Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a thermodynamic property in reference to a standard, stating that one state is lower in energy than another. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the stability (or instability) of a certain chemical species, ...

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Why is acidic hydrogen peroxide a potent oxidizer?

When hydrogen peroxide acts as an oxidizer it itself is reduced. Broadly this means that the peroxide bond is broken and that water is formed. However, why is there a tendency for hydrogen peroxide ...
5
votes
2answers
121 views

Question about stability of two structures of chlorine trifluoride

Why is the first structure on the left more stable than the second one on the right? In the first one the angle between the two pair of nonbonding electrons is about 120° which is a lot less than ...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

SN1 reactivity order

The question is to compare the SN1 reactivity for the following compounds. According to me it should be like R>S>Q>P. But the correct answer is Q>P>R>S. How can a lone pair donating into a vacant p ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Stability of beryllium carbonate

Beryllium carbonate is reported to be unstable under normal conditions and should only be kept in a atmosphere of $\ce{CO2}$. Why and how this stability is maintained? Why does this compound decompose ...
5
votes
1answer
207 views

Existence of Deuterium peroxide

Does deuterium peroxide exist? Wikipedia has no reference. Also, the sites for delivery of chemicals like "Pubchem" or "Chemspider" have no reference. In my book, a preparation of $\ce{D2O2}$ is ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

If both Nitric acid and Nitrate ion are stabilised through resonance, what makes Nitrate ion more stable in aqueous medium?

If both Nitric acid and Nitrate ion are stabilised through resonance, what makes Nitrate ion more stable in aqueous medium? Can the same argument be applied to Nitrous acid and Nitrite ion in aqueous ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Formation of nitride and azide by group 1 elements

What property of lithium makes them forms the nitride, lithium nitride $\ce{Li3N}$ whereas the other group 1 elements forms the azide, like sodium azide and potassium azide - $\ce{NaN3}$ and ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Explanation of steric hindrance and existence of PI5

I have come across a following line in my textbook- $\ce{PI5}$ does not exist due to steric hindrance. I searched for the explanation of steric hindrance in Wikipedia but couldn't understand it. Can ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Is NADPH sensitive and unstable in UV light?

According to the MSDS for NADPH Tetrasodium Salt, it says to store it in a place away from heat and light. Does this include UV light or just visible light? I was told that a pure NADPH stock solution ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

Is there an A value for the carbaldehyde and vinyl groups?

A methylene ($\ce{=CH_2}$) group ist sterically less hindered than a methyl ($\ce{CH_3}$) group. I'm wondering if the carbonyl ($\ce{C=O}$) group is sterically more or less larger than a methylene ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Stability of a carbocation, in part of camphor synthesis

Can someone explain to me why there is a rearrangement reaction of carbocation 1 to carbocation 2? To me the second carbocation appears to be less stable than the first because it is less substituted. ...
5
votes
2answers
246 views

Stability of Resonance Structures

So I was "happily" doing organic chemistry homework when I came across this question: I decided to take a look through my textbook to see what I was missing. The rules to compare resonance ...
6
votes
1answer
77 views

Ring expansion in cyclic compounds

ATTEMPT: In the first case, $\ce{H+}$ adds to the $\ce{OH}$ group, giving us a carbocation. The carbocation thus formed is exceptionally stable due to back bonding. I wonder why would it go under ...
10
votes
2answers
205 views

Exocyclic vs. endocyclic double bonds in E1 elimination

What will be the major product of this elimination reaction? The exocyclic product has more substituent groups on the alkene which should make it more stable but I have heard that exocyclic alkenes ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Stability of half and fully filled orbitals [duplicate]

1) My textbook tells me that chromium's electronic configuration is $\ce{[Ar]}\space 3d^5 4s^1$ instead of $\ce{[Ar]} \space 3d^4 4s^2$, as fully filled and half filled orbitals have more stability. ...
5
votes
1answer
147 views

Why is picric acid more explosive than TNT?

