The purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a desired product.

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Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol from Grignard Reagent

The question is this: 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol can be synthesized by three different combinations of a grignard reagent and a ketone. Show each combination. I can only think of one. Butanone with ...
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113 views

Synthesis of 4-iodonitrobenzene

I was trying to synthesize 4-iodonitrobenzene in the lab today - however, the appearance of my product really confused me. At first, I added conc. sulphuric acid to water and 4-nitroaniline. This ...
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1answer
25 views

Why don't we use an alkyl halide directly in Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis?

In Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis, why do we use $\ce{KOH}$ in first step rather than directly adding an alkyl halide?
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39 views

How is the process of creating PVC fabrics harmful for the environment?

I often hear that the production process for PVC fabrics (such as those used in Gucci and Versace handbags) is very harmful to the environment. What part of the process is harmful and can this be ...
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58 views

What compound can give off heat when it comes in contact with ice?

What compound is able to produce heat when it comes in contact with ice? The compound has to be able to produce heat multiple times. I was thinking of a compound that is similar to Calcium Chloride. ...
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32 views

Electrolysis used to cause a Chemical Reaction?

Electrolysis is used to separate compounds like Water into Hydrogen and Oxygen. Can it be used to induce a synthesis reaction rather than splitting reactants apart? For example, could you use ...
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25 views

Product of pyridine with acetic anhydride and acetic acid.

I have a reaction for acetylation of lignin with pyridine and acetic anhydride. I need to know, what's the product of reaction between pyridine and acetic anhydride and acetic acid.
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35 views

Lewis Acid Catalysts [closed]

I am studying for the International Chemistry Olympiad and some of questions involve synthesis of complicated organic compounds and i have no idea how to do them. The setting of the questions is ...
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3k views

Why are there no cheap diamond equivalents?

We recently learned in school that diamonds sparkle as the are very optically dense, meaning that it takes longer for light to pass through them, thus meaning that the light totally internally ...
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80 views

Organic synthesis problems

I am an A-level student going into university and I am looking for a source of organic synthesis problems and answers that is freely available on the internet. The difficulty level I am looking for is ...
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1answer
51 views

What's wrong with tin?

I just read this In the Pipeline post and I was slightly confused by a statement on the use of tin. Lowe reports on this paper, which describes a synthetic route to spiro heterocycles using tin ...
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19 views

What is a sacrificial agent?

I came across this reading a journal article. Here I have the context: Here we report for the first time the synthesis of $\ce{TiO2}$ NPs on a layered $\ce{MoS2}$/graphene (MG) hybrid for use in ...
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126 views

Cyclohexane to cyclopentane synthesis

Does this route work? 1) Free-radical halogenation. 2) Elimination with strong base to form cyclohexene. 3) Ozonolysis to make di-aldehyde. 4) Oxidation to make di-carboxylic acid. 5) ...
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44 views

Could you suggest me a good coupling method for amide synthesis between tetrahydroisoquinoline and a carboxylic acid?

I want to synthesize an amide using tetrahydroisoquinoline and an unsaturated carboxylic acid which is light sensitive. I tried using DCC as coupling agent and DCM as the solvent at room temperature , ...
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65 views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
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44 views

Creation of ester from acetylene derivative

I took a much different approach from the solutions manual. My synthesis: 1) H2 and Lindlar's catalyst to stop at the alkene. 2) Oxidative cleavage to form benzoic acid. Works here because we ...
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20 views

Equivalencies and catalytic hydrogenation

Can we actually control catalytic hydrogenation by introducing specific molar quantities of hydrogen gas? My prof insists on no. No we cannot use a certain equivalency of hydrogen gas to stop at a ...
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36 views

Resonance and reductions with sodium borohydride

I know that sodium borohydride doesn't work particularly well on resonance-stabilized carbonyl groups (i.e. esters) but what about this carbonyl in the center of the above picture? This appears to ...
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134 views

Designing synthetic route to dicarbonyl compound

Sorry, not great at formatting. Here's the link in case the picture doesn't show up. http://imgur.com/axfUw25. It's the last one, where 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane breaks apart into...something. ...
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50 views

Decarboxylation under acid, water, and extreme heat

I am asked whether dimethyl malonate or methyl acetoacetate decarboxylate when hit with acid, water, and extreme temperatures. I believe the answer is both because both are esters, and esters, upon ...
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88 views

Synthesis of Pseudopelletierine, Mannich reaction base catalysed

The synthesis of Pseudopelletierine starts from glutardialdehyde, which reacts with methylamine and acetonedicarboxylic acid in a two-fold Mannich reaction. This is the reaction: I need to write ...
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34 views

Formation of methyl esters

Can't we perform Fischer esterification using methanol to make a methyl ester from a carboxylic acid? If so, why might we use diazomethane? Would the release of nitrogen gas confer an entropic ...
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120 views

Wittig reaction with benzaldehyde

Somehow I am told that my product is incorrect. Why is my product incorrect? As far as I can see this is a Wittig reaction resulting in a two carbon increase with removal of the oxygen. The only ...
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2answers
80 views

Can imines be catalytically hydrogenated?

Can imines be catalytically hydrogenated? According to the DEA this appears to be possible. However I cannot find any other references to catalytic hydrogenation of imines anywhere else. ...
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127 views

Reductive amination of (protected) 3-Oxopropanenitrile: Will azetidin-2-ol be formed via intramolecular ring closure?

