The detailed and as complete as possible description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions, which seek information on elementary steps of these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed ...

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13 views

(3-Glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane AND Starch

I have made a scaffold and have used 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as a cross-linker. As a result the 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) made starch silanized. Now, how can i find ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Reaction between RCH2=CH2 and CCl4 — Why does it form RCHClCH2CH(R)CH2CCl3 along with RCHClCH2CCl3?

I am reading Organic Chemistry from Morrison & Boyd and there is this problem in it: Problem 6.8 From the addition of $\ce{CCl4}$ to alkenes (in presence of peroxides), $\ce{RCH2=CH2}$, there ...
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1answer
25 views

Role of NaOH in the given reaction

In the conversion of haloarenes to phenol,NaOH is used to convert How does NaOH does this reaction?What is the mechanism?
4
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1answer
62 views

Why are acid catalysed reactions of carbonyl compounds reversible?

I am currently studying aldehydes and ketones and their reactions. I've noticed that acid catalysed reactions are represented with reversible arrows, while base catalysed reactions are shown with ...
2
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1answer
23 views

Number of CO2 in pyrolysis

In the following pyrolysis reaction, we have to find how many $\ce{CO2}$ is formed. According to me it should be 5 as there are five carboxylic acid. But the answer is 4, how?
4
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2answers
216 views

Acetic acid reaction sequence

Can anyone tell me where I am doing it wrong for the following reaction? In the first step, Br should be attached to the alpha carbon. In second step, the bromide is replaced by cyanide. I am ...
4
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1answer
62 views

Role of acetone in the Finkelstein reaction.

What is the role of acetone in the Finkelstein reaction? It has something to do with Le Chatalier's principle but I am not able to understand. Why will it not proceed without acetone?
2
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2answers
39 views

Reaction with BH3

If the following compound is reacted with first $\ce{BH_3/THF}$ and second $\ce{H_2O_2/HO^{-}}$ then $\ce{OH}$ group is attached at less subtituted carbon. But if it is treated with $\ce{CH_3COOH}$ ...
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1answer
36 views

Reaction with MnO [on hold]

What would be the product of reaction CH3COOH + HCOOH + Mno at 300°C I search it on https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese_dioxide but i am not able to predict the product .
2
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2answers
77 views

Why cannot nitrosonium ion attack aniline in electrophylic aromatic substitution?

This is the nitrosonium ion, which is produced by the reaction of $\ce{NaNO2}$ and $\ce{HCl}$: [Image source: Wikipedia] And this is the reaction between aniline and nitrosonium: [Image source: ...
3
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2answers
53 views

How do i convert benzoic acid to meta-fluorobenzoic acid?

in not more than 3 steps. i did it but the process was a little long. here is my attempt
1
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1answer
47 views

Does the rate function of an elementary reaction depend on the other steps of the mechanism?

A question came to my mind. Is the rate function of an elementary reaction influenced by the other steps of the mechanism? I wonder whether the shape (not the values) of the function $r(c)$ belonging ...
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0answers
23 views

Determination of Organic Mechanisms [closed]

How are mechanisms determined in organic chemistry. How do we know exactly how the electrons shift and go where when we can't even see them with the best microscopes (except for a fuzzy haze).
3
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1answer
45 views

Major Product of Alkene in Bromine Water

At school, we are taught that in bromine water, the following equilibrium is present: $$\ce{Br2 + H2O \rightleftharpoons BrOH + HBr}$$ Therefore, when you add an alkene to bromine water, you don't get ...
1
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1answer
53 views

Oxidation of acetone using SeO2

I was trying to look-up the mechanism of reaction of organic compounds with SeO2, but I am not able to understand it. I would really appreciate if someone can predict the end product with the ...
0
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3answers
53 views

Na2So4(aq)+HCl(aq) (Any reaction?)

I am just reading what a double replacement reaction is and what are the examples. So I came up with this question : what is a reaction actually? For example when we add $\ce{Fe(NO3)3}$ and ...
4
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1answer
48 views

What is an active centre of a catalyst?

