Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses. Should not be applied to simple reactions such as the formation of hydrogen by acidic oxidation of metals.

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2
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2answers
41 views

Suggestion for a Synthesis of Paracetamol — plausible?

I have seen a number of different plausible syntheses for paracetamol but they suffer from problems such poor regioselectivity of aromatic substitution (usually when nitrating phenol getting a mixture ...
4
votes
1answer
23 views

Is (high) pressure required to form (quartz) crystals?

I've been reading a lot of sources about the hydrothermal synthesis of quartz using autoclaves. I want to try doing this myself, but before I can I need to know the minimum pressure required. If you ...
0
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0answers
15 views

suppose to make [Cu(im)6]Cl2 ∙ 4H2O got Cu2Cl (OH)3?

I made was suppose to make [Cu(im)6]Cl2 ∙ 2H2O and [Cu(im)6]Cl2 ∙ 4H2O complexes, but instead the product I got was Cu2Cl (OH)3. How can that be ?? to make the [Cu(im)6]Cl2 ∙ 2H2O I dissolved ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Condensation of Ethylene Glycol

I'm looking to reflux a 250 mL of ethylene glycol solution. Would an Allihn condenser be suitable; if so what length?
0
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2answers
52 views

Formation of Lactone from 5-amino-decanoic acid?

As expressed in the title, I am trying to figure out how to form a lactone from 5-amino-decanoic acid. The thing that comes to my mind as a start is the attachment of the amino group ($\ce{NH2}$) to ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Mechanism of acetylene formation from iodoform and silver

My book mentions a synthetic route for turning iodoform into propyne. That conversion was somewhat as follows: The first step is the conversion of iodoform into acetylene with silver. I am usure ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Why is the production of aspirin considered a synthesis?

In chemistry, a synthesis reaction is a reaction in which multiple reactants combine to make one main product. However, when aspirin is produced, this is also considered a synthesis reaction even ...
8
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0answers
69 views

Why are protic acids not used for the formation of thioacetals?

The standard procedure for protecting a carbonyl group as an acetal uses dry acid, such as $\ce{TsOH}$, but when forming a thioacetal, the Lewis acid $\ce{BF3}$ seems to be the catalyst of choice. For ...
3
votes
1answer
114 views

Failed esterification of 1-butanol and ethanoic acid

I did an esterification experiment of 1-butanol and ethanoic acid. 30 mL of 1-butanol was added followed by 30 mL of ethanoic acid, and then 1.5 mL of concentrated sulphuric acid and some boiling ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

The distinction between graphene supercapacitors and reduced graphite oxide supercapacitors

Looking at this study, Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films, a consumer laser cutter is used to synthesize reduced graphite oxide supercapacitors from ...
0
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0answers
7 views

Source for perovskite SCY material for PCC experiment

I've read several papers on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis and all of them seem to use a "Proton Conducting Ceramic". I'm researching more on the material but I cannot find how it's actually made or ...
4
votes
2answers
111 views

Chemoselectivity in synthesis of paracetamol

In the reaction below, why does acetic anhydride not react with the -OH group to form an ester instead?
5
votes
1answer
145 views

How to dialkylate a cyclohexene, and convert a carbonyl to an alkene?

I'm trying to design a synthesis of D from C. All I can think of is using $\ce{Me2CuLi}$ to add the methyl group to the alkene. I thought maybe then if isobutyl bromide was in the reaction mixture ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Acetaldoxime Synthesis: Hydroxylamine vs Hydroxylamine HCl

Wikipedia says acetaldoxime can be prepared by reacting Acetaldehyde & Hydroxylamine in the presence of NaOH. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetaldoxime But the reaction shown uses Hydroxylamine ...
2
votes
2answers
145 views

3-step process to make propyl ethanoate from propene

I was asked to make propyl ethanoate from propene in three steps. I have access to the reactions below. Nucleophilic substitution (Both SN1 and SN2) Electrophilic addition Hydrogenation Dehydration ...
0
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0answers
30 views

How can I create crotonaldehyde using only mineral reactants?

