Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules. Organic molecules generally have C-H or C-C bonds.

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Reaction Pathways - Substitution and elimination [on hold]

This one was a bit involved. The alkyl halide turning into an alcohol with retention of stereochemistry suggested that an SN1 mechanism was at work. The addition of NaOH and the inversion of ...
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Exceptions to motif: nucleophile attacks electrophile

I hear this all the time with regard to organic chemistry. Are there any exceptions? I think this statement is always true in general because it's a restatement of Coulomb's law. But then are there ...
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HI/P reduction mechanism

I recently answered a question about Breaking Bad's initial methamphetamine production method (i.e. the reduction of (pseudo)ephedrine). The reaction is as follows: (Source: ...
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Phenyl vs phenol functional group?

Phenyl is a functional group with an aromatic ring bonded to another group. And, phenol is a molecule that is just a phenyl bonded to a hydroxyl group. However, some sources consider phenol itself a ...
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Can a mixture of water miscible solvent and water be separated by fractional freezing on a dry ice bath?

If a mixture of water with acetone, methanol, ethanol, or other water miscible solvent, is cooled below 0 degrees, would the water freeze and aggregate out as ice, separating out of the mixture. Or ...
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What are the most important resonance structures of 5-aminocycloheaxa-2,4-dienone?

Here attached is a question from my exam. My TA removed 1 point out of 7 for a reason. Can anyone decipher for what? There's the writing in red but it is illegible to me. I don't understand to what he ...
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nomenclature of organic compound

I am basic concepts of organic compound. I have seen organic compound is written is two different ways. For example This compound is written as Pentan-3-one. While in some book it is written as ...
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25 views

How to create the equivalent of luminol for a compound?

How would you go about creating a compound, like luminol, that would visibly react with monomorine I (5-methyl-3-butyloctahydroindolizine) on a household surface (like a kitchen floor)? It is ok if ...
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1answer
31 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
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40 views

How can I detect a specific molecule on a surface? (strategies would help too)

Based on the comments and answers, this question wasn't very clear, so I have completely overhauled this question to make it much clearer in another post: How to create the equivalent of luminol for a ...
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660 views

What is C2H5-O-CH=CH2?

Someone painted an original graffiti: source I wonder what kind of reaction was depicted; what's that product substance? The graffiti reads: $\ce{C2H2 + C2H5OH -> C_2 H_5 - O - CH = CH_2}$ ...
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What are the priorities for substituent groups on a cyclohexane?

I was wondering about this specific scenario: If you have a cyclohexane, for example, and the cyclohexane has two consecutive substituent groups, for example a methyl group and an ethyl group, how do ...
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69 views

How does sulfuric acid dehydrate sugars?

I know sugars have -OH groups, and that sulfuric acid is a strong acid. What I'm failing to see is how exactly sulfuric acid dehydrates sugars. Does it protonate the hydroxyl groups, making them good ...
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48 views

Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

I am told by Dr. Klein that in the nitration of benzene, hydrogen sulfate anion acts as the base and deprotonates the sigma complex. My question is why would the hydrogen sulfate anion be doing ...
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1answer
29 views

How can I measure carcinogenic risks of an M-ENDO-Agar LES substrate after heat destruction?

I'm about to conduct a study of possible toxic traces from the substance M-ENDO-Agar LES in substrate after destruction with heat (I think it is 160℃) for 180 minutes. The substance is carcinogenic. ...
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1answer
18 views

Delocalization of positive charge

How is positive charge delocalized? I understand how negative charge can be delocalized. Electrons are mobile and they can move around. But what about positive charge? For example, consider this ...
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3answers
71 views

Which has higher rate of hydrogenation- methyl propene or trans-2-butene?

I know that cis-2-butene has a higher rate of hydrogenation than both of these due to steric reasons, but here both of these compounds have same steric hindrance. So, when they come in contact with ...
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Why can the lone pair not align with the phenyl moiety in 2,6-xylidine?

I am told that for this molecule, the amino group cannot line up in such a way that its p-orbital is parallel with respect to the p-orbitals of the carbons in the ring. I've looked for papers and ...
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1answer
31 views

Benzene Halide Sn1 Reaction?

Is such a reaction possible? Will the benzene carbocation be stabilized via resonance? Suppose the leaving group is super electronegative and the environment is protic. What would be a suitable ...
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1answer
24 views

Siliconization for Organic Compounds

I was wondering if it was possible to create Silane from Methane using the process of siliconization to replace the Carbon with Silicon. For example Silicon Carbide is produced by replacing C-C bonds ...
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Hydrogenation stereochemistry-Pd,Pt, Ni catalysts

When my textbook talks about hydrogenation using Pt, Pd or Ni heterogeneous catalysts, it never mentions if it is anti or syn addition. It simply jumps on to say that for alkynes, NiB2 (P-2) catalysts ...
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1answer
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Why is the addition of a singlet carbene to an alkene stereospecific? [closed]

Why is the addition of a singlet carbene to an alkene stereospecific, but not when a triplet carbene is added?
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4answers
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How to figure out if the reaction proceeds via SN1 or SN2 mechanism?

I have been assigned with the task of figuring out whether a reaction is $\ce{S_{N}1}$ or $\ce{S_{N}2}$. The information that I have is, that the yield is dependent on solvent polarity. More ...
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Is an SN1 reaction an elementary reaction/one step reaction?

