The step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

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SN1 reaction of ethanol at tertiary alkyl halide

I know this undergoes an $\ce{S_{N}1}$ reaction: Ethanol is the solvent. Weak nucleophile. Neutral nucleophile. This points toward $\ce{S_{N}1/E1}$ (competing pathways). The leaving group is on a ...
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62 views

E2 Elimination; Anti-periplanar beta hydrogen

I'm confused by this picture I found online on a very popular organic chemistry website: (http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2012/10/10/comparing-the-e1-and-e2-reactions/) I agree that the ...
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53 views

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of these two synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the two synthesis given below ? $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{H2/Pd}][\ce{EtOH}] Ar-NH2}$ $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{Sn + HCl} \text{ or } \ce{Fe + HCl}] Ar-NH2}$
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32 views

Reaction mechanism of combustion of H2?

After a discussion about the usefulness of hydrogen fuel for cars with a friend of mine, I wondered what the reaction mechanism for combustion of $\ce{H}_2$ was. I only study (well almost) organic ...
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1answer
17 views

Difference between nickel catalyst and Raney nickel catalyst

Many times i have seen the catalyst as Raney nickel instead of nickel catalyst. I think Raney is a name of chemist who discovered Raney nickel catalyst.I think Raney nickel catalyst and nickel ...
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32 views

Relationship between rate equation and equilibrium constant

I have read mannaia's answer on the question of 'rate order and confusion', as well as Nicolau Saker Neto's answer to a related question. They have both been very helpful. As I understand, the ...
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52 views

How to predict the products of a organic chemical reaction [closed]

I want to know how to predict the products of a organic chemical reaction, when the reactants are given. What aspects should I consider when predicting the products ?
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161 views

Why do SN1 and SN2 reaction not occur at sp2 centres?

I was told in my organic chemistry course that $\text{S}_\text{N}1$ and $\text{S}_\text{N}2$ reactions did not occur at $\text{sp}^2$ centres. When I asked why, I was not given a satisfactory ...
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71 views

What is the mechanism of monofunctional glycosylase catalysis? [closed]

I am learning about base excision repair mechanisms. I understand the main idea how glycosylases are working, but I am trying to understand this in much more detail. I found a paper where they have ...
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106 views

Acid-Catalyzed Hydration

Is there any particular reason why this mechanism is used in the solution manual rather than an acid-catalyzed hydration? I was thinking of having the double bond attack a hydronium ion, which ...
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42 views

What's the purpose of a Grignard reagent initiation?

Preface: I've read this question about water preventing an initiation from occurring. I understand why it's important to slowly add the alkyl halide to the dry ether and magnesium for exotherm ...
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116 views

Kinetics of Interstellar Chemistry — Applying steady state to formation of H₂

I am trying to solve problem 2 from the 2009 International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO), which is as follows: If two atoms collide in interstellar space the energy of the resulting molecule is so ...
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51 views

Why are solids and liquids not included in the equilibrium constant? What about in a reaction rate calculation?

Take for instance the rection $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(s) -> 2HI(g)}$$ The equilibrium constant would not include the solid $\ce{I2}$, but why is this? I have read that its concentration is a constant, ...
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60 views

Database with organic reaction mechanisms (curly arrows)

Is there any database or book that has an index of organic reactions where the mechanisms are written out, complete with curly arrows? It would really help if I could look up a reaction and see a ...
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1answer
64 views

Mechanism for the Beilstein test?

What is a possible mechanism for the Beilstein test for halogens ? I can't seem to find a arrow pushing mechanism for this reaction.
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68 views

Mechanism for Tollen's classification test for Aldehydes?

I am trying to find a mechanism for the Tollen's Test online but only thing I am finding is balanced equation. Can someone propose or help me find the mechanism ? Thanks !
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2answers
65 views

How does neutralization of free radicals by $\beta$-carotene work?