I tried using alkylation to get the correct chain lenght, but I can't find a way to create the double bond. I'm a total novice at chemistry, so please forgive my ignorance.
5
votes
2answers
79 views

Hock rearrangement of hydroperoxides

Which hydroperoxides undergo a Hock rearrangement? e.g. Cumene hydroperoxide undergoes a Hock rearrangement to yield acetone and phenol Would the following hydroperoxide of ethylbenzene also ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Is this mechanism for the formation of a tosylate correct?

I've been given this mechanism by my lecturer for the formation of a tosylate. It claims that NEt3 is needed to remove the hydrogen from the O+ in the second step. However surely the Cl- from TsCl ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Conversion of 4-nitrotoluene to 2-bromobenzoic acid [closed]

In the above conversion why doesn't bromine add to methyl group? Is the first reaction following free radical or polar reaction (Friedel-Crafts). If it's following free radical mechanism then Br ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

What is the mechanism of synthesizing hydroxybenzotriazole? [duplicate]

I have big problem with this reaction. Is this nucleophilic substitution? Cl is removed by hydrazine? It's my only idea, I don't know if this mechanism below is correct for this example:
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Do Grignard reagents deprotonate amines?

Can I add Mg/dry ether to 2,4,6-tribromoaniline followed by $\ce{D2O}$ in order to replace the bromines with deuterium? The reaction I'm proposing is part of a synthetic route as shown below.
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Suzuki Coupling of 2,4-dichloropyrimidine with boronic acid

Why does the Suzuki coupling reaction occur at 4-Cl, but not 2-Cl position??
0
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0answers
25 views

Acetic acid synthesis

I made some acetic acid by bubbling ethenone through water, but my weight calculations don't make any sense, so I think there were some side products along with the acetic acid. What are they, and ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Synthetic options for selective hydroxylation at terminal position

Are there any synthetic options to add a hydroxyl group at the terminal position to the bicyclo compound below? What might be reactions worth trying, any idea? Or is this a lost cause?
2
votes
1answer
21 views

Is this amide compound electrophilic enough to be attacked by a cyclopentadiene in base?

I am trying to make a fulvene molecule with dimethylamino and phenyl substituents. My worry is that the amide group donates electron density into the carbonyl carbon making it less electrophilic.
0
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0answers
16 views

How to deodorize pyrrolidone derivatives such as n-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP)?

After catalytic preparation of NVP through dehydration reaction, the product smells a bad odor. This is also occur for NMP production and the odor is like a dead fish odor! how to deodorize these ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Benzyl (3,4-difluorophenyl)carbamate reaction with epoxide in basic conditions

I attempted this mechanism, however I am uncertain if I am correct. Any guidance for this problem would be appreciated!
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Synthesis of indigo from anthranilic acid - reaction not taking place

I was trying to synthesise indigo via the Heumann indigo synthesis (II.), which involves heating antrhanilic acid and chloroacetic acid, both dissolved in isopropanol. After heating up, a hydroxide or ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

Synthesis of 3-Methylenecyclopentene from 1-methylCyclobutene [closed]

How do I make 3-Methylenecyclopentene from 1-methylcyclobutene? I thought to do ring opening reaction to add 1 carbon atoms but this won't add double bond in product. How to start please?
2
votes
0answers
45 views

Synthesis from cyclic ketone to alcohol

How can I make the product in the picture below from cyclohexanone? I did Stork enamine synthesis, but it results in terminal primary alcohol. I need secondary alcohol with one more carbon atom at end....
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Making benzoyl chloride - yellow liquid and a precipitate?

I am attempting to produce benzoyl chloride from benzoic acid (I need to convert an isotopically labeled version, so I can't just buy the acyl chloride). I am reacting benzoic acid with excess oxalyl ...
8
votes
1answer
71 views

How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
0
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0answers
51 views

Website/software guide in synthesis of organic molecules

Does any one knows any good website/software that helps in synthesizes of low molecular wight ligands. (I mean helps you in synthesis pathway design , optimization of pathways or even just give you ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Perovskite reaction equation (KMnF3)

For the synthesis of $\ce{KMnF3}$ I said the reaction equation was $\ce{3KF + MnCl2 -> KMnF3 + 2KCl}$ Is it this simple or are am I missing something with these particular types of reactions?
5
votes
3answers
139 views

