Reduction-oxidation reactions: all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed.

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Sodium metal reduction of chloroform

In discussing how best to deuterate chloroform, it occurred to me that we could use sodium metal to reduce hydrogen into hydrogen gas. If this could actually happen, this would be a great thing - we ...
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What are the other definitions of redox reactions besides the gain or donation of oxygen?

As my teacher told us, oxidation is the gaining of oxygen and reduction is the donation of oxygen. In my reference book there are other definitions of this reaction. So please give me some alternate ...
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Potassium Atom can act as reducing agent, yet ion cannot?

I am currently looking through a revision sheet, however it has caught me on a question 'Explain why a potassium atom can act as a reducing agent yet a potassium ion cannot'. I have done brief ...
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Equivalents of chromic acid in oxidations

How many equivalents of chromic acid are needed to oxidized a primary alcohol to a carboxylic acid? A secondary alcohol to a ketone? I understand that the chromium starts with a +6 oxidation state. ...
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pH Changes in primary cells

Primary Cells - pH changes during discharge Alkaline Cell: Manganese Dioxide Zinc Alkaline Cell Anode (-) $\ce {Zn(s) + 2OH^{−}(aq) → ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + ...
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Fuel Cell Chart - Anode, Cathode, Electrolyte

Can someone please check my table to make sure I have the correct information. I am especially unsure of the parts highlighted in yellow:
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Why are imines more susceptible to reduction than carbonyl compounds?

Why are imines more susceptible to reduction than carbonyl compounds? Imines react with $\ce{NaCNBH3}$ while the carbonyls don't.
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Determining redox half-reactions of single displacement reactions

For the following double displacement half reaction, the half reactions can be determined easily using the oxidation numbers. $$\ce{MnO_{4(aq)}^{-} + IO_{3(aq)}^- -> MnO_{2(s)} + IO_{4(aq)}^-}$$ We ...
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How to get sodium from sodium aluminate?

The sodium aluminate is formed when aluminium or aluminium hydroxide reacts with water solution of lye. After drying the water you'll end up with white crystals - sodium aluminate. I was wondering if ...
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Why are metal oxides generally more stable than their corresponding elemental forms?

Why is the oxidation of certain metals such as iron favorable from a thermodynamic standpoint? What is it about these metal oxides that makes them inherently more thermodynamically stable than their ...
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Nitrobenzene reduction with (tin) Sn catalyst: Why is C-H bond cleavage preferred over O-H bond cleavage?

I am trying to understand this mechanism for nitrobenzene reduction with $\ce{Sn/HCl}$. I do not understand why it implies that you pull off the $\ce{C-H}$ hydrogen instead of the $\ce{O-H}$ hydrogen ...
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What factor determines the strength of reducing agents and oxidizing agents

The best reducing agents are located at the bottom left of the periodic table(low electronegativity) and the best oxidizing agents are located at the top right of the periodic table(high ...
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HI/P reduction mechanism

I recently answered a question about Breaking Bad's initial methamphetamine production method (i.e. the reduction of (pseudo)ephedrine). The reaction is as follows: (Source: ...
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Writing Half-Reaction for Iron-Hydroxide Oxidation Reaction

Here is the unbalanced equation.$$Fe(OH)_{2(s)}+O_{2(g)}\rightarrow Fe(OH)_{3(s)}$$Therefore, one half reaction is $$Fe(OH)_{2(s)}+O_{2(g)}\rightarrow Fe(OH)_{(3s)}$$ and the other half reaction is ...
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Why is formic acid considered an acid if it is a reducing agent?

My understanding was that since the acceptance of Lavoisier's revised Easter Memoir of 1778, all acids were understood to be oxidising agents.* However, formic acid is often listed as a reducing ...
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Why is chloride oxidised instead of water in copper chloride electrolysis?

