The detailed and complete as possible description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions, which seek information on elementary steps of these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed ...

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kc when 50% reactants are converted to products [on hold]

** in a reversible reaction when 50% of the reactants are converted into products the value of equilibrium constant kc will be ** (a)1 (b)2 (c) 3 (d)4
2
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14 views

Are there any suitable catalysts for ferric oxide and aluminum reaction?

As an exercise, I am trying to figure out how to catalyze the reaction of ferric oxide and aluminum Fe2O3 + 2Al -> 2Fe + Al2O3 I've been trying to find a substance A such that the reaction could be ...
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0answers
22 views

Nitration of p-nitrotoluene [on hold]

Why the p-nitrotoluene on further nitration gives o,p-nitrotoluene not the m,p-nitrotoluene . According to me in m,p-nitrotoluene there is +M NO2
2
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1answer
47 views

Friedel Crafts acylation mechanism

Here is my proposed mechanism, something tells me that the intramolecular deprotonation happens after, and that this is not concerted. Is my mechanism correct?
1
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0answers
14 views

Making a glow in the dark substance glow only when heat is applied

I want to make a glow in the dark substance that glows only if it gets warm. How do I obtain this substance, or what chemicals to I need to mix to make it? It's going to go in a sealed glass jar ...
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20 views

gas sample compressed [on hold]

Which statement explains why a oxygen sample can be compressed into a smaller container? ***i found answer i just want this deleted
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24 views

What is the graphical formula when nitrobenzene is added to HCL and tin?

On the image i want to work out the structure of compound Q. I know that it is a reduction reaction. However why is it that the answer to this question is not C6H5NH2, but is actually (C6H5NH3)+Cl-
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1answer
24 views

Propene react with ICl

When propene react with ICl , it gives an inoptically active compound ,why. According to me there is chiral carbon so it should be optically active
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1answer
26 views

Will this series of reactions work to produce potassium phosphate?

I want to end up with a solution or anhydrous sample of potassium phosphate with which I can grow larger crystals. I want a challenge and something to do so I don't want to buy potassium phosphate, I ...
5
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51 views

How does spin flipping of triplet carbenes occur?

Below is presented a page from Clayden Organic Chemistry 2ed. How and why does the spin flipping during the collision with solvent molecules actually occur?
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0answers
21 views

Hydroxyl to water reactions in minerals

The articles on wikipaedia on hydroxyl usually talk only about hydroxyl bound in organic compounds. Now, there are several minerals that also have the hydroxyl group bound inside, a typical example ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Mechanism for the Cleavage of Diborane?

The cleavage of diborane was presented in a recent lecture, and it was said that the borane could be cleaved unsymmetrically if sterics allowed, or symmetrically if they did not, as shown in the image ...
4
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1answer
87 views

Which groups take priority when predicting the stereochemical outcome of addition to cyclohexenes?

I am trying to understand the stereochemistry of iodolactonisation of this cyclohexene. When the iodine reacts forming the iodonium ion, I can't work out if it would attack from the top or the bottom? ...
3
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1answer
51 views

Mechanism of Diels-Alder reaction

I have a question about the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction. Is this a two-electron or one-electron process as described by Fig (a) or (b) respectively or does not matter? How do we know that? ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Aqueous ammonia mechanism

Hello! I am struggling on how this mechanism would occur, I am aware that the bromine will be removed by for some reason I cannot figure out the NH3 attaches onto the ring, can anyone prove me with ...
2
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2answers
85 views

3-step process to make propyl ethanoate from propene

I was asked to make propyl ethanoate from propene in three steps. I have access to the reactions below. Nucleophilic substitution (Both SN1 and SN2) Electrophilic addition Hydrogenation Dehydration ...
3
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0answers
79 views

Value of mixing ratio and rate constant in Chapman mechanisn

In the Chapman mechanism (which tells about the activities of ozone in the stratosphere), there is a equation for the lifetime ($\tau_{\ce{O}}$) of an oxygen atom, $\ce{O}$ against conversion to ...
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0answers
11 views

Electrocatalysis of Hydrogen Evolution Reaction with metal oxides

I'm new in this topic of electrocatalysis so I have some doubts. Also I´m not to clear with the themordynamic backgorund, so I will try to ask with the little thing that I know. I'm looking for a ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Why does Finkelstein's reaction proceed through SN2 mechanism?

