Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules. Organic molecules generally have C-H or C-C bonds.

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Which chemicals could be used to dissolve Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT), but not dissolve brass?

This is for a recycling project, I am looking to recover brass pins from electronic connectors made of glass reinforced Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT). The objective is to find a chemical which ...
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42 views

Why does delocalization of $\pi$ electron bring stability?

My book mentions that Delocalization of $\pi$ electrons makes a compound stable as the process of delocalization involves loss in internal energy. This is the synopsis of resonance. But how does ...
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9 views

Curly arrow mechanism for reaction between sodium borohydride and water?

I was asked to compare the reaction between sodium hydride and water and sodium borohydride and water. I know that the former acts more violently than the latter, but apparently I must use a curly ...
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21 views

Organic chemistry naming - ascorbic acid - weird numberings

This might be a beginner's question, but hey I have to start somewhere. If I look up the IUPAC name of ascorbic acid, I find this: ...
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25 views

What is tryptose

Occasionally, I work with lauryl tryptose broth for growing coliform. Being a chemical engineer, I suspected at the start that tryptose is a type of carbohydrate because of the -ose syffix. However, ...
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29 views

Why is nitration of veratrole specific in these positions?

Why do we not need $\ce{H2SO4}$ as acid catalyst for di-nitration of veratrole? Why does the 2nd nitro group go to positions 4 or 5, following the directing effects of the methoxy-group? Doesn't the ...
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18 views

Is the refractive index of a solution of four substances is a median of the four subtances' refractive index?

I need to determine the purity of a solution and we need to discuss about the 'theoretical' refractive index of the substance that we are supposed to have. Thank you!
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31 views

Define “reactivity”

Does reactivity of a compound depend on kinetic factors, thermodynamic factors, or both? i.e. how is reactivity defined? For example, out of a) 2-bromopropane and b) 4-bromobutan-2-one, which is more ...
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166 views

How are Phenols made?

What are the equation and condition for the synthesis of Phenols? Would it work if we added NaOH to Benzene and then reflux?
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30 views

Aromatic, antiaromatic, or non aromatic? [on hold]

Determine if the structures are aromatic, antiaromatic, or non aromatic. Then, draw the Frost circle diagram for each of the structures.
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26 views

Organic synthesis help [on hold]

Using acetone as the only organic reagent, sketch the synthesis of the compound. (Ketones can be converted to Geminal dichlorides using PCl5).
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28 views

Could you suggest me a good coupling method for amide synthesis between tetrahydroisoquinoline and a carboxylic acid?

I want to synthesize an amide using tetrahydroisoquinoline and an unsaturated carboxylic acid which is light sensitive. I tried using DCC as coupling agent and DCM as the solvent at room temperature , ...
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67 views

Problem in Wittig reaction salt configuration NMR

I did an NMR sample to my salt p-carboxybenzyl triphenylphosphonium bromide. I got a doublet at 5.26, and according to every article it belongs to the $CH_2$ next to $P^+$, but how come I didn't get a ...
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11 views

Differences between Urushibara nickel and Raney nickel

The Wikipedia article about Urushibara nickel catalyst is rather short and vague. What is the mechanism for its preparation and in what sense does it differ from Raney nickel (i.e. when should you ...
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24 views

Why concentrated sulfuric acid for dehydration and dilute for hydration?

So for dehydration of ethanol, we use concentrated sulfuric acid, like this: but for hydration of ethylene, we use dilute sulfuric acid, like this: so why is one concentrated, and one dilute? ...
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13 views

How do zeolites work in a cat cracker?

Been learning about catalytic cracking of long chain hydrocarbons into shorter chain hydrocarbons, in which the catalyst zeolite is used so that the temperatures needed for the cracking are much lower ...
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31 views

How is ethanenitrile protonated?

I know that the proton will attack the HOMO, but I'm having difficulty imagining how this will happen. Thank you.
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26 views

Is Benzene Carbaldehyde a correct name?