I need some help. From what I understand, elementary reactions are reactions which only has one transition state. Another definition that I have come across is that elementary reactions obey the rate ...
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Acid catalysed mechanism of the addition of alcohols to alkenes

I believe that this mechanism is false. The protonated ether would in my opinion give a proton to methanol rather than $\ce{H2SO4}$ because the protonated $\ce{CH3OH}$ is more stable than ...
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Aromaticity of cyclic ketone

By looking at the structure of the uploaded ketone, it doesn't seem that it is aromatic, but the resonance structure with C(+)-O(-) is aromatic. Is it correct to say that the ketone in the image is ...
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39 views

2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine - Bronsted Basicity

I understand that this molecule can only act as a Bronsted base because it is sterically hindered by its multiple methyl groups. However, isn't the proton bound up in solution? Doesn't that ...
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medicinal chemistry

i would like to know what the difference between Medicinal chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry pharmacy and pharmacology? All seems to involves the development of drugs so im confuse as how to ...
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31 views

Ethene to ethanol: electrophillic additions involving ethyl sulfates

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/eladd/symh2so4.html I was reading my textbook and this website. I just cannot find the mechanism for what happens when we go from CH3CH2OSO3H to ethanol by the ...
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Synthesis via Sn2/Sn1, E2, E1: Choice of solvent

I uploaded pictures on http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=765106 I was looking at the answers in my textbook. They seem to make incongruent choices of solvents. In e) and j), why choose ...
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1answer
20 views

Reaction of alkyl halides with strong unhindered bases

Please look at the image on this website: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=765853 For (b) and (c), what the solution manual says makes no sense to me. You're reacting a primary alkyl ...
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61 views

Mechanism of reduction by elemental sodium

How exactly does sodium form an alkoxide from an alcohol? I understand the general idea - sodium has a low first ionization energy. Sodium can thus give up its electron to something that'll take it. ...
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Proteins and their solubility

I have 2 statements , and i am not sure, whether they are true or false. Proteins like albumin and haemoglobin are insoluble in water (in my view , almost all proteins are soluble- so this is a ...
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33 views

Is BF3 an electrophile?

Boron have an empty 2p orbital. but is it an electroplhile? I know it is a Lewis acid. but curious whether it is an electrophile.
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Why does charcoal absorb smells from the air, and where do those smells 'go' once absorbed?

I've read that using blocks of charcoal can remove some odors from the air by placing them in the vicinity of the odors. (Maybe not as efficiently as other forms of carbon, as pointed out in the ...
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Epoxide Opening with Sodium Hydride

I understand that in general, when in acidic media, the nucleophile tends to attack the more substituted side of the epoxide due to electronic reasons. And when in basic media, the nucleophile attacks ...
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160 views

How does chlorine form more than 1 bond?

How are perchlorate or chlorate or chlorite ions and their respective acids or compounds formed. $\ce{Cl}$ can't form more than one bond but still... $\rightarrow$'Perchlorate ion' ...
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1answer
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Converting cyclic compounds to linear compounds (possible ?)

Can one convert from cyclic convert to linear compound? Like $Cyclohexane$ $+$ $?=Hexane$ Even in High Temp and Pressure? I know it is very tough since we are going from a stable compound to a ...
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1answer
30 views

Is sucrose made of 2 glucose molecules or 1 glucose and 1 fructose? [duplicate]

I have read from several sources about sucrose and some say it is 2 glucose molecules and some others say it is 1 glucose molecule and 1 fructose molecule. I know that both of these are related ...
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Reaction in assay mixture (octanal, DTT, sodium phosphate buffer)?

I am getting precipitates in the following mixture, and am not too sure what reaction is occurring and whether it is possible to maintain all three components in my assay (I am trying to reproduce an ...
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1answer
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Why alcohols don't behave as acids?

If I understand everything correctly, carboxylic acids behave like acids because oxygen is much more electronegative than hydrogen, so it takes his electron and releases H+. The problem is that ...
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43 views

How to obtain pure aniline from a mixture of phenol and aniline?

There is a mixture of aniline and phenol. I need to obtain (just the procedure) pure aniline. So I think the mixture should heat with Zn powder(to convert phenol to benzene) and then I thought to ...
2
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Structure of fluoroalkylsilane

I want to use FAS (fluoroalkylsilane) in my molecular dynamics study. How can I find it's real structure? So that I can find proper forcefield for simulating the molecule. It would be very nice if you ...
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50 views

SN1 Polar Protic Solvent Stabilization of Substrate

I know that the standard textbook answer is that a polar protic solvent is able to better stabilize/solvate carbocations through hydrogen bonding. I understand that a solvent such as water or ...
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Taiwan propylene explosions one week ago

Is it wrong way to use WATER to relieve the big disaster(propylene leak). What is a better way to relieve propylene leak in a street about large area? Any possible choice to prevent explosion?
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What sort of lab can determine PAH concentration in a soil or charcoal sample? How difficult is it to do?

Non-chemist here. I'm curious how difficult it is to determine concentration of PAH in a sample of soil or powdered charcoal, or a sample of the two mixed together. What would be involved in doing ...
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What is the result when the polarity of the solvent is increased in nucleophilic substitution?

I read in the Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry that increasing the polarity of the solvent slightly reduces the rate of an $S_N2$ reaction. Why does this happen? Another question: We know ...
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UV-VIS spectra of n-decanes

I was wondering if anyone knows where I can find UV-VIS spectra of the n-decanes. Specifically tetradecane and dodecane. I can't seem to find such information using my regular search methods, so I ...
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Meaning of “n” in “n-octane” (and similar others)?

Straight-chain octane is also called n-octane. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=356 ("Also known as:") I don't see any purpose for the "n"?
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What are the parent compounds of the following? [closed]

I just need these two answered correctly so I have examples to work with, also if someone could label the longest continuous chain, that would be great too! Thanks!