An orbital is a theoretical stable standing waveform shape in which one or two electrons can be found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
1answer
29 views

Orbital angular momentum

For hydrogen atom, L^2 and Lz can be obtained as eigenvalues for a particular wave function. But that does not completely specify the angular momentum vector. How to get about this problem? Also, in ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Orbital representations [duplicate]

The usual 'orbitals' that we draw are drawn with the axes shown and everything. But orbitals are really only 1 electron wave functions of 3 dimensions... Therefore, they can't be plotted as such in ...
6
votes
2answers
58 views

Difference between shells, subshells and orbitals

What are the definitions of these three things and how are they related? I've tried looking online but there is no concrete answer online for this question.
-2
votes
1answer
33 views

Hybridised orbitals

What determines which type of hybridisation (sp3/sp2/sp) a molecule will take? Methane/ethylene/acetylene all have the same electron configuration but undergo different different types of ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

An atom of silicon in its ground state has how many electrons with quantum number l = 1?

I was solving practice problems for electron configuration and periodic table, and I got stuck through a question: An atom of silicon in its ground state has how many electrons with quantum number l ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

Asymmetry in trigonal bipyramidal geometry

I teach an MCAT course in chemistry. I like to explain VSEPR by saying.. first, imagine arranging electron pairs around the central atom so they are maximally distant from each other, and uniformly ...
5
votes
1answer
156 views

Show the vibrational frequency of F2- is much lower than that of F2

Basically I need to draw the molecular orbital for $\ce{F2}$ and then answer a bunch of questions about it. I have drawn it correctly, as far as I know, but I don't know how to use it to show that the ...
9
votes
2answers
620 views

Why do atoms “want” to have a full outer shell?

Okay, so I know that this is about filling the orbitals of the atom, and I understand that. What I don't understand is why? For example, an Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons spinning around ...
4
votes
2answers
176 views

Periodic trend in difference of energy between the s and p orbitals

Why does the difference of energy between the 2s and 2p orbitals of the second period elements increase with increasing atomic number? Does this difference increases by moving down a group, e.g. is ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

How can I tell what colour an element will be? [duplicate]

Previously in my Chemistry education, it was required of us to memorise the colour changes some elements, especially transition metals, go through. Currently we learning about electron configuration ...
4
votes
1answer
208 views

Symmetry labels for orbitals

What are the symmetry labels for the p and d orbitals of $\ce {[PtCl4]^{2-}}$ ? I understand the concept of symmetry labels for molecules. some explanation of how it applies to orbitals would be ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

Unequal ionization energies of methane

Why does methane have two different ionization potentials? How does this work? I understand that MO theory predicts C-H bonds of differing strength, while hybridization predicts C-H bonds of varying ...
8
votes
4answers
763 views

Evidence of orbitals?

How do we know that there are different types of orbitals? For example, what evidence is there for the existence of p orbitals instead of there being multiple s orbitals (for example, why isn't the ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Why do higher orbitals have more energy?

I have seen in textbooks and videos that an electron must absorb energy (become excited) to enter a farther-away orbital. The amount of energy that must be gained is equal to the difference in energy ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Whats the difference between ionization energy and orbital energy?

If you look at the trend in orbital energies as you go across a period the pattern is clear (orbital energy decreases with increasing effective nuclear charge) and, to my knowledge, it has no ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

How do electrons travel through nodes

I understand this is a basic question, but I'm having such a hard time wrapping my head around it. I'm trying to avoid thinking about it as an actual "particle" but as a wave, but that confuses me ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

Do electrons only fill 'spin up' first? Or could it start filling 'down spins' first?

Due to Hund's rule, electrons start filling up the orbitals without pairing up. When this is happening, do the electrons all fill up the 'up' spin? Could they fill in the 'down' spin? Why do they ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Resonance stabilization and size of ligand atoms

I am told that for these two molecules, one of them is not as resonance stabilized as the other. Apparently it's the chlorine one, and it's because of the mismatch in the size of chlorine and carbon. ...
5
votes
1answer
397 views

Why is one lobe of an sp3 hybridized orbital smaller than its other half?

A hybrid sp3 orbital is drawn with one lobe smaller than its other half, the latter which is of equal size when drawing the p orbital. Why is it so?
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Which d orbitals of sulphur take part in the pi bonds of SO3?

In $\ce{SO3}$ 2 $p\pi-d\pi$ bonds are present. But which 'd' orbitals of sulphur take part in these $\pi$ bonds ? The answer says $d_{xy}$ and $d_{yz}$, someone also told me that crystal field ...
11
votes
4answers
290 views

Why are DCM and Chloroform so resistant against nucleophilic substitutions?

In the book Organic Chemistry by J. Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, and P. Wothers I found the following reasoning: You may have wondered why it is that, while methyl chloride (chloromethane) ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

What are the Waves Modeling when Referring to the Atomic Orbitals

It is taught that the orbital shapes derive from wave functions with different numbers of nodes. For example, the "s" orbital comes from a wave that has one node. But what are the waves modeling? A ...
3
votes
2answers
657 views

What is Bent's rule?

I'm all bent out of shape trying to figure out what Bent's rule means. I have several formulations of it, and the most common formulation is also the hardest to understand. Atomic s character ...
5
votes
3answers
91 views

Can electrons switch orbitals within a shell?

