Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules. Organic molecules generally have C-H or C-C bonds.

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What's more polar, phenol para- substituted with an ester, or with a carboxylic acid?

I was taught in class that in terms of polarity, carboxyl > hydroxyl > ester. When two molecules share a hydroxyl group, but one has a carboxyl group, and the other has an ester, which is more polar, ...
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Fragmentations and rearrangements in n-(4-alkyl phenyl) alkanoic acids in mass spectrometry

I have this example exam question for which I don't have the answer. I have been working on it the whole morning but I can't figure it out. The question suggests three molecules, only one of which ...
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There's a ghost in my whiteboard?

...or at least I thought so, when I saw that the ink that was on my whiteboard last night became really messed up the next day. The image below shows my whiteboard before (on the left) and after (on ...
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Why does the activation enthalpy of ester hydrolysis increase with an increase in alcohol-chain length?

(Particularly concerning acid hydrolysis) Is there some sort of chemical reason as to why with increasing alcohol-chain length, there is also an increase in the minimum energy needed to cause the ...
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29 views

Is C60 a ionophore?

I don't quite understand what qualifies as an ionophore but lipid solubility and ion transporter/carrier are two of C60's hallmark features, no? Thus does this make it an ionophore? I can't seem to ...
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Hydrogenation of alkynes to trans alkenes

Hydrogenation of alkynes in presence of lindlar's catalyst yields only cis isomer of the alkene formed.however if we break the catalyst into fine pieces and then make use of it under adequate pressure ...
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30 views

What is the mechanism of reduction by Li AlH4? [on hold]

What is the mechanism of reduction by LiAlH4 ? I get particularly confused by this hence wanted the reaction mechanism .
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29 views

What exactly is alcoholic KOH and how is it different from aqueous KOH ? [duplicate]

What exactly is alcoholic KOH and how is it different from aqueous KOH ? Why is one of them considered a Strong base in organic chemistry while another is considered relatively moderate .
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Why strong bases like NaNH2 are only stabilised by H+ ions while the relatively moderate bases like aq KOH get stabilized by any positive charge

Why strong bases like NaNH2 are only stabilized by H+ ions while the relatively moderate bases like aq KOH get stabilized by any positive charge. Particularly in organic chemistry it is observed that ...
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14 views

What effect does the nitro group have on the binding of an azo dye to cotton? [on hold]

I was wondering if NO2 would increase or decrease the retention of dyes and how. What effect does the nitro group have on the binding of an azo dye to cotton?
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44 views

How to pronounce “NONOate”? [on hold]

for nitric oxide release... one of the most investigated NO donor is N-diazeniumdiolate. but N-diazeniumdiolate call "NONOate". I wanna know.... How to pronounce this nickname? NONOate [en o ...
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16 views

Reduction of a nitro compound to amine [on hold]

How to hidrogenate the nitro group in (2-Nitropropyl)benzene (2-Nitro-1-phenylpropane) yielding amino group? I need a balanced equation and conditions + catalysts... A similar (only non-saturated in ...
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1answer
24 views

Bioplastics from eggshells

There are many resources online which talk about projects making bioplastic from egg shells. However none of these actually show or describe the procedure needed to make it. Does anyone know a ...
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1answer
24 views

How would I name O-methylations on sugars while retaining the sugar’s common name?

Suppose I had a monosaccharide, e.g. D-arabinose. Suppose I do a few synthetic steps with it, and end up with the compound methyl (2S,3R,4R)-3,5-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxypentanoate. (as labelled by ...
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1answer
42 views

How to convert an oxirane to an alkanol with one additional carbon atom?