For the Electrolysis of Copper Chloride: Cathode: $\ce{Cu^{2+} + 2e- <=> Cu}$ Anode: $\ce{2Cl <=> Cl2 + 2e- }$ I am confused about the reaction taking place at the anode. Wouldn't ...
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Oxide Anions in Redox

Consider the following unbalanced redox equation: $\ce{NO_2^- +e^- -> NO3^-}$ This occurs in acidic media. My professor would note that an negative two oxidation state oxygen "disappears" from ...
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In a mixture of ammonia and hydrogen hypochlorite, how do I determine the oxidising and reducing agent?

$$\ce{NH_3 + HOCl <=> NH_2Cl + H_2O}$$ How do I figure out what the oxidizing agent is and reducing agent? I know that the oxidizing state of $N$ in $\ce{NH_3}$ is $-3$, but I'm not sure how to ...
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Why does blood get further oxidized than Iron oxide?

Oxygenated blood is bright red and deoxygenated blood is dark red or brown. If you take oxygenated blood and leave it in the air it will turn dark red, then brown, then finally a bluish green from ...
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Elemental Potassium as both an oxidizer and a reducer

On this table I realized that elemental potassium could adopt oxidation states of -1, 0, and +1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oxidation_states_of_the_elements Does this mean that elemental ...
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Average Oxidation State - Utility?

What is the purpose of calculating an average oxidation state for a certain element in a compound? Hence the “average oxidation state” of carbon in acetic acid is 0. And the oxidation state ...
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Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizer

Why is HOOH such a good oxidizer? I understand that the oxygens in HOOH are in a negative 1 oxidation state, and that oxygen generally adopts an oxidation state of negative 2. I also know that ...
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Corrosion of metals and observations in the agar medium?

I want to know which metals oxidize and which is reduced and changes in medium and observations? According to my knowledge more corrosion will take place in Zn and Fe also corrode. Then copper ...
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What makes sulfur-containing compounds such good antioxidants?

Many sulfur-containing compounds (like glutathione and cysteine groups) have high antioxidant activity. Why?
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Reaction mechanism of combustion of H2?

After a discussion about the usefulness of hydrogen fuel for cars with a friend of mine, I wondered what the reaction mechanism for combustion of $\ce{H}_2$ was. I only study (well almost) organic ...
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How do I find out if ions are oxidised/ reduced based on half cell potentials?

I have a question that I keep getting wrong and I need some help on it. Assuming standard conditions, answer the following questions. (yes/no) Is $\ce{Fe^{2+}(aq)}$ capable of reducing ...
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can sodium persulfate etch or damage a titanium heater?

I use Sodium Persulfate to etch copper on a PCB process. I have been using glass heater on the etching tank but the glass is too fragile; it breaks too easily. I read that titanium heater is used ...
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On spontaneity of a redox reaction

Suppose we have a redox reaction and we want to see in what direction the reaction is spontaneous. We do this by comparing the standard reduction potentials of the sub-reactions available in the main ...
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What do the half-reactions need to be for balancing a redox reaction in an acidic medium?

Question: Balance the following reaction: $\ce{CuS + SO4^{2-} -> CuO + SO2}$ My Efforts: Number mentioned in the brackets oxidation number of S I have found out that the oxidation ...
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Why is coating with an oxide considered oxidation

I looked up the word oxidize and one of the definitions is to make it an oxide which is what happens when iron gets rusty(even though there is also iron hydroxide in rust). Another was to coat with ...
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Finding the Oxidation number

I have got the homework to balance the following redox reaction. $\ce{Cr(OH)3- + HO2- -> Cr2O7^{-2} + OH- }$(Basic medium) To balance this reaction first thing we need to do is to find the ...
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Is there a database which give reaction constant?

For instance, I have a chemical reaction like : $$\ce{Fe^{2+} + $0.5$O2 + H^{+} ->Fe^{3+} + $0.5$ H2O}$$ And I would like to use Action-Mass law, but I need to have equilibrium constant for this ...
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Any possible additives to a drain cleaner I use as a source of NaOH?

