Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules, i.e. (most) carbon compounds.

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Why do other sugars melt whereas sucrose decomposes?

Sucrose decomposes at 186°C. It doesn't melt but when it reaches decomposition temperature, sucrose decomposes into fructose and glucose. After cooling and hardening it is no longer sucrose. Am I ...
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Removing the hydrazine byproduct from the mitsunobu reaction

Looking to remove the hydrazine byproduct left after the mitsunobu reaction. Using DIAD and polymer bound triphenyl phosphine. The reduced diad is coeluting with my product on silica. My thoughts for ...
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How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF?
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How to test for presence of Tobacco/nicotine in a product?

I found this paper that says nicotine was found in major toothpaste brands in India. Rather than playing blame game, wouldn't it be easier to test ourselves ? How to test for presence of ...
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Why do different alcohols have different effects on the brain?

I've been trying to understand why different alcohols have different effects on the brain. Methanol is obviously poisonous, apparently because it's converted to formic acid. Because the body seems ...
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Shape Of Cetyl Alcohol

Why is cetyl alcohol bent at the 9th position?
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Why do SN1 and SN2 reaction not occur at sp2 centres?

I was told in my organic chemistry course that $\text{S}_\text{N}1$ and $\text{S}_\text{N}2$ reactions did not occur at $\text{sp}^2$ centres. When I asked why, I was not given a satisfactory ...
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What happen when there is no salt bridge in microbial fuel cell?

I wonder if there is no salt bridge on microbial fuel cell, Are there have the same amount of current or none?
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Grignard: Unreacted Magnesium

A Grignard reagant was prepared from an alkyl halide and magnesium chips, then reacted with a ketone. The resulting solution has been stirring for a few days at low temperature (0-5°C). It's now time ...
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Gauche correction in Bensen group increment

I have difficulty understanding the use of gauche correction in Bensen group increment method to calculate the heat of formation. As an example, 4 times gauche correction (0.8 kcal / mol) is ...
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Why is a ketone more nucleophilic than an ester?

I guess the ester is a weaker nucleophile because it does have an additional oxygen atom, unlike the ketone, that is pulling electrons from the C-O double bond towards the carbon atom (this happens ...
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Acid-Catalyzed Hydration

Is there any particular reason why this mechanism is used in the solution manual rather than an acid-catalyzed hydration? I was thinking of having the double bond attack a hydronium ion, which ...
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What's the purpose of a Grignard reagent initiation?

Preface: I've read this question about water preventing an initiation from occurring. I understand why it's important to slowly add the alkyl halide to the dry ether and magnesium for exotherm ...
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How to dissolve grass/leaves without affecting enclosure?

I've got two questions: What sort of compound can dissolve grass/leaves fastest without leaving "much" trace? What sort of enclosure is required for this to be doen safely and without damaging the ...
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Why does fusing benzene rings not produce polycyclic alkynes?

It would make sense that when the benzene rings are fused they keep their pi bonds and form a polycyclic alkyne. However this is not the case. My hypothesis is that because monocyclic alkynes at 8C ...
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What does 'organic/non-ogranic molecule' means exactly?

I am new to the organic chemistry world. I was delving for the exact answer to my question, and I've found some results: In wikipedia (french), is was mentioned that an organic molecule contains ...
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Is FA 18:2 undifferentiated the same as linoleic acid?

On wiki, linoleic acid has the code number FA 18:2 cis,cis-9,12 . But then what exactly is FA 18:2 undifferentiated?
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Soap and rain water, why does it not rinse off?

I am in Papua New Guinea at the moment, where rain water harvesting is the most common way of getting water. When washing hands, the soap feels hard to rinse off, and my skin feels "greasy". I read ...
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58 views

Markovinikov's Addition Rule?

What is Markovnikov's Rule? My chemistry teacher was teaching organic chemistry, and in reaction he says that it uses MMarkovnikov's rule, and went on teaching, he didn't described it,as he was very ...
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Human Body and RNA/DNA

After research I found that enzymes are responsible for metabolism, specifically catabolism and anabolism. This in turn creates the necessary chemicals in your body. The only question left is: what ...
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Help with identifying an unknown substance?

I have the following IR and NMR of an unknown substance. Can someone tell me what is a possible structure of the compound or point me in the correct direction. So far I am thinking of a benzene ring ...
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Identifying an unknown compound(w/ NMR/IR)?

I need some help identifying the following unknown compound. Any suggestions or hints regarding the possible compound would be highly appreciated. So far I am thinking the broad peak on the IR is an ...
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51 views

Fluorobullvalene Question

Bullvalene is a fluxional molecule able to interconvert any two carbon atoms through a series of degenerate Cope rearrangements (read the Stereodynamics section of this article if you would like more ...
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Removing prenylated phenolics from clothing, shoes, and upholstery

I live in Southern California and sometimes hike in areas that can be overgrown with a plant called purple poodle-dog bush. As I found out the first time I went crashing through a stand of the stuff, ...
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Difference between backbonding and hyperconjugation and conjugation [closed]

What is the difference between backbonding and hyperconjugation and conjugation? I mean the basic differences as all are concerned with donation of electrons. What is the most striking effect of each ...
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Database with organic reaction mechanisms (curly arrows)

Is there any database or book that has an index of organic reactions where the mechanisms are written out, complete with curly arrows? It would really help if I could look up a reaction and see a ...
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Why are amidines so much more basic than amides?