I was studying catalytic poisoning and read that in temporary poisoning, the poisoners are held at active centres by weak forces. What is an 'active centre' in this context?
4
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1answer
59 views

Trans-hydrogenation of alkenes

Both this and that question seem to indicate that the hydrogenation of alkenes to alkanes or alkynes to alkenes is always a syn process. However since hydrogenation is not a concerted process, I do ...
1
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1answer
35 views

Claisen Condensation vs. Trans-Esterification

In the Claisen condensation, an alkoxide $\ce{RO-}$ acts as a base. However, in trans-esterification, an alkoxide $\ce{R'O-}$ attacks the carbonyl carbon of an ester as a nucleophile. Is this because ...
1
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1answer
32 views

Acid Catalyzed Hydration of an Alkene Synthesis Problem

Devise syntheses of the following three compounds, starting in each case with any alkene that contains four carbons or fewer. You do not have to write mechanisms, although at this point it may be very ...
2
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0answers
40 views

Questions about Genetic algorithm paper of Gilman and Ross

I want to reproduce an (old) biochemistry paper of Gilman and Ross, i.e. " Genetic algorithm selecetion of a regulatory structure that directs flux in a simple metabolic model." ( The following link ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Oxidation of cycloalkenes

Non-cyclic alkenes can be oxidized to carboxylic acids in presence of hot alkaline $\ce{KMnO4}$ and quenched with dilute $\ce{H2SO4}$ to form carboxylic acids. I suddenly got a thought. Can ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Automated chemistry test machines? What is currently done, and what is research leaning towards?

There are small and large chips and machines to effect admixtures,blends, fusions of different chemicals into a variety of test samples, and there are machines to measure many vials of all kinds of ...
0
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1answer
61 views

How to rationalise the protonation of a compound with multiple double bonds?

In the following reaction, why is the molecule protonated at the indicated carbon and not on one of the other double bonds?
3
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1answer
211 views

Synthesis of Diazepam with (2-amino-5-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methanone

I tried to draw the mechanism of the diazepam synthesis. Question: Do I really get the tertiary amine or does dimethyl sulfate methylate the amine twice?
4
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1answer
34 views

Migratory aptitude in Baeyer–Villiger reaction

I found a reaction in which we have to find the product: I tried and got to know that it is Baeyer–Villiger reaction but I got confused after seeing the answer, I thought there would be a shift of ...
0
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0answers
45 views

Convert mass-based reaction rate equation to mole-basis

I have the following kinetic scheme describing the conversion of wood to tar and gas products. Wood is considered to be pine with a density of $\rho_\mathrm{w} = 540\; \mathrm{kg/m^3}$, tar is ...
6
votes
1answer
116 views

Predict the product of reaction of quinone and hydrochloric acid

This is the question: And this is my solution: In the last step, I have tautomerised, and in the second last step, there is no double bond between carbon attached with Cl and OH (just some ...
6
votes
3answers
357 views

Is sodium borohydride really a better base than an alcohol?

I have learnt that sodium borohydride can reduce aldehydes, ketones and acyl chlorides into alcohols. However, it fails to react with esters or acid anhydrides. On the other hand, alcohols — ...
4
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1answer
28 views

Are all concerted electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes syn?

The Organic Chemistry book I am using (8th edition Carey, et al.) doesn't say it straight out, but I am wondering if it's a universal rule that all concerted electrophilic additions of alkenes are syn....
6
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1answer
148 views

Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or delta?

My book claims that beta-ketoacids and beta-dicarboxylic acids are better at decarboxylating than their gamma and delta counterparts. Why is that? I would assume that since gamma and delta keto-acids ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

How much lactose is there in milk (mechanism)?

Iodometric titration is sometimes used to find out how much lactose there is in milk. The overall oxidation reaction is written as follows. $$\ce{C12H22O11 + I2 + 3NaOH ->[\ce{CuSO4}]C12H21O12Na + ...
3
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1answer
130 views

What is the mechanism for the reaction of an organic hydroperoxide with sulfuric acid?