.. For Benzaldehyde? I'm (always) getting confused between common and IUPAC names. If the above name is correct then is it common one or IUPAC, and why don't we use it more often? Any help would be ...
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8 views

How can we measure electronic excitation in some “nm”(nanometres)?

I have no idea to which concept this belongs: The widest range over which electronic excitations in organic compounds occur, is A) 200 nm – 780 nm B) 220 nm– 500nm C) 250 nm– 700 ...
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31 views

Which vibrational modes of CO2 and CSO do not lead to IR absorption bands?

I recently came across this question, I have no idea about IR: Which of the following vibrational modes show no IR absorption bands? A) Symmetric CO2 stretch B) Antisymmetric CO2 ...
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54 views

Doubt in Cannizzaro reaction

My doubt is, how do we predict the products of a cross Cannizzaro disproportionation in presence of a concentrated base? Ie, How to judge which of the aldehydes (both don't have any alpha hydrogen) is ...
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31 views

Oxygen dissolve in water

I know that $CO_2$ and $O_2$ are slightly soluble in water ($H_2O$) In my understanding, when carbon dioxide dissolve in water, they will react to form carbonic acid just like the equation below. ...
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94 views

Lowest CAS Registry Number on Record

I've been looking for a while and I still can't get a straight answer. I just need to know the lowest CAS Registry Number on record and the corresponding chemical.
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26 views

Can the 1st generation Grubbs Catalyst be used for ring closing metathesis on non-terminal alkenes?

I'm wondering if the 1st gen Grubbs catalyst can be used to do ring closing metathesis on a NON-terminal alkene.
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UV-Vis Spectra: Multiple peaks for one component

I am working on a project in my lab, and we are analyzing capsaicin using HPLC. I am trying to find an appropriate wavelength for the HPLC using a UV-Vis spectrometer. When analyzing the pure ...
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25 views

What is lowest energy state, how does an atom gain it and what does it have to do with hybridization?

I understand that hybridisation occurs due to the atom wanting to exist in the most stable state possible, and the most stable state has the lowest energy. What I don't understand, however, is say, in ...
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Adding water on CH₃COONa. What's the new pH?

We have $10 \,\mathrm{L}$ of solution of $\ce{CH_3COONa}$ with concentration $C=1\,\mathrm{M}$ and $\mathrm{pH}=10$. Then we ad $90\,\mathrm{L} \space \ce{H_2O}$. The question is what will be the pH ...
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42 views

Electrophilic aromatic substitution in heterocycles

I have a question from a past exam that i'm using to revise. I think the answer for part i/ii involves nucleophilic aromatic substitution with NH2- as the nucleophile. Part iii involves alkylation ...
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47 views

Soap versus Shampoo

Soap and shampoo are both cleaning agents in our daily life. Why is soap in solid form and shampoo is in a liquid form, though? Is it because of the chemical components inside them or another ...
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31 views

What conditions would make Sn1 products the major products over E1 products, and vice versa?

Learning about Sn1/E1 reactions right now. It seems that if a Carbocation intermediate is formed through solvolysis that the product(s) are going to always be a pretty even mix of Sn1 and E1 products. ...
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33 views

Creation of ester from acetylene derivative

I took a much different approach from the solutions manual. My synthesis: 1) H2 and Lindlar's catalyst to stop at the alkene. 2) Oxidative cleavage to form benzoic acid. Works here because we ...
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20 views

Enones and hydrogenation

Are enones resistant to hydrogenation? My solutions manual thinks so. I don't recall discussion regarding enones in my text. Nonetheless, could the resonance stabilization of the enone be ...
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20 views

Equivalencies and catalytic hydrogenation

Can we actually control catalytic hydrogenation by introducing specific molar quantities of hydrogen gas? My prof insists on no. No we cannot use a certain equivalency of hydrogen gas to stop at a ...
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28 views

Resonance and reductions with sodium borohydride

I know that sodium borohydride doesn't work particularly well on resonance-stabilized carbonyl groups (i.e. esters) but what about this carbonyl in the center of the above picture? This appears to ...
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Why are there different chemical structures for epinephrine (adrenaline)?

