Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules, i.e. (most) carbon compounds.

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Why is it a good idea to put some salt in the bread dough?

The salt that you can typically find in a kitchen is the $\ce{NaCl}$, isn't this salt supposed to act as an antiseptic? I find a lot of recipes that suggest the addition of salt when preparing the ...
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Major Product formed when 1,1,1-trichloropropane is treated with Aqueous KOH

What are(is) the product formed when 1,1,1-trichloropropane is treated with Aqueous Potassium Hydroxide. I think the major product should be propionic acid, but I'm not sure.
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How can I carry out a titration to identify mercury in wastewater?

First, I would like to do a some form of extraction to only get the mercury, then followed by a titration to identify the concentration or the presence of mercury.
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Why does no Robinson Annelation Occur?

Under Basic conditions a michael addition reaction can be used to convert compound A into Product C. Explain why no Robinson Annelation cyclic product is observed? Compound A Product C I have ...
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Unexplained peak cluster in proton NMR trace?

I am working on a straight-forward NMR graph as part of my test prep. I have a pretty limited understanding of NMR, but I thoroughly read the chapter leading up to this practice question and am having ...
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Stoichiometry help! [on hold]

Stoichiometry help! This is not a test! I'm not cheating :) but I'm so lost! I don't like asking for help because my parents get mad and tell me to figure it out myself. But I could really use some ...
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Draw pyridine as an R Group

You know how when you carry out a reaction with many compounds, when drawing the reactions you just draw a line at a right angle to the bond with a 'R' at the end (see image)? Then you can specify ...
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38 views

high school - numbering carbon atoms in organic molecules

I am in high school and haven't had a formal chemistry course, however I am fascinated with biology and picked up a biology book more advanced than the one the school is using to read on my own. The ...
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Product of Reaction?

What would be 'A' in the reaction (see image)? Any help would be deeply appreciated. I know that Alc KOH does elimination but I was confused whether it would eliminate one bromine each from two ...
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Why are high pressures used in cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons?

If we have a long-chain hydrocarbon, such as decane, and we split it through thermal cracking (say in an industrial plant), we use high temperatures, and high pressures. Cracking produces smaller ...
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23 views

How is Humic substance destroyed in nature?

Humic substance consists of many, to my knowledge poorly understood, species of organic matter, mostly carbohydrates chained in intersting (and also poorly understood) ways. Humic substance is an ...
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Naming an ensemble of compounds

As part of intern work I am running simulations on a group of compounds, but as it is I have little in the way of O-Chem experience and I wanted to be able to at least get some direction on naming ...
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Oxime + LiAlH4 ­­­­­­­­­

I want to know the mechanism of this reaction. My intuition says $H^-$ will attack on $C$ attached to $N$ and hydrolysis afterwards would produce $-NH-OH$. But the answer says that amine will be ...
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What's the mechanism for the oxidation of primary alcohol to carboxylic acid with HNO3? [closed]

Can someone help me find the mechanism for this reaction. I've been looking for it, but I haven't found it. Thank you.
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Why Isodecane (B.P.: 327 *C) has a higher boiling point than decane (B.P.: 174.1 *C)?

Branched chain molecules have lower boiling point than straight chain molecules because branched chain molecules have a smaller surface area where they can be attracted by other molecules. Then, why ...
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32 views

How to model iso-surface of molecular orbitals of singlet and triplet excited states

I've modelled the iso-surface of the highest occupied molecular orbital of a molecule with DFT in Gaussian.If I were to model the iso-surface of the molecular orbital of the singlet and triplet ...
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what is the simple enantiomer in the powder form that one can get?

I want to do some experiments on enantiomers. As it involves more calculations of potential energy surfaces, I would like to do this experiment on a simple enantiomer. For example CHBrClF. But this is ...
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58 views

Reaction at Alpha Carbon?

I'm having trouble with the products of these reactions below... I feel like I'm on the right track but don't know why it comes up wrong Figured out the aldehyde - but not the ester one!
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Cant extract a pyridine tetrazole

So I have synthesised a compound which is basically a pyridine ring conected to a tetrazole. The procedure suggested to precipitate it at pH 1 but it didnt... It then suggested to extract it with ...
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Is photosynthesis endothermic and exothermic at the same time? … somehow?

Photosynthesis is obviously an endothermic reaction, I mean, what would be the point otherwise, right? This is probably just sheer and utter stupidity on my behalf, but why does Wikipedia say the heat ...
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42 views

How much activation energy is required to combust propane?

According to WolframAlpha, the change in enthalphy in the combustion of propane is -2220 kJ/mol. How do I calculate the activation energy required start the reaction in the first place? Do you use the ...
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111 views

Meaning of “mono-N-demethylation”

I know what demethylation is. I have no idea what mono- means, the N is nitrogen of course, I know that from the line structure image in front of me if I could not guess it - and after quite a bit of ...
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120 views

Why does having equivalent resonating structure give more stability?

If we take a phenolate ion ($\ce{C6H5O-}$) and an acetate ion ($\ce{CH3COO-}$) which one would be more stable? Although the Phenolate ion has more(4) resonating structure compared to acetate ion(2), ...
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Acid chlorides… are they really acidic?

If I get a pure solution of an acid chloride and place a pH meter into the liquid, will I get a reading of pH 7? When I add water to it, I know $HCl$ gas will form but will this gas dissolve in water ...
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Hygroscopic behaviour of DMSO - how bad is it?