I was dealing with a question whose answer was justified only when it was assumed that Finkelstein’s reaction proceeds through $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism. So, does it really follow $\mathrm{S_N2}$ ...
1
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0answers
22 views

Hydrolysis of Sucrose over Sn1Ac or Sn2Ac

In "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry" I have read about the general mechanism of the acetal hydrolysis. It names the acid-catalyzed SN1 or SN2 as a possible mechanism for a Acetal-hydrolysis. Now I ...
1
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1answer
15 views

Determining order of reaction when concentration of reactant is not given

Suppose reactant $A$ decomposes in an aqueous solution to give $P, Q$: $$ A\text{ (ac)} \to P\text{ (ac)}+ Q\text{ (ac)} $$ Suppose further that $[A]_0=0.42\text{M}$, and that $[Q]$ was ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Why is there syn-addition in this example?

In my book I read that halogenation of alkenes results in anti-addition. Is this example showing syn-addition? The example:
6
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1answer
50 views

Stereoselectivity differences in Lindlar's catalyst and Na/NH3?

Why does using the Lindlar's catalyst form cis-alkenes whereas $\ce{Na/NH3}$ forms trans-alkenes?
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1answer
27 views

Is this mechanism for the formation of a tosylate correct?

I've been given this mechanism by my lecturer for the formation of a tosylate. It claims that NEt3 is needed to remove the hydrogen from the O+ in the second step. However surely the Cl- from TsCl ...
3
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2answers
50 views

Benzenesulfonyl chloride dehydration of an amide to give nitrile

1) I am unable to understand how benzenesulfonyl chloride acts as a dehydrating agent in dehydration of amides? What is the driving force for losing chloride and taking the oxygen from the amide? 2) ...
4
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1answer
56 views

Mechanism of the oxidation of alcohols with KMnO4

Many oxidising agents, like chromate, dichromate, iodine in $\ce{NaOH}$ etc. seem to work via ester formation and elimination. For example, chromic acid will react with the $\ce{-OH}$ of alcohol to ...
1
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1answer
49 views

Conversion of 4-nitrotoluene to 2-bromobenzoic acid [closed]

In the above conversion why doesn't bromine add to methyl group? Is the first reaction following free radical or polar reaction (Friedel-Crafts). If it's following free radical mechanism then Br ...
3
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0answers
36 views

What is the mechanism of synthesizing hydroxybenzotriazole?

I have big problem with this reaction. Is this nucleophilic substitution? Cl is removed by hydrazine? It's my only idea, I don't know if this mechanism below is correct for this example:
2
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1answer
42 views

Confusion with cannizzaro reaction?

In the given mechanism, is it okay to prefer hydrogen as a better leaving group than the -HC=O group? The negative charge on an SP2 hybridized carbon, with =O attached to it seems to be more ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

Does this produce the anti-Markovnikov product because of the ROOR?

I know that the anti-Markovnikov product is produced when there is a free radical present. Does the ROOR separate into two free radicals and that changes the reaction? But ROOR doesn't end up in the ...
5
votes
1answer
99 views

Decarboxylation / Elimination type reaction

I'm quite familiar with E1/E2 reactions and usually use those ideas to explain elimination reactions, however I came across a reaction which was a bit different (in the sense it isn't E1/E2) but still ...
1
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0answers
25 views

What is the mechanism for the conversion of thiourea to diazomethane?

I really want to know how this reaction works: \begin{align} \ce{SC(NH2)2 + 2 NH3 &-> CH2N2 + 2 NH4+ + S^2-}\\ (\ce{S=C(NH2)2 + 2 NH3 &-> H2C=N=N + S(NH4)2 }) \end{align} This seems ...
3
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0answers
29 views

What reactions does this steel cold-bluing solution undergo?

Bluing steel generally refers to the process of forming a protective layer of $\ce{Fe_3O_4}$ ("black iron oxide") that prevents normal rust from forming. The chemistry behind the traditional ...
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23 views

How much energy is converted in light when you burn a candle?

