The purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a desired product.

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Phenol protection

Would an acceptable way to protect a phenolic alcohol be through a Williamson ether synthesis? As in: 1) Deprotonating phenol with sodium hydroxide. 2) Addition of methyl iodide. 3) Deprotection ...
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57 views

Mechanism for hydroxyethylation on nucleobases (e.g. Thymine)

I'm trying to figure out the following reaction mechanism There's a reference paper by Yanagi and Akiyoshi(1959) showing the hydroxyethylation of imides resulting in the following I have two ...
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86 views

Is it possible to create a 100% identical copy of a chemical?

For example a 100% identical copy of vitamin A, same shape, same formula, same structure.
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46 views

Synthesis of benzophenone

Would his be a valid synthesis? I'm just unsure about the oxidative clevage step. I know that there is a Benzylic hydrogen. So should oxidative clevage work here? What happens to the fragment that is ...
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27 views

Synthesis of synthetic detergent with Friedel Crafts Acylation

I propose the following synthesis. 1) Oxidation of aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. This sets me up for FC acylation once I ... 2) Attack the -OH with thionyl chloride ad form the acid chloride. 3) ...
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42 views

Simple experiments involving enantiomer synthesis

I want to do an experiment to investigate factors affecting the synthesis of chiral molecules. The only problem is, my institution doesn't have much money, and it seems like the chemicals required for ...
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70 views

Synthesis of 1-hexene from 1-octyne

This is my synthetic pathway. For one, is it plausible? For another, is it efficient? 1) Reduction of 1-octyne with hydrogen gas and Lindlar's catalyst to 1-octene. 2) Oxymercuration to install a ...
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239 views

Carbon decrease from 1-octyne to 1-hexene

I am to turn 1-octyne to 1-hexene. Method 1 1) Reduction using sodium metal in pure ammonia to an alkene. 2) Halohydrin formation; the -OH installs at the more substituted carbon due to its ...
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489 views

Pedagogical exercise - How to synthesize methamphetamine

I am asked to synthesize "methamphetamine." Note that there is no configuration designated for this molecule, and methamphetamine refers to a very specific configuration. In any case, here are the ...
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167 views

Bromination Pathways with alkane, alkene, and alkyne substrates

I'm confused about halogenation pathways. From what I understand, there are multiple halogenation pathways. I'll try summarizing them below; let me know if I do anything incorrectly. Halogenation ...
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85 views

Reaction Pathways - Substitution and elimination [closed]

This one was a bit involved. The alkyl halide turning into an alcohol with retention of stereochemistry suggested that an SN1 mechanism was at work. The addition of NaOH and the inversion of ...
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40 views

Ethene to ethanol: electrophillic additions involving ethyl sulfates

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/eladd/symh2so4.html I was reading my textbook and this website. I just cannot find the mechanism for what happens when we go from CH3CH2OSO3H to ethanol by the ...
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22 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanisms of these synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the following synthesis ? 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 --> 2NH3 + 2H2O + CaCl2 (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH --> 2NH3 + 2H2O + NaSO4
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37 views

Synthetical formation of diamonds

As everyone knows a diamond won't last forever. It will eventually turn into a graphite over a long period of time, as the free energy of graphite is lower than that of diamond, hence making the ...
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82 views

How to add the two hydroxy groups to my raw material with as high as possible yield?

From the raw material (above), how to add the two hydroxy groups in red(below)? Is there any proven successful synthesis route with higher yield (40% or above)?
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123 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of these two synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the two synthesis given below ? $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{H2/Pd}][\ce{EtOH}] Ar-NH2}$ $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{Sn + HCl} \text{ or } \ce{Fe + HCl}] Ar-NH2}$
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66 views

How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
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97 views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made and sold as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse engineered ?
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51 views

Reactivity of thiosemicarbazide

How to form Schiff's Base at both the ends of the thiosemicarbazide? $\ce{NH2}$ of hydrazine part reacts easily to form Schiff's base i.e. imine. But $\ce{NH2}$ attached to $\ce{C=S}$ does not. How ...
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469 views

Can I oxidize toluene to benzoic acid using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?

I want to know that, Can I convert Toluene in to Benzoic acid, using Pyridinium Chlorochromate(PCC)?
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74 views

How is Melatonin Synthesised?

I should like to know roughly how the hormone melotonin is synthetically made for the pharmaceutical industry (i.e. not how it is made in living beings). I can't seem to find any reference to its ...
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120 views

Why is crystalline aspirin washed with chilled water in the purification process?

Take as example this or even better this: Wash the crystals with 2-3 ml of chilled water. Why does the aspirin need to be cooled down? And why do we wash the aspirin with chilled water?
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42 views

What are the possible side reactions when preparing iron(III) naphthenate?

I am trying to prepare some iron(III) naphthenate. And the raw materials are : ferric(III) chloride, and naphthenate acid, NaOH, toluene, deionized water Everything worked well in lab scale: final ...
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62 views

Is it possible to synthesis adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine at home?

I'm wondering if there is any way to create adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine from chemicals available to anyone, using basic lab equipment.
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133 views

Problem with synthesis - converting organic carbonate to formate ester

I'm currently working on a chemistry project in which I need to convert the first organic compound to the second organic compound.(see image) I only have a simple background in organic chemistry (and ...
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101 views

Preparation of phenylamine/aniline

This is the procedure I carried out in class: Reduction of nitrobenzene by using tin and $HCl$ acid After the completion of the reaction, $NaOH$ added to neutralize excess acid and dissolve any ...
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80 views

Product of Reaction?