I know that electrons can move from say 2s orbital to an unoccupied 2p orbital, as in Carbon atom which can form 4 bonds this way. But I want to know is it possible for an electron say in orbital 2p ...
1
vote
2answers
262 views

Difference between actual position of electron and Radial Distribution Probability

Its known that the radius of maximum probability of 2s orbitals is more than that of 2p orbitals. It means that the maximum probability of finding an electron in an 2s is further away from electron ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

Electronic model with highest prediction rate

Among many models, including the valence bond model (VB) or the molecular orbital (MO) model, which are the ones with best predictive power? (e.g. the MO is thought to predict spectroscopic ...
12
votes
1answer
280 views

When is it true that more nodes equals higher energy?

Consider all the MOs of some isolated molecule. (It could be a single atom too; I'll use MO to refer to AOs as well.) Number them in increasing order of the number of nodes (node = surface where the ...
5
votes
2answers
108 views

Counting Nodal Planes in cyclopropane

The energy of molecule orbitals increases with more nodal planes. W1 (in the attached picture) has no nodal plane. I'd like to know how to draw the nodal planes in cyclopropane molecule orbitals but ...
5
votes
1answer
134 views

What is the origin of the differences between the MO schemes of O2 and N2?

Here are the MO schemes of $\ce{N2}$ (left) and $\ce{O2}$ (right). Why is the $\sigma$-MO formed by the $p$ AOs energetically above the $\pi$-MO for $\ce{N2}$ but not for $\ce{O2}$? Can it be ...
2
votes
3answers
62 views

Why do atomic orbitals have their unique shapes?

Is there a scientific explanation to why p orbitals are shaped like two balloons, etc. I think it has got to do with electron repulsions. Wikipedia says they are 'characterised by unique values of ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

I am trying to picture how electrons move around in atomic orbitals

Are they thought to continuously pop in and out of existence at various points inside the orbital defined by probabilities or do they follow definite paths that are made fuzzy by the Heisenberg ...
0
votes
3answers
46 views

Reduce sizing of molecule - Oxygen

Can the size of molecule oxygen reduce smaller? If yes, how is that possible? Is it related to proton and electron surrounding the nucleus?
4
votes
2answers
179 views

Meaning of depiction of atomic orbitals

There was a section about atomic orbitals in my organic chemistry textbook that I did not quite understand. First the author explained a bit about the Schrödinger equation, which I understood to be ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

Fourth principle of Molecular Orbitals

The fourth principle of Molecular Orbitals state that: Molecular orbitals are best formed when composed of Atomic orbitals of like energies. I'm not sure about ...
5
votes
0answers
260 views

Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses: Physical significance/interpretation of E(2) 'stabilization energy'?

PREFACE: I am no expert on this topic. My questions at the bottom may be off base. I have some experience with symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) when it comes to analyzing intermolecular ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Why is the 8-electron rule more important than the 2- or 18-electron rule

Why is the fulfilled electronic configuration of only $p$ orbital is stable. I mean why $II-B $ group with fulfilled $d$ orbital,$II-A$ group with fulfilled $s$ orbital...are not stable. Why makes ...
0
votes
2answers
95 views

Degenerate Orbitals

How do I know if an atom has degenerate orbitals? My Understanding I understand that degenerate orbitals mean orbitals that have the same energy level for the same n. However, how do I distinguish ...
11
votes
1answer
902 views

Why only two atoms share an electron and not three?

In a covalent bond between two atoms, an electron from one of the either atom is shared by overlapping of their orbitals. So, Why can't three atoms share an electron and overlap their orbitals?
1
vote
1answer
473 views

Structure of Atom and nodes

Nodes are the points in space around a nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is zero. Then, What actually is a radial node and an angular node structurally,and what information do they ...
2
votes
2answers
142 views

Where does the 9th electron go in a $\ce{N=O}$ bond?

In the first resonating structure you can see 5 unpaired electrons and 4 shared electrons on nitrogen, then isn't this a extended octet? If it is so, then in which orbital that 9th electron is ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Splitting of $d$ orbitals when ligands approach central metal ion

In my high school chemistry book, it is written that when ligands approach the central metal ion (transition metal ion) to form dative bonds, the $3d$ orbitals split into two: two which are in higher ...
1
vote
1answer
237 views

How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there an easy way to find number of “valence electrons”?

I want an high-school level answer.What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement?(eg. $3$ in an atom with electronic arrangement $2,8,3$) ...
3
votes
2answers
150 views

Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic ...
0
votes
1answer
240 views

Are orbitals always filled in from closest to nucleus to farthest away?

On a review sheet for a quiz I have tomorrow, I have a question like this: "In which orbital, 4f or 6s, would an electron have a greater likelihood of being near the nucleus". I figured that the 6s ...
2
votes
3answers
150 views

How do 1s and 2p orbitals overlap?

In the following figure we can see that the p-orbitals overlap 1s orbital (though relatively very little). How can an electron in p-orbital, be simultaneously in the 1s orbital at any given point ...
5
votes
3answers
340 views

LCAO (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals) and Phases

So when combining atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals, you can either add the wave functions or subtract them. But at the same time, orbitals can exist in opposite phases (say one lobe of the p ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Finding the number of orbitals on a central atom

In $\ce{BeCl2}$ the number of orbitals on central atom, i.e. on beryllium, are 2. In $\ce{BF3}$, the number of orbitals on central atom , i.e. on boron, are 3. Similarly in $\ce{NH3}$ there are 4, ...
3
votes
1answer
236 views

References to draw 3D molecules with directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals

My instructor has been drawing 3D molecules that show the directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals. I've been trying to find references online that show this process, but I'm having ...
4
votes
2answers
734 views

Hybridisation of the Carbon in an Carbanion

Given the carbanion, $ R_3C^- $, the carbon is $ sp^3 $ hybridized unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. In drawing its orbital diagram, however, I am having ...