The purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a desired product.

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Propose a chemical formula for the white solid that forms during the initial stages of the reaction of Sn with benzyl chloride

In my inorganic class, we carried out the synthesis of Chlorotribenzyltin, $\ce{SnCl(CH2C6H5)3}$. The synthesis begins with a reflux I'll describe below: In a hood, place 2.0 g (17 mmol) of 325 ...
6
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1answer
49 views

How to reduce an acyl group on a benzene without disturbing nitro group

In nucleophilic aromatic substitutions, I was wondering how to reduce the acyl group down to get a chain of hydrocarbons, but still keep the nitro group intact without its reduction to an amino group. ...
4
votes
1answer
188 views

Is it possible to oxidize ether to ester?

Is it possible to synthesize ester from an ether directly (only one step)? For example if I had an ether $\ce{(R-CH2-OR')}$ and oxidize it so it will be an ester $\ce{(R-CO-OR')}$.
4
votes
1answer
108 views

Nitration of pyrrole

Would 2,5-dinitropyrrole be a product of nitration of pyrrole with $\ce{H2SO4/HNO3}$ ? It seems from this paper that it is not formed using acetic anhydride/nitric acid - is this just because of the ...
4
votes
2answers
116 views

Origin of alkenes from Wurtz Reaction

According to Wikipedia: Also, since the reaction involves free radical species, a side reaction occurs to produce an alkene. This side-reaction becomes more significant when the alkyl halides are ...
5
votes
1answer
55 views

Clemmensen reduction of 1,3 diketones

As part of a synthesis I was considering the following reaction: How selective is the Clemmensen reduction? I know that the Clemmensen reduction favours ketones adjacent to benzene rings but will ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Mechanism of enolether formation with ethyl orthoformate in estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (Djerassi's norethisterone synthesis)

The second step of Djerassi's synthesis of 19-nor-17α-ethynyltestosterone (norethindrone), involves the protection of the ketone in position 3 via enolether formation, as in the picture: What is ...
0
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1answer
30 views

Why might the O—H stretch in the IR of MY triphenylmethanol product be less intense than expected?

Why might the O—H stretch in the IR of MY triphenylmethanol product be less intense than expected when compared to the expected IR for triphenylmethanol? I'm interpreting the IR I took of my product, ...
6
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1answer
93 views

Synthesis of ethyl methyl ketone from 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl methyl ketone

Is it possible to reduce raspberry ketone (4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one) to ethyl methyl ketone? How would I do this in practice?
6
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2answers
70 views

Why can you not make a compound with a quaternary alpha carbon using malonic ester?

So my textbook tells me that using malonic ester to make a quaternary alpha carbon is impossible (I get that this might be hyperbole). However, it doesn't explain why and I don't understand why. My ...
3
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0answers
19 views

Will the Sulfur-Iodine cycle and Haber Method work at lower pressures and temperatures?

I have a yearlong research project next year in my senior year of high school in which we have to make some product or prototype to solve some issue. My interest was in the Liquid Fluoride Thorium ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Interaction between metalic nanoparticles and aggregation

I can't find any publication to deal with aggregation of colloidal metalic nanoparticles. What type of interaction(s) is/are there between aqeous metalic nanoparticles which give(s) rise to ...
3
votes
2answers
238 views

Conversion of Methane to Propane

Is it possible to chemically convert Methane into Propane? If so what is involved and is it economical? Thanks.
1
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0answers
30 views

How to synthesize Boron tri-fluoride using Boron Oxide

I am finding different equations for the synthesis. My lecture handout suggests a reaction with Sodium tetrafluroborate and Sulfuric acid. This is fine but I have to remember this for an exam and that ...
7
votes
2answers
159 views

Non-halogen intermediate between alkane and alcohol under basic conditions?