What would be 'A' in the reaction (see image)? Any help would be deeply appreciated. I know that Alc KOH does elimination but I was confused whether it would eliminate one bromine each from two ...
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75 views

Reaction at Alpha Carbon?

I'm having trouble with the products of these reactions below... I feel like I'm on the right track but don't know why it comes up wrong Figured out the aldehyde - but not the ester one!
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62 views

Is photosynthesis endothermic and exothermic at the same time? … somehow?

Photosynthesis is obviously an endothermic reaction, I mean, what would be the point otherwise, right? This is probably just sheer and utter stupidity on my behalf, but why does Wikipedia say the heat ...
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110 views

Would this recipe on stink bomb work?

I found this recipe on how to make a stink bomb: The recipe basically says to mix ammonia and match heads to create ammonium sulfide. However, I am skeptical, because It seems that match heads have ...
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416 views

Conversion of an amide to an imine

We haven't learned this in class yet, but after looking online, and through my textbook, I can't seem to find a definite answer. I am hopelessly and utterly lost.
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86 views

Cleavage of an amide under acidic conditions

I think I'm doing it correctly but perhaps I'm missing something? Do they both need to be protonated
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52 views

Single Displacement Reactions: A + AX =?

This seems like a stupid question, but how would I find the product of a single displacement reaction like the following? $$\ce{Pb + Pb(NO3)2 -> \ ?}$$ Normally, a single displacement reaction ...
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200 views

Make tin nitrate?

How can tin nitrate be synthesized? Mixing nitric acid and tin makes tin oxide (I did this in chemistry class) so how can tin nitrate be created?
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45 views

What aspects of a molecule's chemical makeup determine which portions of it will react?

Is there a specific way to know how two or more arbitrary molecules will react? An example that prompted this question: $\ce{(HOC6H4)2CMe2 + 2 NaOH → (NaOC6H4)2CMe2 + 2 H2O}$ (from here). How can ...
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338 views

How do I convert Benzoic Acid to m-nitro Benzyl alcohol using 2 steps?

The question asks to carry out the following conversion in not more than 2 steps: Benzoic acid to m-nitro benzyl alcohol I first used nitration (conc. $\ce{HNO3}$ /conc.$\ce{H2SO4}$) and then I'm ...
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146 views

How to make Sodium dichromate

I've been trying to make Sodium dichromate $\ce{Na2Cr2O7}$ by following these steps: Dissolve an inox spoon in $\ce{H2SO4}$ Filter the solution Dissolve the obtained sludge in $\ce{NaClO}$ Heat the ...
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66 views

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

I am having trouble understanding how this reaction works or how an electrophile is formed. I feel like the product should be something like $$\ce{C11H12O4}$$
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94 views

How do I create a concentrated solution of singlet oxygen (in the dark)?

Without appealing to reactions that require photons / light, how do chemists achieve a very high concentration of continually produced, though quite short lived, singlet oxygen in aqueous solution ...
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50 views

Do these compounds Na$_x$IrO$_2$ and NaOsO$_2$ exist?

Based on some physics background, I want to know whether have we synthesized these two materials: $\ce{Na_{x}IrO2}$ and $\ce{NaOsO2}$ in the lab, if so, what properties do they have? I will be very ...
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137 views

The weedkiller paraquat can be produced from methyl-pyridinium chloride using a cyanide catalyst: what is the mechanism?

Paraquat is 4,4'dipyridinium chloride. There are two common ways to synthesise it starting with pyridine. In one reaction that can be done on a large scale in water or liquid ammonia, ...
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325 views

Mercury assisted deprotection of dithiane

1,3 dithianes are used in umpolung reactions and can be deprotected by mercury containing compounds - but could anyone help explain what the exact mechanism is? Many texts seem to skim over this by ...
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241 views

Can I synthesize iron acetate like this?

The oxidation state of the iron doesn't matter too much; I am just trying to make an attractive red-brown ink. Here are some instructions I prescribed to a friend. Here's an approximately decent ...
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53 views

Are there any significant industrial processes that use liquid ammonia as a solvent?

There are some interesting laboratory reactions that use liquid ammonia as a solvent (for example, the Birch Reduction where an alkali metal is dissolved in liquid ammonia). There have also been some ...
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286 views

Alcohol Reaction Product prediction? [closed]

Please help me predict the products of this reactions.
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152 views

Free automatic organic synthesis Linux command line program

I'm trying to find a free automatic organic synthesis Linux command line program which take mol or smile files as input. I have random molecules and I'd like to know how difficult above a baseline ...
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167 views

Why was anhydrous magnesium carbonate “upsalite” discovered so late?

What complicated the synthesis of upsalite (anhydrous MgCO3), for it to be synthesized and published in 2013 as opposed to the 20th century, as one would expect for such a simple salt?
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190 views

How did the first amino acids appear on earth?

Is there a prove or a theory that the first amino acid synthesis was influenced by a change in heat, gravitation, radiation or something like that?
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76 views

preparation methods of nicotinoyl glycine

How can we prepare nicotinoyl glycine from nicotinic acid ?Is that possible by reaction between nicotinic acid and glycine?
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963 views

Potassium chlorate from potassium chloride and hydrogen peroxide

Why can't you make potassium chlorate using the chloride anion from the potassium chloride and having oxygen bond with it from hydrogen peroxide? Thank you very much!