This is a question given in our exam. In the reaction, Find the reagents X and Y required for steps(ii) and (iii) are _______ and ________ respectively. I have tried in this way but I have stuck in ...
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27 views

Mechanism of acid Catalysed Sodium Bisulfite adduct [on hold]

I have a reaction written in my textbook, which I can't understand. $$\ce{RR'C(OH)(SO3Na) ->[\text{Hydrolysis}][\Delta,~dil.~\ce{HCl}] RR'CO + NaCl + SO2 + H2O}$$ Why this reaction is ...
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1answer
23 views

Aldol and Cannizzaoros reaction [on hold]

How does a comound undergo both aldol and Cannizzaoros reaction ? I came across this example - the preparation of pentaerythritol from actaldehyde and formaldehyde which uses both cross aldol and ...
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The Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation [on hold]

Water and diethyl ether are immiscible liquids. Charged compounds dissolve in water, and uncharged compounds dissolve in ether. $\ce{C6H11COOH}$ ???pKa(H3) has a of 4.8 and has a of 10.7.??? a. What ...
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1answer
39 views

Stability of Phenoxide Ion

The Phenoxide Ion is more stable than the Phenol itself because more stabilized resonance structures. But on the other hand we say phenoxide ions are more susceptible to electrophilic attack as they ...
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what is the product when nitric acid reacts with primary alcohol?

(when glucose reacts with nitric acid saccharic acid is produced due to the presence primary alcohol group in glucose).similarly will it be a carboxylic acid??say when methanol reacts with HNO3 will ...
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how to find out the velocity constant of ethyl acetate catalysed by acetic acid practically in lab using reagents and equioments? [on hold]

how to find out the velocity constant of ethyl acetate catalyzed by acetic acid using practical data in laboratory and how to gain and proceed with the readings ?
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An alternate purification process for sugar separation form bee honey?

Bee honey contains 75% sugars (Fructose, Glucose, Maltose, Sucrose and others), some water and low amount of different compounds (up to 5%) Wiki. Basic purification is done by addition of phosphoric ...
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pKa values and basicity

In considering basicity (particularly of amines), often I find included with the compound a pKa. I understand that the higher the pKa of the conjugate acid, the stronger the base. But when the pKa is ...
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35 views

Definition of an amide

If I asked you to draw me an amide, we'd likely end up with something in the form of: The exact definition of this is given fairly clearly in the IUPAC gold book. Derivatives of oxoacids [...] ...
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69 views

Pyridine-N-oxide - Removal of oxygen

Under what condition do the reaction proceed with sole removal of oxygen in contrast with the product also ending up with chlorine substituent? I'm familiar with both reaction mechanism, but can't ...
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What ingredients are needed to dissolve paraffin wax such that it can be coated onto paper (in a manufacturing process)?

I am trying to determine the constituents of the wax-based coating of a paper bag for my study. I have contacted the manufacturer who will only give me "some" components which were: Emulsion Acrylic ...
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30 views

Steric inhibition of resonance in Aniline and Benzoic acid [Edit]

My question is for what "approx" value of A (cyclohexane table) will a single ortho substitute will push NH2 and COOH (specifically for benzene derivatives)respectively out of plane, is it CH3 ...
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33 views

What is the melting point of glycerol in a vacuum?

Can anyone tell me what the melting point of glycerin would be in a vacuum? From researching online (disclaimer: I'm definitely not a chemist) it seems the boiling point is ~170 °C in a vacuum (vs. ...
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1answer
58 views

Number of resonating structures (hypothetical)

To my knowledge, resonance happens where more than one lewis stucture can represent the compound with no shift in sigma bonds so, suppose in a simple conjugated system even like 1-3 pentadiene , two ...
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2answers
74 views

Does HF react with ethanol?

HF is needed to be dissolved in ethanol in many cases, e.g. in electrochemical etching for fabrication of porous material or in sol-gel synthesis of transition metal oxides being doped with F. Does HF ...
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1answer
30 views

Is Iodoform test restricted for only methyl ketones? [closed]

Do only methyl ketones give iodoform test? Where can a keto methyl group be present in?
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1answer
94 views

Would sodium salicylate dissolve in HCl?