I've recently read that trinitrophenol (picric acid - relative effectiveness factor $1.20$) is more explosive than trinitrotoluene (TNT - relative effectiveness factor $1.00$). Personally, I think ...
5
votes
1answer
43 views

Energy of Eclipsed Interactions

I am asked to identify the highest and lowest energy conformations for the following bond-line structure (I think it is 2,2-dimethylbutane). I drew a Newman projection (for all 6 conformations) and ...
12
votes
2answers
502 views

For a given element do heavier isotopes form stronger bonds than lighter isotopes?

I know that $\ce{C-D}$ and $\ce{C-T}$ bonds are stronger than $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, but is this generally true for isotopes of all elements? (By isotopes I mean stable ones with large half lives.)
14
votes
1answer
497 views

Cis Trans Stability of cycloalkenes

Why is the stability of (b) greater than that of (a)? Here are my thoughts: Since (a) contains a trans double bond instead of a cis double bond, it should experience less steric repulsion and hence ...
14
votes
1answer
173 views

What is the justification for Hückel's Rule?

I know that experimentally, the rule has been verified but I am having trouble understanding why it works. I see no reason why equivalent cyclic structures can undergo resonance and be just as stable. ...
7
votes
1answer
560 views

Really how rare are hydrogen atoms?

Hasok Chang, a chemist, but perhaps more a philosopher recently published the book Is Water H2O? . Chang used the question and an extensive web of arguments ultimately as a platform to support a ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

Length of C-H bonds in hybridized bonding orbitals

What is the effect of hybridization and double-bond formation on the rest of the atoms/molecules attached to the central atom? For example, in a benzene molecule, the Carbon-Carbon bonds are ...
8
votes
1answer
96 views

Formation of radicals from C-H and C-C bonds

Why do radical mechanisms favor the homolytic dissociation of a $\ce{C-H}$ bond over a $\ce{C-C}$ bond? The $\ce{C-H}$ bond is stronger in magnitude (and it's also slightly polarized), so why would ...
5
votes
1answer
94 views

Ring expansion from a given cyclic carbocation

How will the cyclobutane ring behave in the following case? I initially thought there would be ring expansion to a five membered ring so that there may be less angle strain and a secondary ...
3
votes
0answers
147 views

Benzylic and allylic carbocation stability order

Most books I have read stop at this order : Benzylic > Allylic > Tertiary > secondary > primary However If I want to compare tertiary, secondary and primary benzylic and Allylic carbocations what ...
0
votes
0answers
76 views

Basicity order of methoxy anilines [duplicate]

i have been having some problems with the following question, Arrange o-methoxy aniline,p-methoxy aniline,m-methoxy aniline and aniline in increasing order of their reactivities... the answer given ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Why are esters meta directors? Can't the carbonyl donate electrons into the ring?

I'm having trouble understanding why an ester is a meta directing/deactivating group. I'm not talking about an ester with its oxygen bound to the ring, like an acylated phenol. I mean the R group is ...
8
votes
1answer
250 views

Why would sulfuric acid turn gray/black?

About 2 years ago I purchased 2 liters of 98% concentrated sulfuric acid. It's in a standard poly bottle with leakproof lids, and originally was clear. Recently I noticed the acids have turned a dark ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Boiling point and melting point of dihalobenzene compounds [duplicate]

In Dichlorobenzene what explains the boiling and melting point of the 3 structures that can be formed? According to Google The melting point decreases in the order- Para>Ortho>Meta And Boiling ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Ortho para meta stability [closed]

When is the para form of a compound more stable than the ortho form? Similarly when is the meta form more stable? I know that for +I effect ortho para are major products and meta for - I effect. ...
2
votes
1answer
431 views

Why is Tin-112 stable, but indium-112 radioactive?

According to Wikipedia, Tin-112 is a stable nuclide, but indium-112 is radioactive (half-life only 14 mins). What is the explanation for this?
6
votes
1answer
95 views

Why is i-butane more stable than n-butane?

I would like to understand the term stability in organic chemistry. We know empirically that i-butane is more stable than n-butane. But why is it more stable? Is it because of formation enthalpies or ...
8
votes
1answer
108 views

Why are inert gas (especially Xenon) compounds powerful oxidizing agents?