What happens during this reductive amination? I got the first product; the lithium aluminium hydride will reduce the nitrile to an amine. But what about the reductive animation step? As far as I can ...
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46 views

Why gives NaBH4 more Felkin-Anh product than LiAlH4 gives?

In lecture we discussed the nature of the nucleophile for the attack of the carbonyl. LiAlH4 acts as a better nucleophile (hydride) than NaBH4. I know there is no hydroboration! So I would have ...
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64 views

Sodium cyanoborohydride and iminium reductions

I understand that the LAH will reduce the nitrile into a primary amine. The addition of acid will likely destroy the acetal mask and leave us with ethylene glycol and a molecule with both a ketone ...
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29 views

Synthesis; effect of hydrogen gas and platinium

I'm pretty sure the last step in there is just something to throw us off. From what I understand, the first step will give us a Grignard, which will attack the carbonyl in formaldehyde to give us a ...
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76 views

Phenol protection

Would an acceptable way to protect a phenolic alcohol be through a Williamson ether synthesis? As in: 1) Deprotonating phenol with sodium hydroxide. 2) Addition of methyl iodide. 3) Deprotection ...
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59 views

Mechanism for hydroxyethylation on nucleobases (e.g. Thymine)

I'm trying to figure out the following reaction mechanism There's a reference paper by Yanagi and Akiyoshi(1959) showing the hydroxyethylation of imides resulting in the following I have two ...
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90 views

Is it possible to create a 100% identical copy of a chemical?

For example a 100% identical copy of vitamin A, same shape, same formula, same structure.
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127 views

Synthesis of benzophenone

Would his be a valid synthesis? I'm just unsure about the oxidative clevage step. I know that there is a Benzylic hydrogen. So should oxidative clevage work here? What happens to the fragment that is ...
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61 views

Synthesis of synthetic detergent with Friedel Crafts Acylation

I propose the following synthesis. 1) Oxidation of aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. This sets me up for FC acylation once I ... 2) Attack the -OH with thionyl chloride ad form the acid chloride. 3) ...
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91 views

Simple experiments involving enantiomer synthesis

I want to do an experiment to investigate factors affecting the synthesis of chiral molecules. The only problem is, my institution doesn't have much money, and it seems like the chemicals required for ...
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108 views

Synthesis of 1-hexene from 1-octyne

This is my synthetic pathway. For one, is it plausible? For another, is it efficient? 1) Reduction of 1-octyne with hydrogen gas and Lindlar's catalyst to 1-octene. 2) Oxymercuration to install a ...
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296 views

Carbon decrease from 1-octyne to 1-hexene

I am to turn 1-octyne to 1-hexene. Method 1 1) Reduction using sodium metal in pure ammonia to an alkene. 2) Halohydrin formation; the -OH installs at the more substituted carbon due to its ...
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562 views

Pedagogical exercise - How to synthesize methamphetamine

I am asked to synthesize "methamphetamine." Note that there is no configuration designated for this molecule, and methamphetamine refers to a very specific configuration. In any case, here are the ...
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1answer
298 views

Bromination Pathways with alkane, alkene, and alkyne substrates

I'm confused about halogenation pathways. From what I understand, there are multiple halogenation pathways. I'll try summarizing them below; let me know if I do anything incorrectly. Halogenation ...
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192 views

Reaction Pathways - Substitution and elimination [closed]

This one was a bit involved. The alkyl halide turning into an alcohol with retention of stereochemistry suggested that an SN1 mechanism was at work. The addition of NaOH and the inversion of ...
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1answer
54 views

Ethene to ethanol: electrophillic additions involving ethyl sulfates

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/eladd/symh2so4.html I was reading my textbook and this website. I just cannot find the mechanism for what happens when we go from CH3CH2OSO3H to ethanol by the ...
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1answer
53 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanisms of these synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the following synthesis? $\ce{2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 -> 2NH3 + 2H2O + CaCl2}$ $\ce{(NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH -> 2NH3 + 2H2O + Na2SO4}$
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51 views

Synthetical formation of diamonds

As everyone knows a diamond won't last forever. It will eventually turn into a graphite over a long period of time, as the free energy of graphite is lower than that of diamond, hence making the ...
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87 views

How to add the two hydroxy groups to my raw material with as high as possible yield?

From the raw material (above), how to add the two hydroxy groups in red(below)? Is there any proven successful synthesis route with higher yield (40% or above)?
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353 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of these two synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the two synthesis given below ? $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{H2/Pd}][\ce{EtOH}] Ar-NH2}$ $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{Sn + HCl} \text{ or } \ce{Fe + HCl}] Ar-NH2}$
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92 views

How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
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1answer
153 views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made and sold as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse engineered ?
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66 views

Reactivity of thiosemicarbazide

How to form Schiff's Base at both the ends of the thiosemicarbazide? $\ce{NH2}$ of hydrazine part reacts easily to form Schiff's base i.e. imine. But $\ce{NH2}$ attached to $\ce{C=S}$ does not. How ...
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704 views

Can I oxidize toluene to benzoic acid using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?

I want to know that, Can I convert Toluene in to Benzoic acid, using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?
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How is Melatonin Synthesised?

I should like to know roughly how the hormone melotonin is synthetically made for the pharmaceutical industry (i.e. not how it is made in living beings). I can't seem to find any reference to its ...
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159 views

Why is crystalline aspirin washed with chilled water in the purification process?

Take as example this or even better this: Wash the crystals with 2-3 ml of chilled water. Why does the aspirin need to be cooled down? And why do we wash the aspirin with chilled water?