I've been searching around the web and the consensus seems to be sodium salicylate dissolves poorly in HCl because it would form salicylic acid. However, I don't understand why forming salicylic acid ...
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17 views

Determining the type of electrocyclic via MO theory

I have been working on this particular problem for a while now to determine how this particular reaction plays out. I think it is a a thermo electrocyclic ring transformation involving 6 pi ...
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49 views

Cis/trans interconversion of crotyl-boron compounds

Why is the following interconversion slowest for crotyl boronates and fastest for crotyl boranes while crotyl borinates are somewhere in-between?
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1answer
41 views

Is chloronitrobenzene and nitrochlorobenzene same?

Is it 2-chloronitrobenzene or 2-nitrochlorobenzene? If we take nitro group as the substituent, it will be 2-chloronitrobenzene. But if we take chloro group as the substituent, it is ...
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Why is the pKa of methane 50? [duplicate]

I know that $\ce{CH4}$ can dissociate into $\ce{CH3-}$ and $\ce{H+}$ The dissociation acid constant is: $$K_a = \frac{[\ce{H+}][\ce{CH3-}]}{[\ce{CH4}]}$$ I know that $\ce{CH4}$ has a molarity of ...
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1answer
38 views

about reaction of hydrocarbon in presence of platinium catalyst [closed]

A hydrocarbon C4H6 absorbs two moles of hydrogen in the presence of platinium as a catalyst. the reduction product is inert towards bromine and potassium peramagnate .what further info is becesary in ...
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48 views

Why is Sodium Hydroxide not a good CO2 absorber

I was wondering why even though all hydroxides can "absorb" CO2, are not efficient?. I know that in particular, for sodium hydroxide it has to do with the binding energy involved, but I am still ...
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Positive inductive effect of 'Carboxlate ion' [closed]

Why does Carboxylate ion (Coo-) group can show positive Inductive (+I ) effect? How it can be electron donating? Please explain?
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1answer
18 views

What happens to the third hydroxyl group in a phosphodiester linkage?

A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds. But what happens to the third hydroxyl ...
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cyclopentadiene's anion form is aromatic but why is cycloheptatrienyl anion not aromatic?

I just cant seem to figure this out. the cyclopentadienyl anion is aromatic but the cycloheptatrienyl anion is not (but the cation is), why?
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Validity of canonical forms of nitrobenzene [duplicate]

Are 4 of these canonical forms of nitrobenzene valid and distinct?
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Inductive effect +I or -I [closed]

Why does $\ce{R-CH_2F-CH_3}$ undergo $+I$ effect in spite of having $ \ce{F} $ which is more electronegative than $\ce{C}$ and is supposed to withdraw electrons?
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why are halogens considered deactivating groups while methoxyl groups are activating?

Something's wrong with how I think of this: methoxyl has the partial negative charge on oxygen which means it's activating. However, halogens are more electronegative yet they're considered ...
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2answers
60 views

Amine Nomenclature – When to use “N”

I'm currenty wondering what the correct naming scheme for the following molecule would be: Is this called "2,N,N-trimethylpropan-1-amine" or "2-methyl-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine". In other words, do ...
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Naming Organic Compound

How should I name this? 1,1,1-tribromo-2,2-dichloroethane or 2,2,2-tribromo-1,1-dichloroethane ?
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The proper formula of sucrose - why both forms are correct and how one is transformed into another

During preparations for my exam I've stumbled upon a tormenting question how it happens that the formula of sucrose is written in two different forms - the vertical and the horizontal. the ...
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Redox Reactions with buckyballs

I have read that buckyballs are excellent electron acceptors, C60 in particular can accept up to 6 electrons. However I do not understand why they have this ability and how they can accept a large ...
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Friedal-Crafts Alkylation of Toluene [duplicate]

I was solving some organic chemistry problems earlier today when I can across a confusing problem. It asks the major product of the chemical reaction between toluene, chloromethane, and anhydrous ...
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42 views

Could any constituent of normal human urine produce a false positive in a Kastle-Meyer test for presence of blood?

From my understanding, one forensic test for the presence of traces of blood at a crime scene is (or was) the Kastle-Meyer test. Doing some research, I understand that in the test, hemoglobin reacts ...