I am curious as to why compounds with inert gases, such as $\ce{XeF4}$, $\ce{XeF2}$, and $\ce{XeO3}$ are considered powerful oxidizing agents. I would attribute the phenomenon to the highly oxidized ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Relative stability of keto- enol form of acetyl chloride

Why is the keto form of acetyl chloride more stable even though the enol form is stabilized by the hydrogen bonding?
1
vote
2answers
138 views

What is the explanation of the changes in stability going down a group for carbonates, bicarbonates, fluorides, and chlorides?

For carbonates and bicarbonates, I know that stability increases down the group, and for chlorides and fluorides, stability decreases down the group. Why does this happen? Can someone explain this in ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

Stabilisation of phenoxide ion

Which one of the following substituents at para-position is least effective in stabilizing the phenoxide ion $\ce{PhO-}$ (a)$\ce{-CH3}$ (b)$\ce{-OCH3}$ (c)$\ce{-COCH3}$ ...
2
votes
1answer
123 views

Why is RS- more basic than RO-?

The basic strength is determined by the ability of an ion or molecule to accept a proton. How do I know whether RSH is more stable than ROH? (R is an alkyl group)
-1
votes
1answer
89 views

What is more stable: a carbonate ion or a sulphate ion?

The sulphate ion has more number of resonance structures than the carbonate ion. Hence, it should be more stable than the carbonate ion. But my book says that the carbonate ion is stronger than the ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

Hyper conjugation in acetic acid?

While comparing the relative stabilities of acetic acid and formic acid why don't we consider the 3 possible hyper conjugative structures which would stabilize the positive charge on carbon thus ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Why Bari centre is considered as Zero energy level?

Why the degenerate energy level of d orbitals before forming complex is considered zero? what advantages are there for taking the mean of t2g and eg orbitals as zero?
6
votes
1answer
267 views

Why is 2-methylpropene less in energy than its alkene counterparts?

Other isomers include 1-butene, cis 2-butene, and trans 2-butene. Why would 2-methylpropene be less in energy if there is more steric hindrance?
4
votes
1answer
86 views

Is there an experiment that visibly shows the effects of metastability?

I am attempting to create an experiment to show the effects of metastability to a public audience and get people excited about science. More specifically, I am wondering if there is any sort of liquid ...
8
votes
1answer
213 views

Carbocation stability order

I was wondering whether the following order (from here) is correct: In the first inequality, why did 9 hyperconjugations dominated resonance effect of benzene ring? In the last inequality ...
4
votes
2answers
399 views

Which is more stable ? - A carbanion on benzene ring or a carbanion on a vinylic carbon on an aliphatic chain?

I came across a question which asks to work out the stability order for the following species. Can the lone pair on benzene carbanion participate in resonance? - If yes how and how is it more stable ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

Does resonance overrule hyper conjugation in terms of stability in alkenes?

Which of the following is more stable ? $\ce{CH2=C(CH3)-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{CH3-CH=CH-CH3}$ I was going for answer 2 because it has 6 hyper conjugative effects. I found the answer given to ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

Which is the least stable trihalide of nitrogen?

Which is the least stable trihalide of nitrogen and why? I have two conflicting theories, one is that fluorine-fluorine electron repulsion will make $\ce{NF3}$ least stable and another is steric ...
2
votes
2answers
89 views

Does the compound KFO₃ exist?

As the compound potassium chlorate exists, is there something as $\ce{KFO3}$? All the other halogenates are mentioned somewhere on the web but what about this? If no, then why?
6
votes
3answers
392 views

Why does SnCl2 occur despite the octet rule?

Shouldn't reaching an octet be any atom's "goal"? However, I've recently learned about cases that are either expanding octets, or have lesser than "enough" electrons for an octet abiding. e.g.: S in ...
9
votes
1answer
161 views

Stability of di-substituted alkenes

Well I know for a fact that cis alkenes are less stable than trans alkenes due to steric repulsions. But what bugs me is the fact that why systems such as 2-Methylprop-1-ene (where I believe steric ...
8
votes
1answer
422 views

Why are triamino compounds so rare?

I was doing a reaxys substructure search for the compound shown on the left below, with the 3 amines on 1 carbon. However, the closest I found were all trinitro compounds like on the right. I would ...