In my understanding, by bonding to the free radical species, say by one of the double bonds, a new free radical on the $\beta$-carotene develops.
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33 views

Acid Bath, Concentration Question

A professor I have gave the class this question, can anyone help? This is the first part of the question. (Also, my professor is from Bangladesh...so yea...) It's the year 2395, and the world is in ...
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79 views

What happens as an acid is mixed with Sodium Chlorite

I'm told that when Sodium Clorite $\ce{(NaClO2)}$ is mixed with an acid (in a water solution) it produces Chlorine Dioxide ($\ce{ClO2}$) which remains (mostly or partly) dissolved in water. I would ...
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67 views

React these iron oxide, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose

Two questions: what reaction forms between ammonium nitrate, black iron oxide, and sucrose; and a story related question. So here's the whole story: So I was playing around a few months ago and ...
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62 views

What are radicals and how do they act in radical chain reactions?

What really is a radical? For example, when $\ce{Cl2}$ receives enough energy to dissociate the bond and turn into $\ce{ 2Cl.}$, the two chlorine atoms each carry one of the electrons that form the ...
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131 views

Why is it that neither silver nor copper react with a strong acid?

$\ce{Fe}$, $\ce{Mg}$, $\ce{Ni}$, $\ce{Pb}$, $\ce{Sn}$, and $\ce{Zn}$ all react when they (in solid form) are submerged in an acid solution with the presence of a strong acid like $\ce{HCl}$, but ...
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75 views

Why does calcium carbonate decompose into calcium oxide?

Why does calcium carbonate, when heated strongly, decompose into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide? What is the mechanism? Can someone illustrate the means by which this happens? What ...
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Does this activation of carbonyls usually involve a SN1 or a SN2?

The process I have seen in class to activate a carbonyl function is acetalisation. One of the steps involved is the following : So I was wondering, is that a $\ce{S_{N}1}$ or a $\ce{S_{N}2}$ ? ...
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27 views

Rate law of the iodine clock reaction

I am dealing with the iodine clock reaction, which has the half-reactions: $$\begin{align}&\ce{H_2O_2 (aq) + 2I^- (aq) \to I_2 (s) + 2 OH^- (aq)} & (\text{slow}) \\ &\ce{I_2 (s) + ...
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78 views

What is the complete mechanism of reaction for Sodium Benzoate and Ascorbic acid?

What are the complete steps of reaction from Sodium Benzoate and Ascorbic acid to Benzene? I can't seem to visualize it, and, much less, find anything online regarding the actual steps of the ...
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56 views

How to break down soap and detergents?

I am building a greywater harvesting system. I have all of it designed except one aspect. It is a 3 phase system. The first phase breaks down soap and detergents. The second phase filters the water. ...
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56 views

Alkene + Anhydride

In a reaction (as given in my textbook), $\ce{R-CH=CH2 + (CH3-CO)2O -> R-CH2=CH-COCH3 }$ an alkene reacts with acetic anhydride to give methyl alkenyl ketone. I am not sure of how this ...
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75 views

Hydrolysis of cyanohydrin

The question is(See image): I know that initially a cyanohydrin will be formed. On reaction with $\ce{H2SO4}$, the cyanohydrin will give a carboxylic acid/an amide. Here's my doubt: Since the ...
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46 views

Equation Balancing Paradox

I faced this reaction which can be balanced in $2$ distinct ways which are not multiples of each other. $$\ce{6XeF4}+\ce{12H2O} \to \ce{2XeO3}+\ce{24HF}+\ce{4Xe}+\ce{3O2}$$ $$\ce{4XeF4}+\ce{8H2O} ...
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Why does depurination happen at a higher pH (or under less harsh conditions) than depyrimidation?

I've always wondered why the N-glycosidic bond, which connects the adenine or guanine purine bases to their sugars, was the easiest to cleave via acid hydrolysis, or why purines have the lowest ...
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how to speed up Ferric Chloride and copper reaction

im doing pcb etching process (for those who don't know pcb is that thing with electronics on it lmao) using Ferric Chloride and it's taking forever is there any chemicals i can find that will speed ...
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338 views

Why oxygen is enclosed in parenthesis in some chemical reaction?

While going through my chemistry text book I came through the following reaction. $\ce{RCH2OH + (O) -> RCHO + H2O}$ In the above reaction why oxygen atom is enclosed in parenthesis ?
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54 views

Can singlet oxygen act as a catalyst for a (2+2) cycloaddition reaction?