Using organic chemistry I have failed to find a method that doesn't involve halogens (gasseous especially). Please ignore the enzyme mono-oxygenase, which adds $\ce{O2}$ directly to alkanes to form ...
3
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0answers
86 views

Fluorescein synthesis

What is the mechanism of the fluorescein synthesis performed by von Baeyer?
0
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1answer
60 views

Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane from benzoic acid

I think that it is a Diels Alder reaction, but I don't recognize the start materials! First I make the tertiary alcohol from carboxylic acid with organo-lithium reagent; after I try to make a Diels ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Why, during aspirin synthesis in acidic conditions, anydride carbonyl oxygen is protonated rather than salicylic acid carbonyl oxygen ?

The common route for aspirin synthesis (described here) employs acetic anhydride and salicylic acid, in acidic conditions. The first step of such a reaction mechanism is the protonation of the ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

Attack of amine on amide

I am confused with the last step of clozapine synthesis: How can the amine group attack the amide group to form the amidine in such acidic environment? Is the intermolecular reaction between an ...
1
vote
2answers
289 views

Oxidation of acetophenone to benzoic acid

According to the solutions manual, the oxidation of acetophenone to benzoic acid can be achieved through addition of chromic acid and application of heat. The solutions manual refers me to a section ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Permanent Balloon?

Is it possible to create a container for helium that it can't permeate through, like a permanent balloon? Or, if not, what kind of material would have the lowest permeability for that application? I ...
4
votes
1answer
173 views

Diels-Alder rate of reaction

Why is cyclopentadiene more reactive than 9-anthracenemethanol when acting as a diene? Both molecules are locked in an s-cis conformation, which is favourable. I'm thinking that it's due to the ...
7
votes
1answer
54 views

How do I synthesize 3-phenyl oxirane-2-carbaldehyde from chloroacetonitrile?

I start with the hydrolysis of the nitrile in carboxylic acid and esterification of this. After I use the Darzens' reaction (using benzaldehyde), then I reduce the ester function with DIBALH in ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Intramolecular hydrazide condensation

Say I have the compound $\ce{CH3CONHNH2}$. Is it possible, that when I add an acid, an intramolecular condensation reaction occurs, forming the cyclic compound: Furthermore, in general, the ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Grignard formation and vicinal dihalides

So let's say I have a symmetric 1,2-dihalide (the halides are identical) and I wanted to make a Grignard and I only add 1 eq. of magnesium metal ... Will I get 1 eq. of asymmetric Grignards (i.e. ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Dialkylation reactions

In the synthesis of ethyl 2-benzyl-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, is the nucleophilic substituion of a benzyl (chloride) group an Sn1 reaction? The experiment is conducted in ethanol (protic) and is under ...
3
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1answer
103 views

Thionyl Chloride and enols, carboxylic acids, alcohols

Propanol + SOCl2 -> Expected alkyl halide product. Propanoic acid + SOCl2 -> Expected acid chloride product. Acetone enol + SOCl2 -> doesn't work in the expected manner. My prof says the SOCl2 ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

How do I synthesize 3-hydroxydihydrofuran-2-one from formaldehyde?

I want to synthesize 3-hydroxydihydrofuran-2-one from formaldehyde but I do not know of a method. I tried a Mannich reaction and lactonization after dehydration.
4
votes
1answer
102 views

What type of organic compounds are used in OLED technology?

I know that there are organic compounds that exhibit electroluminescence, and are those types of materials difficult to synthesize?
2
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1answer
99 views

P-phenylenediamine Production Process

How p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is produced? PPD is used as raw material for Kevlar (Para amid Fiber).
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Friedel-Crafts synthesis - How is HCl produced?