Making o-Bromoaniline from Aniline

How can I make o-Bromoaniline from Aniline(as a major product) ? I know how to make p-Bromoaniline from aniline, by acetylation followed by treatment with $\ce{Br2}$\ $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and hydrolysis. ...
3
votes
1answer
138 views

Side Products of Dow's process

In Dow's process of manufacture of phenol, $\ce{PhCl}$ is fused with $\ce{NaOH}$ at high temperature and pressure. What are the possible side products? And what is the intermediate formed? I think ...
5
votes
2answers
57 views

Farnesyl Diphosphate: Chemical commercial synthesis

Are there any practiced commercial routes for the synthesis of "farnesyl diphosphate"? I'm especially interested in options that would scale to industrial scale processing. To add some context, ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Biosynthesis of Xanthoxylin

Anyone can find a source for or explain the biosynthetic pathway for Xanthoxylin? It's the last practice problem I have for an exam, and I just can't seem to find info on it. Thanks!
5
votes
2answers
151 views

Synthesising Complex Aromatic Compound

I have to synthesis the above compound using only toluene as the carbon source. I have never done something like this before and I have no clue on how to start. I am even more confused by the fact ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Simpler synthesis?

I have to obtain 1-nitro-2,4,5-triaminobenzene from 1,3-dichlorobenzene. I have thought of: Reaction with $\ce{Mg}$ Rc with $\ce{CO2}$, then $\ce{H2O}$. By this point I have izophthalic acid. $\ce{...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

Making 1,3,5-Tribromobenzene from Phenol

The problem was to make 1,3,5-Tribromobenzene from Phenol. I thought to do it the following way: React phenol with $\ce{Br2/H2O}$. Then add $\ce{Zn}$ dust to get the product. Now I am in doubt ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

Making N,N-Dimethylaniline from Aniline

Can I make N,N-Dimethylaniline from Aniline just by reacting it with $\ce{CH3X}$ ? According to me the lone pair of Nitrogen in Aniline is just not nucleophilic enough (since it is in conjugation ...
5
votes
1answer
65 views

is it possible to make ethanol from ethane through a chlorination / hydrolysis two-step procedure?

$\ce{C2H6}$ is chlorinated in presence of sunlight to form $\ce{C2H5Cl}$ and $\ce{HCl}$. $\ce{C2H5Cl}$ is then reacted with water to form $\ce{C2H5OH}$ + $\ce{HCl}$
1
vote
1answer
62 views

A question about preparation of chlorobenzene

The best method (as I have read) for preparation of chlorobenzene is by reacting it with $\ce{Cl2}$/$\ce{FeCl3}$. Why its not the best practice to react phenol with $\ce{PCl5}$ ?
3
votes
1answer
66 views

How do I convert 4-(Methylthio)benzaldehyde to 4-(thioacetate)benzaldehyde?

Sorry if I have the incorrect name of the final product. I'm trying to acylate the methyl mercaptan substituent to a thioester (thioacetate). I appreciate any help!
7
votes
1answer
75 views

Hiyama vs Sonogashira coupling

Why is Sonogashira's coupling more feasible than Hiyama's coupling when both could occur? I have seen many examples in syntheses, here is one (the penultimate reaction):
0
votes
0answers
75 views

Synthesis of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

I would like to know what the easiest way of synthesising PVDF is, or is it easier to buy the polymer online, and could PVDF be made transparent. Thanks
4
votes
2answers
116 views

Method to synthesize KAu(CN)2 (or KCN)?

Every reasonably effective method of electroplating $\ce{Au}$ onto another metal's surface (e.g. $\ce{Cu}$,$\ce{Ni}$,$\ce{Ag}$, etc.) involves use of $\ce{KAu(CN)2}$ or in some cases $\ce{KAu(CN)4}$ ...
4
votes
1answer
143 views

How to synthesise 2-aminoethyl benzene

Starting with benzene, describe the synthesis of 2-phenylethan-1-amine providing all the reagents and conditions. I am not really great at organic chemistry and my knowledge is pretty limited. I ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Argireline: Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 - Harmful cosmetics?

Background I came across a friend that told me about Jeunesse Global he has started working with. This company (multi level marketing) sells cosmetic products that seem to be not really in line with ...