The detailed and complete as possible description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions, which seek information on elementary steps of these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed ...

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What are the products of the reaction of 1-methoxycyclohexene with dilute hydrochloric acid?

I am struggling with the following question in my problem sheet: "When 1-methoxycyclohexene is treated with dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid, methanol is produced along with another organic product. ...
5
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3answers
68 views

Dehydration of methylcyclobutanol

In one of the exams I saw it was written that dehydration of 1-methyl-cyclobutanol yields cyclobutylmethylene (double bond outside the ring) which is the anti Zaitzev product, instead of ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Saytzev and Hofmann elimination in E1

From what I have read, E1 largely produces the more substituted alkene because of the fact that more substituted alkenes are more stable as a result of hyperconjugation. However, in E2 the situation ...
3
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1answer
66 views

Why must the leaving group in E1cb be poor?

Typically the leaving group for E1cb is poor (like -OH or -OR) but why must this be the case? The substrate appears in the rate equation so surely a good leaving group would be beneficial?
3
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3answers
110 views

Making three membered ring using different reactants

I am struggling with the above question. It will be the conjugate base of trichloromethane that is involved. The same is true of the carboxylate. However, I have no idea about the reaction ...
3
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1answer
29 views

What is an example of a very low temperature endothermic reaction?

Shakashiri describes the reaction of solid Ammonium Thiocyanate and solid Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate resulting in an endothermic reaction leading to subzero temperatures. I've performed this ...
2
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1answer
79 views

reference states for activities

I wanted to ask clarifications about a passage in Atkin's physical chemistry book, chapter 9, in the paragraph 9.2 description of equilibrium. For studying equilibrium of a reaction, where $\nu_i$ ...
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1answer
39 views

How does HF Dissolve glass

I searched throughout Web but could not find or precisely relate anything to my question .I mean by what mechanism does it(HF) proceed in dissolving or rather disintegrating glass is it because of ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Elimination in dibromocinnamic acid

The above is a picture of dibromocinnamic acid. In the lab today I carried out an elimination reaction on this molecule using potassium carbonate giving the carbonate anion as a base. I thought ...
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0answers
31 views

Concerning chemical symbols and their equations [closed]

Regarding chemical symbols and the equation one can use to represent chemical reactions. Has there ever been a type of algebra that can be used to generalize some basic chemical events where you can ...
3
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1answer
43 views

Why does one bicyclic diastereomer react faster than the other one?

I have a difficult question in my problem sheet that I cannot solve. I have been asked to explain the following observation: I have a number of issues with this: 1) The fast reaction must be a ...
2
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1answer
25 views

Why can syn-periplanar E2 elimination happen in molecules like vinyl bromides but seemingly not in other molecules?

E2 eliminations occur when the leaving group and the proton are in the anti-periplanar conformation not syn-periplanar. This is beyond a merely a preference as leads to E2 reactions being ...
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0answers
18 views

Required HLB on the Griffin Scale

What is the required HLB on the Griffin Scale of 94% water and 6% mineral oil for producing a stable micro-emulsion?
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1answer
35 views

The standard for drinking water is 1300 mg/l and the first area has a value of 837 ug

I am trying to figure out the hazard quotient of copper compared to the standard. The standard for drinking water is $1300 \frac{mg}{l}$ and the first area has a value of $837 \mu g$. How do I convert ...
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2answers
46 views

Organic chemistry - alkanes step up reaction

Well I was studying organic chemistry, and I came across this reaction for increasing the length of the carbon chain. Upon asking my teacher about the following reaction, she said she was unsure about ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Woodward Hoffmann rules for electrocyclic reactions

For the thermal electrocyclic cleavage of cyclobutene to 1,3-butadiene, what is the correct assignment of the orbital components ? My attempt: I know this reaction is allowed (4n thermal ...
4
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1answer
54 views

In the elementary steps of a reaction, why do we assume that the coefficients of a reactant corresponds to its order?