Both delocalize the added proton. Is it because the bond lengths in amidines are the same, or perhaps because oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen and thus is more reluctant at keeping the ...
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Which alpha Hydrogens are more acidic?

Why is the alpha hydrogen of a acetoacetic ester less acidic than the alpha hydrogen of 1,3 diketone ? I was under the impression that acetoacetic ester has more resonance structures so it more ...
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Wurtz reaction doubt

What would be the product formed when 1-bromo-3-chlorocyclobutane with two equivalents of metallic sodium in ether? I know that there would be a free radical formation and then it will form a ...
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Interpreting the Infrared Spectroscopy(IR)?

I have already attempted to interpret some of the peaks. Please tell me if they are correct/incorrect and anything that I have missed. Thanks !
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1,6-dimethycyclohexene and 2,3-dimethylcyclohexene

Is there a difference between these two molecules? If so how does one tell? What is the correct nomenclature for cycloalkenes? I know that the double bond is assumed to be between C1 and C2 but why ...
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Recrystallization of two unknown compounds?

I managed to separate a binary mixture(in solid form) of two unknown substances into two individual solid compounds. For the separation, I used an acid-base extraction with dichloromethane, NaOH, and ...
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Mechanism for the Beilstein test?

What is a possible mechanism for the Beilstein test for halogens ? I can't seem to find a arrow pushing mechanism for this reaction.
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Mechanism for Tollen's classification test for Aldehydes?

I am trying to find a mechanism for the Tollen's Test online but only thing I am finding is balanced equation. Can someone propose or help me find the mechanism ? Thanks !
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Fermentation in beer (reaction schemes)?

I've been struggling with this for a while, and i can't seem to solve the problem. Alcohol is made in the fermentation process in beer: "Sugars formed during mashing (maltose and maltotriose) will ...
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Basic chemistry of the Shinoda test for flavonoids?

In this test, four pieces of magnesium fillings (ribbon) are added to the ethanolic extract followed by a few drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid. A reddish colour indicates the presence of ...
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When will peroxide form?

A very typical example of a compound of peroxide is H2O2. When like the title says, will such compounds form, despite usually oxygen will have a oxidation number of 2-?
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Why does acetyl have negative charge?

"Acetylation (adding an acetyl group) and phosphorylation (adding a phosphate group) make the histones more negatively charged because acetyl and phosphoryl groups are negative. They are "glass is ...
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Number of hyperconjugation structures

Is the number of hyperconjugation structures for a hydrocarbon with number of 'alpha' hydrogens 'a' equal to 'a' or 'a+1'?
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What does the adenosine do in ATP?

This is an extremely basic question about biochemistry from someone who doesn't know much about organic chemistry. I'm aware of how organisms store energy ATP and release it by dephosphorylating it ...
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Free Radical Reaction of Methane and Chlorine

The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Lets say you have $1 L$ of $2 M$ methane and the same amount of chlorine. Lets also say that both are liquids since those are most likely ...
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Interpretation of the following IR?

I have the following IR Spectrum that I am trying to interpret: So far I am thinking this compound have: a primary amine due to two peaks at 3624 and 3533. The sharp peak 3416 could indicate an ...
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What is the fire point of sucrose with an average particle diameter of 60 micrometres?

What is the fire point of sucrose with an average particle diameter of 60 micrometres? I can't seem to find any documentation on this, online.
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Enantiomers or Identical Compounds?

I don't know why my solutions manual says these are enantiomers: The Fisher projections I drew suggest that these are identical compounds.
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What is relationship between molecular weight distribution of PE and its strength?

I'm trying to figure out the relationship between the molecular weight distribution of a polyethylene plastic and its strength and heat sealability. (The molecular weight distribution is described ...
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Why is the acyclic to cyclic rearrangement of Glucose formed via the C5 hydroxyl group?

In converting glucose from its acyclic form to either cyclic form (alpha or beta) why is the C5 hydroxyl group used instead of the bottommost hydroxyl group? Also, are these structures considered ...
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Why do cotton clothes take a longer time to dry as compared to synthetic clothes?

This may be in relation to the $\ce{-O-H}$ group present in cellulose, but I would like to have a more specific answer.
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Are the following two compounds isomers?

Are the following two compounds isomers? (A) $CH_{3}-CO-CH_{2}-CH_{2}-CH_{2}-CH_{2}-OH$ (B) $CH_{3}-CH_{2}-CH_{2}-CH_{2}-CH_{2}-COOH$ Although they have the same molecular formula ...
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Why does diazo coupling prefer the para position?

When the diazonium ion couples with dimethylaniline why is para position favored ? Is it simply because of the steric factors or does electric factors play a part in it ? What I mean by electric ...
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Protonation of Guanidine

Why is the $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized nitrogen atom in guanidine the most basic? I know that as a general guideline, $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized atoms are more basic than $\ce{sp^2}$. Bases are electron ...