The step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

1
vote
1answer
19 views

Define “reactivity”

Does reactivity of a compound depend on kinetic factors, thermodynamic factors, or both? i.e. how is reactivity defined? For example, out of a) 2-bromopropane and b) 4-bromobutan-2-one, which is more ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

Doubt in Cannizzaro reaction

My doubt is, how do we predict the products of a cross Cannizzaro disproportionation in presence of a concentrated base? Ie, How to judge which of the aldehydes (both don't have any alpha hydrogen) is ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Why do strong acids dissociate (almost) fully on a molecular level?

In the Brønsted-Lowry theory, strong acids $\ce{HA}$ dissociate using water and react into hydronium ions and the conjugate bases $\ce{A-}$. However I never understood in the strong acids case what ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Electrophilic aromatic substitution in heterocycles

I have a question from a past exam that i'm using to revise. I think the answer for part i/ii involves nucleophilic aromatic substitution with NH2- as the nucleophile. Part iii involves alkylation ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What would be the reaction:if I put melting iron in normal water?

I know it's a very ordinary question.But I have to know it correctly. What would be the reaction:if I put melting iron in normal water?Will water be chemically changed?
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Please explain the reaction mechanisms of the following synthesis [closed]

Tried to find out the reaction mechanisms but could not, please help.
1
vote
1answer
39 views

SN1 Reaction Involving Carboxylic Acids

Which oxygen atom is more nucleophilic in carboxylic acids? If we look at this page, it says the carbonyl oxygen is more nucleophilic: However, I also learned in class that $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atoms are ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Why does in the hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid with NaOH the solution has to be simmered gently?

Why does in the hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid with NaOH the solution has to be simmered gently? What could happen if I would strongly boil it. Would the OH- react into the carboxyl groups to ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Devising a mechanism for reaction between Aluminium and Iodine

What should be a suitable mechanism for the reaction between Aluminium and Iodine, catalysed by water? In my initial approaches, I had first thought of repeated attacks of lone pairs of oxygen in ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

MECHANISM 2 step reaction: bromination of alkene and then nucleophilic substitution

Write the mechanism for the following reaction: My answer so far: I have only shown one of the reactions, I presume it is the same for adding the other $\ce{Me2NH}$ on the other side. How do I ...
4
votes
2answers
118 views

How do I isolate calcium from calcium carbonate?

I have the ability to use many kinds of reactions, and the use of most common acids/bases.
4
votes
1answer
136 views

Dehydration of secondary alcohol reaction. (E1 Reaction)

I am trying to do a dehydration of an alcohol using the reagents sulfuric acid and acetic acid. I don't know how I am supposed to use the acetic acid, instead I've been using water. The question is, ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Synthesis of Pseudopelletierine, Mannich reaction base catalysed

The synthesis of Pseudopelletierine starts from glutardialdehyde, which reacts with methylamine and acetonedicarboxylic acid in a two-fold Mannich reaction. This is the reaction: I need to write ...
5
votes
1answer
49 views

Why doesn't rubidium react with nitrogen gas?

I ran across a problem in which I was asked to predict the result of a reaction between $\ce{Rb}$ and $\ce{N2}$. I was frustrated until I found a note in my textbook which stated that out of all the ...
-1
votes
1answer
27 views

Is (A->B<-C) a multi-step reaction?

I want to know if: A -> B <- C a multi-step reaction OR are multiple reactions: A -> B, C -> B
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Chemistry and mathematical modelling

I'm searching for a chemical daily life experience that can be modeled by superior mathematics so that the origin of the equations involved can be easily explained to a beginner in chemistry. By ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Formation of azobenzene from nitrosobenzene and N-hydroxyaniline

I'm trying to create a reasonable reaction mechanism for the reaction of nitrosobenzene and N-hydroxyaniline, which happens as part of the reduction of nitrobenzene to azobenzene using magnesium as ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Rgarding common preservatives and their effect?