The Wikipedia structure is: Note the empty bond at far-right. "Journals on the Web" (w/e that is) has: CH3 added at far-right. And rxlist.com shows: There's an extra H going into the page! ...
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Reaction an ROH-resonance-stabilized Group with Hydroxide/Acid-Base Reactions

The book says there is no reaction. However, I do not understand why. The ROH group is resonance-stabilized with the benzene-like group. Its conjugate base is stable. There is an inductive effect ...
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39 views

Sn2: Neopentyl halides and Methyl Halides. Are neopentyl halides completely inert? Even to small Nucleophiles?

Two part question for you. Let's preface this with I'm in Ochem 1, so we're just learning the basics of these rxns. Are neopentyl halides completely inert to any reaction through any pathway, SN1, ...
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126 views

Designing synthetic route to dicarbonyl compound

Sorry, not great at formatting. Here's the link in case the picture doesn't show up. http://imgur.com/axfUw25. It's the last one, where 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane breaks apart into...something. ...
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34 views

Why are double bonds at more substituted carbon more stable?

That $\ce{C=C}$ bonds are more stable at more substituted carbon atoms is a common argument used throughout Clayden et al., but is never actually explained (at least not in the first 21 chapters). ...
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Resonant structures and existence of “simple” compounds with 4 carbon atoms and hydrogen [closed]

How much compounds and isomers are possible and likely existent WITH only 4 Carbons including: 1) Only (known) structures 2) Only geometric isomers, 3) Only enantiomers, 2)3) Including geometric AND ...
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39 views

SN1 Reaction Involving Carboxylic Acids

Which oxygen atom is more nucleophilic in carboxylic acids? If we look at this page, it says the carbonyl oxygen is more nucleophilic: However, I also learned in class that $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atoms are ...
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35 views

Why methyl group is 2,4-directing?

This question maybe duplicate but I can't find it anywhere. I am an A level student and this isn't required at this level. No teacher tells me the answer and the websites about it are too complicated ...
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20 views

Where we can buy chlorinated paraffin for lab application?

Any idea where to buy chlorinated paraffin for lab application? We need very viscous analog of CHCl$_3$. Should we think about synthesizing it? I found a lot of places where I could buy 5 tons:) ...
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40 views

How do I (further) lower the pH of a pyrrolidine solution?

Pyrrolidine ($2~\mathrm{mol}$) is slowly added to $164~\mathrm{ml}$ conc. $\ce{HCl}$ in $200~\mathrm{g}$ ice water to adjust the $\ce{pH}$ to $3-4$. When it is mixed, the $\ce{pH}$ is $14$, how do I ...
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379 views

Hydrocarbons with only 4 carbon atoms

How many different organic structures (from the pure theoretical viewpoint) can be drawed with only 4 (exact) carbon atoms and with/without hydrogen? Polycyclic compounds and bridged compounds are ...
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27 views

Calculate the raw material margin for the dehydrogenation of 2-butene to 1,3 butadiene

Calculate the raw material margin for the dehydrogenation of 2-butene to 1,3 butadiene. The chemistry is selective and may be represented by : $\ce{C4H8 -> H2 +C4H6}$ $\ce{C4H8}$ is worth ...
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Complete hydrolysis products

The complete hydrolysis products of diphenyl malonate would be phenol, carbon dioxide, and acetic acid, correct? This is acid-catalyzed hydrolysis with the application of heat. The aqueous acid and ...
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Decarboxylation under acid, water, and extreme heat

I am asked whether dimethyl malonate or methyl acetoacetate decarboxylate when hit with acid, water, and extreme temperatures. I believe the answer is both because both are esters, and esters, upon ...
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Can Ketones next to a Nitrogen hetero atom tautomerise?

I worry that the electronegative N will stabilise keto form so much that equilibrium will be so far towards keto it would be unreasonable to call the enolisiation process a factor
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Experimental chemistry (Planning an experiment)

The benzyloxycarbonyl group (CBZ) is widely used to protect amines, especially in amino acid chemistry.A procedure to synthesise the CBZ derivative of glycine from glycine and benzyl chloroformate is ...