An orbital is a theoretical stable standing waveform shape in which one or two electrons can be found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

7
votes
0answers
67 views
+50

Why does hyperconjugation help for ring cleavage?

The question was to rationalize it the ring cleavage happens concerted or non-concerted. The papers "The Mechanism of the Thermal Decomposition of 1-Pyrazolines and Its Relationship to ...
9
votes
3answers
209 views

Is it possible to calculate energy of electron in any orbital and atom in Schrödinger wave model theory?

Is it possible to calculate the energy of electron in any orbital and atom in the Schrödinger wave model theory? If so, how? E.g. energy of the $3s^2$ electron of the $\ce{Na-}$ ion.
8
votes
2answers
114 views

Why are real orbitals used to define the orbital of hydrogenic atoms instead of complex orbitals?

On the physics site, I asked the difference between real & complex orbital. Real orbitals are the superposition of complex orbitals having definite magnetic quantum number states. \begin{align} ...
3
votes
2answers
64 views

How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent?

How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent? Take, for example, $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridization. The wave functions of each hybrid orbitals are given by: \begin{align} \psi_1 &= \psi_s + \psi_{p_x} + ...
7
votes
1answer
122 views

Is the hybridization only related to atomic orbitals but not to the molecular orbitals?

What is Hybridization? Spelling: Hybridisation (British English) / Hybridization (American English) The hybridization is a concept that describes atomic orbitals. In other words: Hybridization is an ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

p orbital electrons in s-p hybridized carbon [closed]

How many unpaired $p$-orbital electrons are there in s-p hybridized carbon? Can you show some examples for the answer? Is there anything more to explain ..
4
votes
0answers
44 views

Free Web-Based Orbital Solver to look into the Walsh orbitals of a perturbed cyclopropane

There exists a free online orbital calculator. When I draw cyclopropane it plots three molecular orbitals, but unfortunately it doesn't use the Walsh orbitals. Are there any free online tools which ...
6
votes
1answer
128 views

Where exactly do the orbital angular momentum get their numbers e.g. +1/2

I was thinking about orbital angular momentum today and wondering how exactly do the numbers come about that quantize them. I was doing a little research on how they come about and I came across ...
5
votes
1answer
46 views

Through bond interaction in biradical dioxo compound and its correlation diagram

I'd like to investigate into the ring opening, the migratory reverse reaction of the electrocyclic ring-closure of Dimethyldioxirane: As a first question I'd like to ask if I have drawn the through ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Are the p orbitals of the biradical dioxo compound in the HOMO perpendicular to the plane?

I tried to draw the frontier molecular orbitals of the following biradical structure: (A) At the top I've drawn the HOMO and LUMO, because I know that the reaction coordinate belongs to the ...
3
votes
2answers
82 views

Question about quantum mechanical model of atom and the quantum numbers

I studied Bohr's model of atom and then the drawbacks of it and then quantum mechanical model of atom. Now quantum model is according to uncertainty principal and dual nature of matter and it says we ...
8
votes
1answer
105 views

Why allene cannot be described with an allyl system?

Why is it impossible in allene to have two pi-bonds in the same orientation? => Why isn't allene planar? (4 $p$ electrons are in two 2x2 $p$-orbitals) From my chemical intuition I would guess that ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Why does hybridization produce a more stable configuration?

My text, and the other sources I've checked, include information on the effects, and kinds, of hybridized orbitals; however, they do not explain what properties of hybridized bonds conduce greater ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Molecules from atoms [closed]

Why do two oxygen atoms combine to form a molecule and not 3 or 4? Also, why does one sodium and one chlorine atom combine to form $\ce{NaCl}$ while two chlorine atoms are required to combine with one ...
8
votes
1answer
62 views

Photoisomerization of Azobenzene

Rotation around the double bond of azobenzene is restricted because it would distort the P orbital overlap between the nitrogen atoms. However, in the $n \rightarrow \pi^*$ excited state ($S_1$), the ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Stability of half and fully filled orbitals [duplicate]

1) My textbook tells me that chromium's electronic configuration is $\ce{[Ar]}\space 3d^5 4s^1$ instead of $\ce{[Ar]} \space 3d^4 4s^2$, as fully filled and half filled orbitals have more stability. ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

What comes after the f orbital? and calculations [duplicate]

What is after the $f$ orbital? as my physical chemistry textbook does not say anything in it and how do they fill etc?
5
votes
0answers
40 views

How many electrons in the d orbitals of NiCl2·6H2O?