If someone has an average of 1 litre of Coke or Pepsi a day would this form too much Benzene oxide in the person's body or stomach and eventually effect part of their genetics?
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Hydride Shifts in Alkyl Halides: Classic Problem

I did this quiz and I forgot the hydride shift. With the hydride shift, would these be the right answer?
2
votes
2answers
74 views

SN2 vs SN1 in Acidic Environments for Secondary Alkyl Halides

I have researched three books: Brown's, Solomons' and Wade's. I could not find enough information about this. My prof. says that secondary alkly halides undergo SN1 only under acidic environments. ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Carbocation Rearrangements in SN1 reactions

Would one get 1-(1-chloroethyl)-1-methylcyclobutane? I am not sure if the driving force identification is correct? Is my going from a 2° to a 3° carbocation correct? Does anyone have any tips for ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Predict the Product(s) of a reaction of tertiary benzylic alkyl halide

I could find two products: The first one where is $\ce{Cl}$ is replaced by $\ce{CN}$. AND the second one where $\ce{CH3CH2O}$ replaces $\ce{Cl}$. Did I make a mistake or miss anyone?
4
votes
2answers
146 views

SN2 vs SN1 in Secondary Alkyl Halides

What would you have chosen as a mechanism? Would SN1 occur here? I chose SN2 because we have a secondary alkyl halide with a weak base $\ce{CN-}$. However, the solution says SN1 is major. Can you ...
1
vote
2answers
107 views

Reductive amination of (protected) 3-Oxopropanenitrile: Will azetidin-2-ol be formed via intramolecular ring closure?

What happens during this reductive amination? I got the first product; the lithium aluminium hydride will reduce the nitrile to an amine. But what about the reductive animation step? As far as I can ...
3
votes
3answers
92 views

“There are no chemical cliffs”

Are there any reactions with no activation energies? Prof just told us there are no chemical cliffs. Is this true? I read something about nuclear decay as being a reaction with no activation ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

Osmium tetroxide and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid

Can these be used to induce acetal ring closures? For example, when dealing with a molecule that has both a C=O functional group and an alkene as part of its structure and there is the possibility of ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Imine stability in acids and bases

I understand that imines can be hydrolyzed in acidic medium. But what about in basic medium? Can imines still be hydrolyzed? I have a plausible mechanism ... nitrogen's withdrawal of electron ...
5
votes
1answer
64 views

What is the mechanism for demercuration?

The following image is from 'Organic Chemistry Second Edition' by Clayden, Greeves, and Warren. The final step is the demercuration, but I'm unable to find a definitive mechanism. The wikipedia ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Rate Expression for Reactions Involving 2° Benzylic Alkyl Halides

My teacher took off marks because he said the reaction was SN1. Before I go confront him, please tell me if my reasoning is correct. So, basically, I thought: we have two possibilities: 1. SN1: a ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

NH2- and Primary Alkyl Halides: Sn2 vs E2

When we mix 1-bromopropane and $\ce{NaNH2}$, what happens? Which reactions wins out to make the major product? My textbook says that primary alkyl halides give mainly SN2 products unless the base is ...
3
votes
2answers
158 views

Why cant unimolecular reactions be 2nd order?

Why can't unimolecular reactions be second order? For example, doubling the concentration of a single reactant would result in four times the original rate of reaction.
2
votes
1answer
125 views

Acidic conditions, high heat, and return to carboxylic acids

Apparently carboxylic acid derivatives such as cyanohydrins can be taken back to "daddy" - a carboxylic acid - under the right conditions. This involves acid, water, and "high heat." What, however, is ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Relationship between Auto-Ignition Temperature with Pressure and Fuel

Experimentally it appears that increase in pressure, fuel concentration, and chain length causes AIT to decrease until a minimum where even further increase in these parameters increases the AIT. ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

Anti hydrogenation of alkynes-Purpose of NH4Cl

In my orgo textbook, Lithium is used to create a free radical of the alkynes, to then allow the anti addition of hydrogen to get an alkene. "The Dissolving Metal Reduction of Alkynes" is a reaction ...
5
votes
2answers
432 views

Are carbocations that bad?

