupidity on my behalf, but why does Wikipedia say the heat ...
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147 views

Would this recipe on stink bomb work?

I found this recipe on how to make a stink bomb: The recipe basically says to mix ammonia and match heads to create ammonium sulfide. However, I am skeptical, because It seems that match heads have ...