On Wikipedia, it says that $\ce{NiCl2·6H2O}$ consists of separated trans-$\ce{[NiCl2(H2O)4]}$ molecules linked more weakly to adjacent water molecules. Only four of the six water molecules in ...
5
votes
2answers
59 views

Bromine with 10 electrons

On a test question, my organic chemistry professor gave us a really big molecule and told us to give list the formal charges on each atom. There was a $\ce{Br}$ with 3 lone pairs and a double bond to ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Is one electron spin preferred over the other in filling of orbitals? [duplicate]

When filling an orbital diagram of an atom, usually the up-spin is filled first and then the down-spin. For example, for Nitrogen, we have : But in a model in which up-spin electron is preferred ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Trouble understanding 5 orientations of d orbitals

I understand $d_{xy}$ and $d_{yz}$ and those orientations but ones like $d_{z^2}$ are very strange to me. Can someone please explain that to me?
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Orbitals involved in Ni(CO)₄

Which orbitals are filled? Is it diamagnetic? According to CFT, $\ce{CO}$ is a strong field ligand, so will it pair the electrons and be diamagnetic?
9
votes
1answer
404 views

Difference between radial, planar, angular and spherical nodes

What is the difference between them? I think radial nodes and spherical nodes are the same, and angular and planar nodes are the same. Reference Finally, how many spherical nodes are there in ...
7
votes
3answers
429 views

Do core electrons have molecular orbitals?

Valence electrons are associated with molecular orbitals and hybridizations. Do core electrons have molecular/hybridized orbitals, or the original atomic orbitals?
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Order of priority in hybridization of d-orbitals

During hybridization of d-orbitals why the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are used up before the $d_{xy}$, $d_{yz}$ and $d_{zx}$ ?
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Are the energies of orbitals that are not filled in an atom, equal?

In a hydrogen atom only 1s orbital is filled. Does this mean that the energies of all other orbitals are equal? If so,why?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Why Bari centre is considered as Zero energy level?

Why the degenerate energy level of d orbitals before forming complex is considered zero? what advantages are there for taking the mean of t2g and eg orbitals as zero?
16
votes
1answer
186 views

What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any ...
5
votes
1answer
186 views

Hybridization of the oxygen in furan?

I fail to understand why the hybridization of oxygen in furan is $\ce{sp^2}$. I think that since there are 2 bond pairs and two lone pairs so it should be $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized? Is it to do with the ...
-1
votes
1answer
63 views

sp² hybridized orbital

I do not understand why and how an atom with $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization has only one p orbital?? For example in pyridine why is the lone pair of nitrogen not counted as a pi electron.
6
votes
1answer
87 views

What is an orbital boundary surface?

Could anybody explain the following statement: "The boundary surface is a common way to represent atomic orbitals, incorporating the volume in which there is about a 90 percent probability of finding ...
4
votes
1answer
149 views

Effect of effective nuclear charge increase on the stabilization of 2s and 2p orbitals

Are 2s or 2p orbitals more stabilized when going from left to right in the period? There are good arguments for both possible answers: 1) 2p orbitals are more stabilized because they penetrate less ...
10
votes
1answer
221 views

Is there a general / simple formula for Slater's rules?

I just learned how Slater's rules work on Wikipedia. These rules really are very simple. But the presentation of the rules seemed not very efficient. I would think there would be someway to set up and ...
5
votes
1answer
131 views

Do multielectron atoms have nodes?