When a candle burns the reaction is C25H52 + 38 O2 → 25 CO2 + 26 H2O. So it seems equal at both sides. But isn't there any light and heat (low elektromagnetic waves) produced. So how many Joule is ...
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0answers
22 views

Distinguishing beetween silver halides with ammonia [duplicate]

Could someone please explain how ammonia (preferably using chemical mechanisms) enable us to differentiate between the silver - halide precipitates?
0
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1answer
55 views

Does changing the volume of a reactant affect the rate of reaction? Does changing the volume of HCl affect the rate of a Mg & HCl reaction?

I'm doing a experiment in which I'm testing the affect of the concentration of a reactant on the rate of reaction. The reaction is between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid and so I'm changing the ...
1
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1answer
77 views

What does a fractional order of reaction mean for the mechanism?

I'm doing a high school/sixth form college investigation of the kinetics between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. I have obtained a rate order was 1.5 w.r.t [H+] and hence the rate equation ...
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30 views

3 member ring breaking

In addition of Br2, Hg(OAc)2,RCOOOH to alkene, a halonium ion Hg+(OAc) in place of Br+ and epoxide intermediates are formed, What factors decide in each of these, that which bond will break and SN2 ...
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0answers
37 views

nucleophilic attack in Acid chloride formation

First mechanism is the one taught in lecture, and I wondered why the electrons from carbonyl Oxygen wouldn't react with thionyl chloride. So I tried to draw a second mechanism as much as I could but ...
2
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1answer
65 views

Does sulfuric acid formed in a previous step dehydrate a secondary alcohol?

In the above reaction won't the sulphuric acid dehydrate the secondary alcohol formed?
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18 views

enthalpy of formation of elementary molecules

Heat of formation of any elementary molecule is zero.enthalpy change on converting molecules to their atom is called enthalpy of atomization.if we say the enthalpy change in forming molecules from ...
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0answers
36 views

Mechanism in Acid chloride formation

I want to ask about nucleophilic attack by Cl in Step 2. To me there seem 4 electrophilic sites and I marked them as (a)~(d). mechanism I've seen in lecture only deals with site (a). maybe (c) is ...
1
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0answers
67 views

Dehydration of primary, secondary & tertiary alcohols

Rate of dehydration when given compounds are treated with conc. H2SO4 is According to me the answer should be $R > Q > S > P$ but my textbook solution gives the answer as R > Q > P > S ...
1
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1answer
27 views

Mechanism in formation of acetals

someone asked a question about this mechanism and there were 2 answers as shown below. but these two answers seem contradict. and my questions are 1. which one is right? 2. does the protonation ...
3
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0answers
22 views

Why can't HS- participate in E1 reactions?

In my textbook (Organic Chemistry by Klein), it says that certain molecules can only act as nucleophiles and not as bases; thus they can only undergo substitution reactions, not elimination reactions. ...
2
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0answers
28 views

How to explain the different regioselectivity of ketones/imines reacting with LDA?

When 1 equivalent of LDA is reacted with, for example, 2-pentanone, you get the thermodynamic (more substituted) product. But when you react butan-2-imine with 1.0 LDA, you receive the kinetic (less ...
3
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1answer
82 views

Why do acetylene and chlorine react to yield carbon and HCl, but acetylene and bromine react less intensely?

In the famous "underwater fireworks" reaction we get $$\ce{C2H2 + Cl2 -> 2C + 2HCl}$$ On the other hand, when we react acetylene with bromine, we get $$\ce{CH#CH + Br2 -> CHBr=CHBr}$$ ...
4
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1answer
43 views

Mechanism for ring contraction from 2-methylenecyclobutanol to 1-methylcyclopropanecarbaldehyde

I am stuck between two paths. I was going to protonate the alcohol to give a better leaving group, leaving a 2 degree carbocation and then go on with a hydride shift, but I'm not sure what that may ...
3
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0answers
40 views

Benzyl (3,4-difluorophenyl)carbamate reaction with epoxide in basic conditions

I attempted this mechanism, however I am uncertain if I am correct. Any guidance for this problem would be appreciated!
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1answer
36 views

protonation/deprotonation in formation of hemiacetal

in mechanism below, deprotonation comes first and then protonation. can this order be changed? if not, why? I'd appreciate any advises!