It is in pellets. And the box says main ingredient $\ce{NaOH}$ at least $30\%$ (I hope it's more). The box also says "aluminium catalyst". My goal was to take these pellets and dissolve them in water ...
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Reduction and Oxidation - Alternate definitions

Why is reduction defined as the gain of hydrogen? Is it because hydrogen has a very low electronegativity and easily donates its electrons to other elements? From what I understand reduction is ...
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Redox properties of methyl radical

The methyl radical, $\ce{.CH3}$, is a strong oxidant and a strong reductant according to Wikipedia. Why is this so? Any additional reasons to the ones below? I know that an oxidant itself is ...
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How does a simple alkaline battery work?

The basic + - electrolyte set up. Modern batteries and the like. How exactly do they work?
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Why do acids favor the oxidizer? And bases the reducer?

Simply put, why does adding acid to the cathode up the cell voltage? From what I understand, acids are proton donors. Do these positive protons attract electrons toward the cathode compartment of the ...
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Rust forming and being washed off by the same substance

I have noticed that when exposed to water for a few days the water turned the steel in my wagon into rust. After several more weeks the rust that formed is dissolved and once I pour the water out ...
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What are the oxidation states in Borohydride (BH4-)

The CRC Elecrochemical Series and the solution to our exercise suggest that the oxidation states of borohydride are -V for Boron and +I for Hydrogen. Since H (2.2) is more electronegativ than B ...
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On Spontaneity of the Redox Reactions

According to this Mc Graw-Hill link during a spontaneous redox reaction Gibbs Free Enthalpy must decrease and at the same time the change in the Gibbs Free Enthalpy is the maximum electric work that ...
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Kinetic validity; redox reactions

What's the kinetic validity of the following way of balancing the above redox reaction? I've done some searching of the literature; I've never come across oxide anions being mentioned in redox ...
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Why is the water reduction of oxygen favored in acidic conditions?

The standard reduction potential of diatomic oxygen in acidic conditions is +1.23 volts. However, the standard reduction potential of diatomic oxygen in basic conditions is only +0.40 volts. Why ...
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Can I perform electroplating with sodium carbonate and copper?

I want to avoid anything poisonous during electroplating. I can't avoid copper oxide though. I have dissolved $\ce{Na2CO3}$ in water and I'm trying to electroplate aluminium with copper: As you ...
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Can I use sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to remove oxides from metals?

Sodium hydroxide dissolved in water is a very strong base. I think this could mean it could de-oxidate the metal oxides during re-ox reaction. Basically, I ask whether the following happens: ...
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Rusting of an Iron nail at oil water boundary surface

Recently at school, I did some experiments on corrosion. Everything mostly went as expected, but the result in one of the test was quite baffling. This test had an iron nail in water with some of ...
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Can Lead (Pb) oxidize Tin (Sn)?

According to my textbook, element $\ce{X}$ can oxidize element $\ce{Y}$ if $\ce{X}$ was lower in the activity series. Lead is lower than Tin in the activity series table in the textbook, but the ...
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Which electrodes do not corrode at all?

I had used spare pieces of metal to perform electrolysis. They all had the disadvantage that they corrode when used as anode - and some of the oxides are toxic (copper, chromium). I've found that ...
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Can redox reactions involve only non metals?

When non metal react they form molecule, and whether the bond is polar or not, the elements in the molecular compound will not have charges what so ever, because they are not ionic. But can non metals ...
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Why is standard reduction potential an intensive property?

My book says that Since the number of electrons lost must equal the number gained, the half-reactions must be multiplied by integers as necessary to achieve the balanced equation. However, the ...
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Sulphur oxoacid forming

I got this reaction and I can't figure out the end products $$\ce{SO2 + S + CaO + Na2SO4 -> Na2S2O3 + ~?}$$ Guessing some calcium sulphur salt should form, but which one?