Recently, I was taught that the coefficients of the reactants in an elementary step of a reaction indicates that reactant's order. Why is this the case? I thought that the order of a reactant was not ...
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1answer
35 views

Comparing adamantane carbon types for accepting OH using MM ForceField

I want to compare two type of carbons accepting OH in adamantane which I've shown below. I know the blue position is preferred. But I wanna prove it with energy optimization and MM Forcefield. I ...
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0answers
25 views

Reducing NOx with Ammonia. Practical in a gasifier?

Sorry if this is an outright stupid question. I am no chemist... For Nitric Oxide: $2{NH_{3}} + 2 NO => 2 {N_{2}} + {H_{2}} + 2{H_{2}O}$ For Nitrogen Dioxide: $2{NH_{3}} + 2{NO_{2}} => ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the difference between “reaction pathway” and “reaction mechanism”?

What is the difference between "reaction pathway" and "reaction mechanism"? Are these expressions synonyms? Some textbooks authors use both without making clear to the learner if they are synonyms ...
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98 views

Mechanism of dehydrogenation with Nosylate

What is the mechanism of the attached reaction? How could nosylate do the dehydrogenation? The reaction is from this synthesis (46th IChO preparatory problem 26):
3
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1answer
37 views

What is the mechanism for the creation of P(CH2OH)4+ cation?

I know that the initial reactants are phosphine and menthanal in an acid ($\ce{H+ A-}$) and that the first step in the reaction is the HOMO of phosphine (the lone pairs) and the LUMO of methanal (the ...
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1answer
88 views

How to solve an Arrhenius equation problem?

A widely used rule-of-thumb for the temperature dependence of a reaction rate is that a ten degree rise in the temperature approximately doubles the rate. This is not generally true, especially when a ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Elimination of bromide and acetate under reducing conditions

Here is the reaction that I didn't find the mechanism of; maybe you can help: The conditions is zinc dist, when the solvent is acetic acid at 110°C 1h. the reagents are Sodium acetate, ...
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0answers
59 views

How are catalysts discovered for a particular reaction?

I want to understand how are catalysts discovered for a particular chemical reactions say for example $\ce{Fe,~Mo}$ for Haber's Process reaction of $\ce{N2}$ & $\ce{H2}$. Reactions as examples ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Mathematical Statistics and Chemistry

I'm currently working towards a major in both chemistry and mathematical statistics as a part of my science degree, and I got to wondering: How will these two go hand in hand and help each other? ...
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1answer
68 views

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Using Alkenes: Mechanism

What is the mechanism by which benzene, cyclohexene and $\ce{AlCl3}$ form cyclohexylbenzene? I believe that cyclohexene will form a bond with Al with its double bond. However, how do we get rid of ...
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1answer
21 views

In E1 reactions, does carbocation stability have impact on the final product?

In this question, I believe there is a mistake for iii). I think that there the tertiary carbocation would be formed (more stable), which would lead to the tetra substituted alkene (even more ...
2
votes
3answers
302 views

Is there a simple and inexpensive way to generate nitrogen gas?

It's fairly easy to generate a significant yield of hydrogen gas simply by reacting zinc metal with $\ce{HCl}$ or aluminum with $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. But is there a simple and inexpensive chemical ...
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2answers
301 views

Why is gold unreactive when only one electron in outer shell?

I've been trying to answer my (high school) daughter's questions about the periodic table, and the reactivity series, but we keep hitting gaps in my knowledge. So I showed that the noble gases have a ...
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0answers
10 views

In which beta-elimination reaction do the structures of the carbocations formed influence the reactivity?

I believe there is a mistake. If we go back to the mechanisms, E2 does not go through a carbocation. So, there should not be any impact. E1 does however. So, E1 should be circled. Is there a ...
0
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1answer
19 views

Strong Base combined with Sp2 carbons in Nucleophilic Substitution and Beta-Elimination Reactions

When we are given this problem, there is a certain problem. We have a strong base, but hydrogen on the carbon of the phenyl. E2 is impossible. Also, SN2 is not possible since we have a hindered ...
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1answer
24 views

Can HBr add to a non-sp2 hybridized carbon?