In the mechanism for the acetylation of bromobenzene, how is $\ce{HCl}$ gas produced? The reactants are acetic anhydride, bromobenzene, $\ce{AlCl3}$ and dichloromethane. Initially, ...
4
votes
1answer
118 views

Acetylation reaction

In the Friedel - Crafts acetylation of bromobenzene, how is it possible to obtain a black-coloured product? When the acetic anhydride was slowly added to the reactants - $\ce{AlCl3}$, DCM, ...
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1answer
231 views

Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol from Grignard Reagent

The question is this: 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol can be synthesized by three different combinations of a grignard reagent and a ketone. Show each combination. I can only think of one. Butanone with ...
3
votes
1answer
242 views

Synthesis of 4-iodonitrobenzene

I was trying to synthesize 4-iodonitrobenzene in the lab today - however, the appearance of my product really confused me. At first, I added conc. sulphuric acid to water and 4-nitroaniline. This ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Why don't we use an alkyl halide directly in Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis?

In Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis, why do we use $\ce{KOH}$ in first step rather than directly adding an alkyl halide?
3
votes
1answer
47 views

How is the process of creating PVC fabrics harmful for the environment?

I often hear that the production process for PVC fabrics (such as those used in Gucci and Versace handbags) is very harmful to the environment. What part of the process is harmful and can this be ...
0
votes
0answers
88 views

What compound can give off heat when it comes in contact with ice?

What compound is able to produce heat when it comes in contact with ice? The compound has to be able to produce heat multiple times. I was thinking of a compound that is similar to Calcium Chloride. ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Electrolysis used to cause a Chemical Reaction?

Electrolysis is used to separate compounds like Water into Hydrogen and Oxygen. Can it be used to induce a synthesis reaction rather than splitting reactants apart? For example, could you use ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

Product of pyridine with acetic anhydride and acetic acid.

I have a reaction for acetylation of lignin with pyridine and acetic anhydride. I need to know, what's the product of reaction between pyridine and acetic anhydride and acetic acid.
0
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1answer
40 views

Lewis Acid Catalysts [closed]

I am studying for the International Chemistry Olympiad and some of questions involve synthesis of complicated organic compounds and i have no idea how to do them. The setting of the questions is ...
21
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2answers
3k views

Why are there no cheap diamond equivalents?

We recently learned in school that diamonds sparkle as the are very optically dense, meaning that it takes longer for light to pass through them, thus meaning that the light totally internally ...
4
votes
2answers
148 views

Organic synthesis problems

I am an A-level student going into university and I am looking for a source of organic synthesis problems and answers that is freely available on the internet. The difficulty level I am looking for is ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

What's wrong with tin?

I just read this In the Pipeline post and I was slightly confused by a statement on the use of tin. Lowe reports on this paper, which describes a synthetic route to spiro heterocycles using tin ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

What is a sacrificial agent?

I came across this reading a journal article. Here I have the context: Here we report for the first time the synthesis of $\ce{TiO2}$ NPs on a layered $\ce{MoS2}$/graphene (MG) hybrid for use in ...
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vote
2answers
391 views

Cyclohexane to cyclopentane synthesis

Does this route work? 1) Free-radical halogenation. 2) Elimination with strong base to form cyclohexene. 3) Ozonolysis to make di-aldehyde. 4) Oxidation to make di-carboxylic acid. 5) ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

Could you suggest me a good coupling method for amide synthesis between tetrahydroisoquinoline and a carboxylic acid?

I want to synthesize an amide using tetrahydroisoquinoline and an unsaturated carboxylic acid which is light sensitive. I tried using DCC as coupling agent and DCM as the solvent at room temperature , ...
3
votes
0answers
187 views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Creation of ester from acetylene derivative

I took a much different approach from the solutions manual. My synthesis: 1) H2 and Lindlar's catalyst to stop at the alkene. 2) Oxidative cleavage to form benzoic acid. Works here because we ...
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1answer
22 views

Equivalencies and catalytic hydrogenation

Can we actually control catalytic hydrogenation by introducing specific molar quantities of hydrogen gas? My prof insists on no. No we cannot use a certain equivalency of hydrogen gas to stop at a ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Resonance and reductions with sodium borohydride

I know that sodium borohydride doesn't work particularly well on resonance-stabilized carbonyl groups (i.e. esters) but what about this carbonyl in the center of the above picture? This appears to ...