An orbital is a theoretical stable standing waveform shape in which one or two electrons can be found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

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Periodic trend in difference of energy between the s and p orbitals

Why does the difference of energy between the 2s and 2p orbitals of the second period elements increase with increasing atomic number? Does this difference increases by moving down a group, e.g. is ...
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23 views

How can I tell what colour an element will be?

Previously in my Chemistry education, it was required of us to memorise the colour changes some elements, especially transition metals, go through. Currently we learning about electron configuration ...
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135 views

Symmetry labels for orbitals

What are the symmetry labels for the p and d orbitals of $\ce {[PtCl4]^{2-}}$ ? I understand the concept of symmetry labels for molecules. some explanation of how it applies to orbitals would be ...
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62 views

Unequal ionization energies of methane

Why does methane have two different ionization potentials? How does this work? I understand that MO theory predicts C-H bonds of differing strength, while hybridization predicts C-H bonds of varying ...
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725 views

Evidence of orbitals?

How do we know that there are different types of orbitals? For example, what evidence is there for the existence of p orbitals instead of there being multiple s orbitals (for example, why isn't the ...
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40 views

Why do higher orbitals have more energy?

I have seen in textbooks and videos that an electron must absorb energy (become excited) to enter a farther-away orbital. The amount of energy that must be gained is equal to the difference in energy ...
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43 views

Whats the difference between ionization energy and orbital energy?

If you look at the trend in orbital energies as you go across a period the pattern is clear (orbital energy decreases with increasing effective nuclear charge) and, to my knowledge, it has no ...
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78 views

How do electrons travel through nodes

I understand this is a basic question, but I'm having such a hard time wrapping my head around it. I'm trying to avoid thinking about it as an actual "particle" but as a wave, but that confuses me ...
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27 views

Do electrons only fill 'spin up' first? Or could it start filling 'down spins' first?

Due to Hund's rule, electrons start filling up the orbitals without pairing up. When this is happening, do the electrons all fill up the 'up' spin? Could they fill in the 'down' spin? Why do they ...
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36 views

Resonance stabilization and size of ligand atoms

I am told that for these two molecules, one of them is not as resonance stabilized as the other. Apparently it's the chlorine one, and it's because of the mismatch in the size of chlorine and carbon. ...
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375 views

Why is one lobe of an sp3 hybridized orbital smaller than its other half?

A hybrid sp3 orbital is drawn with one lobe smaller than its other half, the latter which is of equal size when drawing the p orbital. Why is it so?
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48 views

Which d orbitals of sulphur take part in the pi bonds of SO3?

In $\ce{SO3}$ 2 $p\pi-d\pi$ bonds are present. But which 'd' orbitals of sulphur take part in these $\pi$ bonds ? The answer says $d_{xy}$ and $d_{yz}$, someone also told me that crystal field ...
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Why are DCM and Chloroform so resistant against nucleophilic substitutions?

In the book Organic Chemistry by J. Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, and P. Wothers I found the following reasoning: You may have wondered why it is that, while methyl chloride (chloromethane) ...
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55 views

What are the Waves Modeling when Referring to the Atomic Orbitals

It is taught that the orbital shapes derive from wave functions with different numbers of nodes. For example, the "s" orbital comes from a wave that has one node. But what are the waves modeling? A ...
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417 views

What is Bent's rule?

I'm all bent out of shape trying to figure out what Bent's rule means. I have several formulations of it, and the most common formulation is also the hardest to understand. Atomic s character ...
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36 views

Can electrons switch orbitals within a shell?

I know that electrons can move from say 2s orbital to an unoccupied 2p orbital, as in Carbon atom which can form 4 bonds this way. But I want to know is it possible for an electron say in orbital 2p ...
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174 views

Difference between actual position of electron and Radial Distribution Probability

Its known that the radius of maximum probability of 2s orbitals is more than that of 2p orbitals. It means that the maximum probability of finding an electron in an 2s is further away from electron ...
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78 views

Electronic model with highest prediction rate

Among many models, including the valence bond model (VB) or the molecular orbital (MO) model, which are the ones with best predictive power? (e.g. the MO is thought to predict spectroscopic ...
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169 views

When is it true that more nodes equals higher energy?

Consider all the MOs of some isolated molecule. (It could be a single atom too; I'll use MO to refer to AOs as well.) Number them in increasing order of the number of nodes (node = surface where the ...
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93 views

Counting Nodal Planes in cyclopropane

The energy of molecule orbitals increases with more nodal planes. W1 (in the attached picture) has no nodal plane. I'd like to know how to draw the nodal planes in cyclopropane molecule orbitals but ...
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1answer
129 views

What is the origin of the differences between the MO schemes of O2 and N2?

Here are the MO schemes of $\ce{N2}$ (left) and $\ce{O2}$ (right). Why is the $\sigma$-MO formed by the $p$ AOs energetically above the $\pi$-MO for $\ce{N2}$ but not for $\ce{O2}$? Can it be ...
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3answers
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Why do atomic orbitals have their unique shapes?