Can singlet oxygen facilitate a (2+2) cycloaddition reaction, for example between two alkenes, by reacting first with the pi-electrons in one alkene and then lowering the energy barrier for the second ...
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34 views

Constraints on “R” groups for Olefin Cross Metathesis (CM)

Please consider the Olefin Cross Metathesis (CM) reaction shown on the upper-right-hand side of pg. 2 here: https://www.chem.umn.edu/groups/harned/classes/8322/lectures/15Olefin_Metathesis.pdf What ...
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105 views

Does anything like this covalent concerted bond exchange reaction exist?

I'm wondering if any reaction pathway exists (not involving enzymes) to do the following in aqueous solvent at temperatures < ~100°C: To clarify, it's important however that the reaction is ...
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40 views

How can one come to know how a catalyst affects a reaction when the reaction and the catalyst is known

How can I come to know how a catalyst affects a reaction when the reaction and the catalyst used is known. I searched the internet for an answer but could not find one.
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67 views

Reaction between hydrogen peroxide and ozone

What is the reaction mechanism of the reaction : $$\ce{H2O2 + O3 -> H2O + 2O2}$$ I have tried searching this on Google but am not getting good answers.
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45 views

Wurtz reaction:why does not rearrangement takes place

The Wurtz reaction $\ce{R-X + Na \xrightarrow{ether} R-R}$ where $\ce{R}$ is alkyl but if we take butylchloride with $\ce{Na}$ the product is n-octane and not 3,4-dimethylhexane. I am unable to ...
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60 views

What is the difference between the reactivity of Lead subacetate and Lead II acetate undergoing a hydrothermal process?

I am attempting to adapt a hydrothermal method for synthesizing $\ce{PbS}$ nanocrystals to my school that contains a mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (.05 mmol, SDS) ...
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52 views

Does Nitrogen dioxide change colour if we put it in a constant temperature of e.g. 100 kelvin?

The changing of the colour of $\ce{NO2}$ is because of a change in temperature, resp. heating and cooling?
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140 views

Reaction involved in Combustion of Nitrocellulose-Nitroglycerine(NCNG) solid propellant?

I'm working on solid propellant based microthrusters and I am using NCNG as the solid propellant. I want to know the reaction taking place and the mass fraction of the products obtained on combustion ...
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127 views

Rate Constant Units and Eyring Equation

Rearranging the Eyring equation leads to the following: $$ ∆^\ddagger S^\circ = R \ln{\frac{k \times h}{{k_B}{T}}}+\frac{∆^\ddagger H^\circ}{T} $$ where k is the rate constant, h is the Planck ...
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53 views

A metal that melts quickly?

Is there a kind of metal that melts very quickly with very low heat or temperature and at the same time becomes hard very quickly? I'm very naive in chemistry with limited knowledge. So I hope your ...
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Are multiple transition states possible? Criteria to choose the correct one?

I am studying a reaction using electronic structure methods using various software packages (ORCA,GAMESS, G09) and have found two possible transition structures between product and reactant. Both have ...
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73 views

Reduction of an Oxime with LiAlH4 ­­­­­­­­­

I want to know the mechanism of this reaction. My intuition says $\ce{H-}$ will attack on $\ce{C}$ attached to $\ce{N}$ and hydrolysis afterwards would produce $\ce{-NH-OH}$. But the answer says that ...
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154 views

Reaction Pathways: What to do when IRC geometries are relaxed (optimized) and the energy changes significantly

The Story: Reaction pathways can be difficult things to deal with using electronic structure methods. Intrinsic reaction coordinates (IRCs) can be determined a number of ways (a discussion of these ...
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78 views

Double Displacement Reactions that produce gas [closed]

What type of double displacement reactions can form a gas. How can i determine if a double displacement reaction will form a gas?
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145 views

C + O2 is equal to C + O, how is that possible

C + O = CO2 . This is because carbon has valency of 4 while oxygen has valency of 2. When they react the valencies are criss crossed which means we will get C2O4 but this is simplified to CO2. But ...
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78 views

Aldol of 7-oxo octanal

I want to do intra molecular aldol condensation of 7-oxo octanal. I am talking about the major product. Clearly, A 6-membered ring would be a major product, but there are 2 possibilities. Taking ...