Does this reaction make sense? Mechanistically speaking, it does not for me. Is this a special case, or just a typo in the book?
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56 views

Please explain the mechanism of Cannizzaro's reaction

I did not completely understand the mechanism of Cannizzaro's reaction, especially the rate determining step i.e. the hydride transfer step, and the effect of electron withdrawing substituents on this ...
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3answers
83 views

SN2 attack and sp2 carbons

Why can't an enolate anion successfully displace a halogen from a benzene? I am told that the geometry is incorrect; that such SN2 substitutions take place on sp3 hybridized (i.e. tetrahedral) ...
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2answers
57 views

Why is the halogenation of an alcohol a multistep process?

Refer to the mechanism posted on this site, if you will: http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/Carey5th/Ch08/ch8-10-3.html When the alcohol attacks the sulfur center, the pi electrons in the oxygen ...
4
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1answer
63 views

Carbocation rearrangement in alkene addition reaction

This is a question from my textbook: Determine a step-wise $S_N1$ mechanism for the overall reaction: The solution shows the following carbocation rearrangement after Bromine leaves in the ...
6
votes
3answers
88 views

Does radioactivity affect chemical reactions

Do compounds of radioactive elements show a bit different behaviour, and what happens when the radioactive part of the given compound decays, e.g, Radium Chloride, what happens to it when radium ...
2
votes
2answers
138 views

Endo rule for the Diels Alder stereoselectivity

Do you agree with the stereocenter with the CF3/CN in the product? source I would have expected that CF3 is a better electron withdrawing group than CN, and therefore placed opposite the diene and ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Concerted mechanism of saponification

The energetics of the mechanism of saponification were previously under debate, but I will admit, I misrepresented a point. Here is the revised mechanism of saponification proposed by someone other ...
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1answer
90 views

Significance of Proton Tunneling

It has been repeatedly emphasized that proton transfers "involving" three or four membered ring transition states are not favorable and should not be drawn as the primary mechanism for any reaction. ...
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2answers
64 views

Hydrolysis under basic conditions

Which route actually occurs? Is it really true that the carboxylic acid never forms under basic conditions? Why not just form the -COOH and deprotonate it afterward?? Or is there a higher activation ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

What is the reaction mechanism of a 5-endo-trig cyclization?

I am trying to solve this mechanism for a disfavoured 5-endo-trig cyclisation to generate the disfavoured product (4) from starting material (1). The favoured 5-exo-trig is given by (2), which I have ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Using curved arrow notation to show electron movement in transformations

For each of the following transformations, use curved arrow notation (electronpushing) to show the movement of electrons. Show all formal charges. I'm not really sure how to approach the problem. I ...
0
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1answer
104 views

Why is nitration of veratrole specific in these positions?

Why do we not need $\ce{H2SO4}$ as acid catalyst for di-nitration of veratrole? Why does the 2nd nitro group go to positions 4 or 5, following the directing effects of the methoxy-group? Doesn't the ...
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1answer
39 views

Define “reactivity”

Does reactivity of a compound depend on kinetic factors, thermodynamic factors, or both? i.e. how is reactivity defined? For example, out of a) 2-bromopropane and b) 4-bromobutan-2-one, which is more ...
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2answers
105 views

Doubt in Cannizzaro reaction

My doubt is, how do we predict the products of a cross Cannizzaro disproportionation in presence of a concentrated base? Ie, How to judge which of the aldehydes (both don't have any alpha hydrogen) is ...
3
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1answer
32 views

Why do strong acids dissociate (almost) fully on a molecular level?

In the Brønsted-Lowry theory, strong acids $\ce{HA}$ dissociate using water and react into hydronium ions and the conjugate bases $\ce{A-}$. However I never understood in the strong acids case what ...
3
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1answer
65 views

Electrophilic aromatic substitution in heterocycles

I have a question from a past exam that i'm using to revise. I think the answer for part i/ii involves nucleophilic aromatic substitution with NH2- as the nucleophile. Part iii involves alkylation ...
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1answer
60 views

What would be the reaction:if I put melting iron in normal water?

I know it's a very ordinary question.But I have to know it correctly. What would be the reaction:if I put melting iron in normal water?Will water be chemically changed?