The question asked to react the organic hydroperoxide substrate, $\ce{R-OOH}$, with dilute sulfuric acid, $\ce{H2SO4}$. In the last step, I removed a proton, making it act like a catalyst, along with ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Hydrogenation of alkenes

How many structural isomeric alkenes ($\ce{C_6H_{10}}$) can be hydrogenated to give methylcyclopentane? Would there be three? I drew out what I thought was correct but I just want to confirm that ...
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1answer
38 views

Does this reduction mechanism of an diazonium via stannic chloride sense? [closed]

Is this mechanism possible. I didnt find any sources of a mechanism of this specific reaction.
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1answer
33 views

Safe pH levels for blood [closed]

What exactly happens to blood cells when a persons blood is to alkaline? I know that if your pH level goes below 6.8 or above 7.8 you will die. I have read that if you go below 6.8 your cells will ...
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2answers
139 views

Why cesium considered most reactive element and not flourine? [closed]

Some people say Cesium is most reactive element. I thought it to be flourine as it is the element that reacts with almost all elements (except couple of inert gases). But cesium won't react many of ...
0
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2answers
37 views

Rate determining step

The formation of the cation is the rate-determining step. we can look at this in two ways. Either that a cation is an unstable species and so it will be formed slowly from a stable neutral organic ...
0
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2answers
68 views

Chlorination of toluene in the presence of light

My book mentions a reaction for the preparation of benzaldehyde with toluene in which side chain chlorination of toluene gives benzal chloride, which on hydrolysis gives benzaldehyde. I am very ...
2
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0answers
50 views

Is there wavefunction interference between alternate reaction pathways?

I'll give a specific example to clarify my question. If we look at the approach of chloromethylenecarbene's electron pair to cis-2-butene in the reaction of creating 1-chloro-2,3-dimethylcyclopropane, ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

Phenol or ethanol as a nucleophile for ether formation?

If we react phenol with $\ce{C2H5I}$ in $\ce{C2H5O- Na+}$ (excess), $\ce{C2H5OH}$ (anhydrous) solutions . In this reaction why is diethyl ether not formed and the actual product is phenyl ethyl ...
4
votes
1answer
91 views

Mechanism of acetylene formation from iodoform and silver

My book mentions a synthetic route for turning iodoform into propyne. That conversion was somewhat as follows: The first step is the conversion of iodoform into acetylene with silver. I am usure ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Pinacol pinacolone rearrangement

I was reading the topic alcohol in that I saw a reaction Pinacol pinacolone rearrangement . But I am not able to find the sterochemistry of the reaction . Can anyone please tell me the ...
1
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1answer
53 views

In a condensation reaction, which of the reactants loses their OH group?

You have Propanoic Acid ($\ce{CH3CH2CO-O-H}$) so an $\ce{OH}$ on the end You have Ethanol ($\ce{CH3CH2-OH}$) so an $\ce{OH}$ on the end When you combine the two for a condensation reaction you have ...
0
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1answer
35 views

Why do coefficients become exponents in the speed equation when dealing with elementary reactions

In school, while studying chemical kinetics, we were learning about the speed law and equation for different chemical reactions. We learned that in general, the exponents of the concentration of ...
4
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2answers
71 views

SN2 with thionyl chlorides

Grignards don't couple with alkyl halides. I know that thionyl chloride reacts with alcohols and other $\ce{-OH}$ group containing molecules to replace the $\ce{-OH}$ with a $\ce{-Cl}$. So we probably ...
0
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1answer
108 views

Is this reaction SN1, SN2, E1, or E2?

In the following question, which I tried to solve, I became confused by which way I should proceed. Here is my thought process: SN1: If Cl detaches and forms a secondary carbocation, then there's no ...
1
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0answers
45 views

Mechanism of polymerization of 4-nitroaniline

Does anyone know the mechanism for/the structure of the product of the explosive polymerization of 4-nitroaniline with concentrated sulfuric acid? My guess is that it is some sort of aromatic ...
3
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2answers
164 views

Does halogenation by PBr3 lead to an inverted product?

$\hspace{4.5cm}$ I think it follows the $\mathrm{S_Ni}$ mechanism and would not lead to Walden inversion, but the answer says otherwise. (the problem didn't indicate the presence of pyridine in the ...
0
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1answer
16 views

Nucleophile in a reaction [closed]

How can we determine that in a compound which atom is a nucleophile in a reaction . I know we see resonance , but I am little confused between electronegativity , formal charge , solvent and size .