My professor has an anti-fetish for carbocations. In any mechanism that we draw with a carbocation, the maximum earnable credit is automatically halved. In any case, he draws all mechanisms involving ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

Are all esterification reactions reversible? What is their general mechanism?

For example the reaction of ethanoic acid with ethanol is reversible, however is this true for all esters? I'm not quite whether it is as easy for a reversible reaction to occur both ways. Is there a ...
2
votes
0answers
80 views

Relationship between Equivalence Ratio and Adiabatic Flame Temperature for Fuel Rich Combustion

I'm reading a combustion text and would like help interpreting the following passage (diagram attached). It is regarding the relationship between equivalence ratio and adiabatic flame temperature: ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

A few basic questions about activation energy and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

I understand activation energy to be the relative difference in energy between that of the activated complex/transition state (at some temperature) and the average energy of the reactants like shown ...
8
votes
2answers
162 views

Oxidation of formate ion by peroxydisulfate in water solution: Why are there “strange” kinetics?

As you can see, the first step is the slowest, but by using the rate-determining step approximation you wouldn't arrive at the correct rate law which is: $r=k\ce{[HCOO^{−}]}^{1/2} ...
4
votes
2answers
192 views

Complicated reaction mechanism

The reaction is this: The only idea I have thus far is if we have a chloride acid that can form an ester, then we might be able to find a suitable mechanism. This would require a chloride reagent.
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Synthesis of synthetic detergent with Friedel Crafts Acylation

I propose the following synthesis. 1) Oxidation of aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. This sets me up for FC acylation once I ... 2) Attack the -OH with thionyl chloride ad form the acid chloride. 3) ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Restricted synthesis; formation of nucleophile and electrophile from one carbon source

I am tasked by my textbook to synthesize 2-hexyne from 1-propanol. All carbon atoms must come from the starting material, 1-propanol. My solutions manual (an older version) does not have this ...
1
vote
2answers
113 views

Alllylic bromination of 1-butene

My book asks me to consider reacting 1-butene with NBS and light. I know that NBS and light leads to radical formation, and this is an allylic/benzylic bromination problem. However, my book only ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Alkyne formation from vicinal dihalide

Why must 3 equivalents of sodium amide be used here to form the alkyne? The part I specifically have issue with is in red. From what I understand, we should just use 2 equivalents of sodium amide to ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

What is the chemical reaction in a home-made high-bouncer ball?

I took the kids to the Science Museum in Canberra (Questacon) and one of the toys we brought back was a Home-Made High Bouncing Ball. Now I did it with the kids and it was amazing. You pour the ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Allylic Radicals Bromination Mechanism

For (a) (iii), how do you get the second product listed in the answers manual? I just can't visualize it. What about (c) (i), why are there three resonance structures? If a hydrogen is taken away ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Syn Dihydroxylation of Alkenes

The answer makes sense to me. However, what if $\ce{OsO4}$ were to attack from the other side of the double bond? Why does the answer key not show that possibility? Would we not get an other molecule? ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Nucleophilicity of bonding vs lone pairs

Does the bonding pair in $\ce{FeCl4^-}$ attack a proton or does a lone pair on the chlorine attack the proton? My prof has an argument for the first one; the first one involves fewer steps, so it ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Concerted hydride and alkyl shifts

I noticed while looking through a couple of books (specifically, Wade, Carey, and Vollhardt/Schore) that the mechanism of concerted hydride and alkyl shifts is always shown with alcohol leaving ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Method of allylic and benzylic oxidation

I am told that $\ce{MnO_2}$ oxidizes allylic and benzylic alcohols. However, what is the mechanism of this oxidation? All the professor had to offer me was that the metal ion, manganese 2+, chelates ...