For a fluid flow experiment I am using DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide), because of its low volatility, reasonably high surface tension, low viscosity and relative safety. In the MSDS of DMSO I find that the ...
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Why are we not supposed to heat Erlenmyer flasks?

Chemistry says that we are are we supposed to heat boiling flasks, and not Erlenmeyer flasks. However, I can't find any information about this on Google. Is there a particular reason for this? Is ...
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41 views

Test for glyphosate in water, boolean style

Testing for contamination of the ever so popular glyphosate based herbicide "Roundup" in water is a service that many labs provide, one of them is the Microbe Inotec Laboratory . They use an enzyme to ...
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95 views

Predict the product (organic chemistry)

I think that the first reaction would add into the ketone carbon, but I don't know where to go after that. A step-by-step explanation of the answer would be greatly appreciated! Answer choices: ...
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70 views

When we dilute a weak acid, pH increases but dissociation increases

When water is added to a weak acid like ethanoic aicd, number of ethanoic acid molecules that dissociate increases however, pH increases (less acidic)... but why?
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Which branches of chemistry and in what order to learn (self study)?

Hi I have decided to give chemistry another shot (it didn't take so well way back in high school). My main interest is for reading up on brain chemistry and pharmacology. I currently have a textbook ...
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69 views

Aldol of 7-oxo octanal

I want to do intra molecular aldol condensation of 7-oxo octanal. I am talking about the major product. Clearly, A 6-membered ring would be a major product, but there are 2 possibilities. Taking ...
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59 views

Stability of cyclobutyl methyl carbocation

I know that cyclopropyl methyl carbocation is exceptionally stable compared to say, benzyl carbocation. But I want to know how stable is cyclobutyl methyl carbocation compared to say, ...
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137 views

Coconut aldehyde Mechanism

How would you draw the mechanism going from 3-nonenoic acid to coconut aldehyde? I know I added Sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate which I was confused how they worked into the mechanism. I am ...
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What is the difference between doxycycline hcl and doxycycline hyclate?

I would like to ask what are the main differences between doxycycline hcl and hyclate? I work in the pharmaceutical/veterinary raw materials industry and some clients are saying that they prefer ...
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Questions about Buffer System (Lab)

I will be doing a lab on Hydrogen Phosphate buffer system tomorrow and I have a few questions about the buffer system. I am not sure if my assumptions are correct. (1) What would happen to the rate ...
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Low-volatile liquids that 'ball-up' on siliconoxide or perfluoroalkanes

This is a very simple and short question. I am looking for liquids that are low/non-volatile at 20$^\circ$C (at least substantially less volatile than water) which have a high contact angle with glass ...
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133 views

Conversion of an amide to an imine

We haven't learned this in class yet, but after looking online, and through my textbook, I can't seem to find a definite answer. I am hopelessly and utterly lost.
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Cleavage of an amide under acidic conditions

I think I'm doing it correctly but perhaps I'm missing something? Do they both need to be protonated
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Understanding Mesomeric Effect

I am getting confused between the type of mesomeric effect (+M or -M) shown by compounds containing $\ce{-COX}$ where $\ce{X}$ is an electronegative element. Examples: $\ce{-CONHCH3}$, ...
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Why isn't 4-hydroxybenzoic acid formed along with salicylic acid in kolbe's reaction?

I've read that in kolbe's reaction of phenol, i.e. reaction of phenol $(\ce {C6H5OH})$ with $\ce{NaOH}$ forming sodium phenoxide $(\ce {C6H5O^{-}Na^{+}})$, followed by reaction with $\ce{CO_2}$ and ...
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Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions?

Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions? For example, ethene or ethyne will undergo an addition reaction with chlorine, whereas ethane will not. Further, why does benzene not ...
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Are all (pure) alkanes, alkenes and alkynes - tasteless, odourless and colourless? [closed]

non-pure alkanes, .. have a taste .. (as far as I know, is it wrong or true?) but .. Are all pure alkanes, .. tasteless ..?
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Williamson Ether Synthesis

Williamson ether synthesis is conducted using vanillin, $\ce{KOH}$, $\ce{EtOH}$, water and benzyl chloride. Why is water needed for the synthesis? Why must the solution be refluxed for an hour to ...
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36 views

What is the range of sizes for molecular systems?

Molecular systems - are in a simple count systems made up of molecules. But almost every system, surrounding us are molecular than. Considering the molecular systems in terms of chemistry compels us, ...
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What is LE (plant contents)?

I am reading the contents of the oatstraw: .. high in vitamins A, C, B complex, LE, G.. I am unable to find on the Internet what LE refers to.
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Can a hydrocarbon organic compound contain an ionic bond? [closed]

Can hydrocarbon organic compounds have a type of bonds other than covalent bonds?
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74 views

'Hard' soap vs. 'Soft' soap: Why do they work this way?

In school, we did an experiment using fat and $\ce{KOH}$ to create 'soft' soap. Afterwards, we added $\ce{NaOH}$ to change it into 'hard' soap. I read on multiple places on the internet that the ...
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Is there a (carbon) heterocyclic compounds named from number three to infinity?

for example Oxepane is a 7-Atom Ring can there be 8-Atom Ring or 9-Atom Ring .. or million-Atom Ring to infinity?
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Can an organic compound have an ionic bond?

Is there any organic compound that has another type of bonds than the covalent bonds?
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Diels Alder reaction with maleic anhydride. Reactivity of different dienes

I don't understand question 6, although I took notes and the professor mentioned an explanation in class. Can someone please help using easier terms?