For hydrogen, other than in the 1s state, the electron wavefunctions have radial and/or angular nodes where the electron probability density is zero. In helium or further atoms with more than one ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Calculating the angular momentum for these orbitals

Here is the question: I got through part a (with 1, -1, 0, and 0), but I'm stuck for part b. I looked up the radial and spherical harmonic wavefunctions for $n, l, m_l$ = 211 ; and I figure since ...
6
votes
1answer
206 views

Why is copper (II) coordination number so big?

Consider tetraaminecopper (II) ion. $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4]++}$ or $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]++}$ Copper (II) ion has electron configuration $\ce{[Ar] 3d^9}$. How do the 4 electron pairs from ammonia atoms form ...
4
votes
1answer
144 views

Which orbitals of the hydrogen atom are degenerate for n=3?

Here's the link to the picture of the question. The answer says its E. All of them. First of all isn't there only 1 electron in hydrogen? And how could the s orbital be degenerate? Doesn't ...
4
votes
2answers
366 views

Why are sp hybridized carbocations high energy?

You don’t see carbocations on double bonds very much, and here’s a good reason: compared to sp3, there is more s character in the orbitals, so the empty orbital is held more closely to the ...
3
votes
3answers
100 views

Why does symmetry have to be maintained in molecular orbitals?

Using the example of $\ce{XeF4}$: What is the physical explanation enforcing the symmetry of the $\ce{1b_{1g}}$ orbital on the fluorine atoms? Why isn't the symmetry of a nonbonding orbital ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Why are d-orbitals required/used for hypervalent molecules (where the central atom has expanded its octet) [duplicate]

Period 2 elements like carbon, oxygen and nitrogen cannot expand their octet because they cannot make use of d orbitals in that energy level (they don't exist). However, period 3 elements like sulfur ...
4
votes
1answer
176 views

why do 2 atomic orbitals form 2 molecular orbitals?

According to molecular orbital theory, two atomic orbitals form two molecular orbitals analogous to waves combining constructively or destructively but how can a wave combine destructively and ...
2
votes
2answers
53 views

Is shielding of electrons really best described as shielding or is it really Coulombic repulsion between electrons?

For example, take the 2s electron in lithium - is the reason that it's ionisation energy is lower than would be expected if "shielding" didn't occur at all because the 1s electrons shield the ...
5
votes
1answer
86 views

What is the usage of orbitals more complex than f orbitals?

Every high school learner, in each corner of the world, faces the lesson History of Atom during his courses, just as I did. We learned about s,p,d and f orbitals, though there were no signs of ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

About the meaning of the names of f orbitals

Our chemistry teacher encouraged us to study the history and naming of the orbitals on the web. (actually, our textbook did, but that's irrelevant to the problem) I easily could find the reason behind ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Determine which orbitals will form hybrids with one another

I've been teaching myself chemistry, so any help is greatly appreciated. I've been reading an online tutorial that claims the two orbitals that merge in Aluminum trihydride are 1 orbital of 2s and 2 ...
2
votes
1answer
280 views

How to explain the effect of hyperconjugation on the stability of alkenes with MO theory?

Hyperconjugation stabilizes carbocations and that makes sense because electrons are given to the empty p orbital. But how does it stabilize alkenes ? Can MOT be used to explain it ?
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Non stationary effects of molecular orbitals

We have been learning a bit about molecular orbitals in class. However, we have always considered things under a quasistatic approximation. What are some effects that can only be explained by not ...
5
votes
1answer
216 views

Why do the d orbitals have these notations?

Why do the d orbitals have the following notations: $xy, yz, xz, z^2$ and $ x^2-y^2$? What do they represent in their wave-functions?
2
votes
1answer
254 views

Why can't the conjugate base of benzoic acid be stabilized by conjugation with the aromatic ring?

All the carbon and oxygen atoms are sp2 hybridised and can have a p orbital in the correct plane yet only conjugation of the COO- group occurs. I can't think why. I can't draw resonance structures for ...
8
votes
1answer
92 views

Properties of f-orbitals

I am not a Chemist, but I took enough undergraduate Chemistry classes to understand the basic properties of s, p and d orbitals and how the behaviour of electrons contributes to different kinds of ...