Is there a scientific explanation to why p orbitals are shaped like two balloons, etc. I think it has got to do with electron repulsions. Wikipedia says they are 'characterised by unique values of ...
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56 views

I am trying to picture how electrons move around in atomic orbitals

Are they thought to continuously pop in and out of existence at various points inside the orbital defined by probabilities or do they follow definite paths that are made fuzzy by the Heisenberg ...
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45 views

Reduce sizing of molecule - Oxygen

Can the size of molecule oxygen reduce smaller? If yes, how is that possible? Is it related to proton and electron surrounding the nucleus?
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140 views

Meaning of depiction of atomic orbitals

There was a section about atomic orbitals in my organic chemistry textbook that I did not quite understand. First the author explained a bit about the Schrödinger equation, which I understood to be ...
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41 views

Fourth principle of Molecular Orbitals

The fourth principle of Molecular Orbitals state that: Molecular orbitals are best formed when composed of Atomic orbitals of like energies. I'm not sure about ...
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Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses: Physical significance/interpretation of E(2) 'stabilization energy'?

PREFACE: I am no expert on this topic. My questions at the bottom may be off base. I have some experience with symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) when it comes to analyzing intermolecular ...
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1answer
83 views

Why is the 8-electron rule more important than the 2- or 18-electron rule

Why is the fulfilled electronic configuration of only $p$ orbital is stable. I mean why $II-B $ group with fulfilled $d$ orbital,$II-A$ group with fulfilled $s$ orbital...are not stable. Why makes ...
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74 views

Degenerate Orbitals

How do I know if an atom has degenerate orbitals? My Understanding I understand that degenerate orbitals mean orbitals that have the same energy level for the same n. However, how do I distinguish ...
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881 views

Why only two atoms share an electron and not three?

In a covalent bond between two atoms, an electron from one of the either atom is shared by overlapping of their orbitals. So, Why can't three atoms share an electron and overlap their orbitals?
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282 views

Structure of Atom and nodes

Nodes are the points in space around a nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is zero. Then, What actually is a radial node and an angular node structurally,and what information do they ...
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125 views

Where does the 9th electron go in a $\ce{N=O}$ bond?

In the first resonating structure you can see 5 unpaired electrons and 4 shared electrons on nitrogen, then isn't this a extended octet? If it is so, then in which orbital that 9th electron is ...
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81 views

Splitting of $d$ orbitals when ligands approach central metal ion

In my high school chemistry book, it is written that when ligands approach the central metal ion (transition metal ion) to form dative bonds, the $3d$ orbitals split into two: two which are in higher ...
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188 views

How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is ...
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Is there an easy way to find number of “valence electrons”?

I want an high-school level answer.What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement?(eg. $3$ in an atom with electronic arrangement $2,8,3$) ...
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Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic ...
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221 views

Are orbitals always filled in from closest to nucleus to farthest away?

On a review sheet for a quiz I have tomorrow, I have a question like this: "In which orbital, 4f or 6s, would an electron have a greater likelihood of being near the nucleus". I figured that the 6s ...
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3answers
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How do 1s and 2p orbitals overlap?

In the following figure we can see that the p-orbitals overlap 1s orbital (though relatively very little). How can an electron in p-orbital, be simultaneously in the 1s orbital at any given point ...
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LCAO (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals) and Phases

So when combining atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals, you can either add the wave functions or subtract them. But at the same time, orbitals can exist in opposite phases (say one lobe of the p ...
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1answer
99 views

Finding the number of orbitals on a central atom

In $\ce{BeCl2}$ the number of orbitals on central atom, i.e. on beryllium, are 2. In $\ce{BF3}$, the number of orbitals on central atom , i.e. on boron, are 3. Similarly in $\ce{NH3}$ there are 4, ...
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225 views

References to draw 3D molecules with directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals

My instructor has been drawing 3D molecules that show the directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals. I've been trying to find references online that show this process, but I'm having ...
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558 views

Hybridisation of the Carbon in an Carbanion

Given the carbanion, $ R_3C^- $, the carbon is $ sp^3 $ hybridized unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. In drawing its orbital diagram, however, I am having ...
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668 views

Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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Why apart from when building atoms in the first place, the 3d is the lower energy orbital?

"If the phosphorus is going to form PCl5 it has first to generate 5 unpaired electrons. It does this by promoting one of the electrons in the 3s orbital to the next available higher energy orbital. ...
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Is there any difference between a completely filled orbital and an half-filled one?

Is there any reduction in size of the orbital for a half-filled orbital? Is the probability at any point of finding an electron doubled if there are two electrons instead of one? Is there any ...
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205 views

Why aren't there any triangular molecules?

Look at the molecular structure of benzene: It's a perfect hexagon. Why aren't there any molecules arranged in a triangular fashion with bonds forming the edges and the molecules the vertices? Or, ...
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1answer
703 views

How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold?

I was taking a chemistry test and I encountered the following question: How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold? A. 6 B. 10 C. 2 D. 14 E. 1 Since there can be [-ℓ, ℓ] ...
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1answer
521 views

Finding electron configuration of Lanthanide-ions

When I have a Gadolinium ion (3+ => Gd3+), how can I calculate the electron configuration of it? electron cfg (Gd) = [Xe]4f^7 5d^1 6s^2 Do I need to first subtract the 2 electrons in the s-orbital ...
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Total magnetic moment of atom

Whenever I read about coordination compounds in my textbooks, I always find a discussion about spin-only magnetic moment which is given by $\sqrt{n(n+2)}$ BM, Where $n$ is the number of unpaired ...
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Degeneracy of orbitals?

Why is that in an external magnetic field(uniform) the degeneracy of d,f orbitals is lost but the degeneracy of p orbitals remain intact if the main cause of losing degeneracy is the difference in ...