An orbital is a theoretical stable standing waveform shape in which one or two electrons can be found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
0answers
7 views

When is it true that more nodes equals higher energy?

Consider all the MOs of some isolated molecule. (It could be a single atom too; I'll use MO to refer to AOs as well.) Number them in increasing order of the number of nodes (node = surface where the ...
5
votes
2answers
67 views

Counting Nodal Planes in cyclopropane

The energy of molecule orbitals increases with more nodal planes. W1 (in the attached picture) has no nodal plane. I'd like to know how to draw the nodal planes in cyclopropane molecule orbitals but ...
5
votes
0answers
53 views

What is the origin of the differences between the MO schemes of O2 and N2?

Here are the MO schemes of $\ce{N2}$ (left) and $\ce{O2}$ (right). Why is the $\sigma$-MO formed by the $p$ AOs energetically above the $\pi$-MO for $\ce{N2}$ but not for $\ce{O2}$? Can it be ...
2
votes
3answers
42 views

Why do atomic orbitals have their unique shapes?

Is there a scientific explanation to why p orbitals are shaped like two balloons, etc. I think it has got to do with electron repulsions. Wikipedia says they are 'characterised by unique values of ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

I am trying to picture how electrons move around in atomic orbitals

Are they thought to continuously pop in and out of existence at various points inside the orbital defined by probabilities or do they follow definite paths that are made fuzzy by the Heisenberg ...
0
votes
3answers
45 views

Reduce sizing of molecule - Oxygen

Can the size of molecule oxygen reduce smaller? If yes, how is that possible? Is it related to proton and electron surrounding the nucleus?
3
votes
2answers
92 views

Meaning of depiction of atomic orbitals

There was a section about atomic orbitals in my organic chemistry textbook that I did not quite understand. First the author explained a bit about the Schrödinger equation, which I understood to be ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

Fourth principle of Molecular Orbitals

The fourth principle of Molecular Orbitals state that: Molecular orbitals are best formed when composed of Atomic orbitals of like energies. I'm not sure about ...
5
votes
0answers
97 views

Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses: Physical significance/interpretation of E(2) 'stabilization energy'?

PREFACE: I am no expert on this topic. My questions at the bottom may be off base. I have some experience with symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) when it comes to analyzing intermolecular ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Why is the 8-electron rule more important than the 2- or 18-electron rule

Why is the fulfilled electronic configuration of only $p$ orbital is stable. I mean why $II-B $ group with fulfilled $d$ orbital,$II-A$ group with fulfilled $s$ orbital...are not stable. Why makes ...
0
votes
2answers
67 views

Degenerate Orbitals

How do I know if an atom has degenerate orbitals? My Understanding I understand that degenerate orbitals mean orbitals that have the same energy level for the same n. However, how do I distinguish ...
11
votes
1answer
843 views

Why only two atoms share an electron and not three?

In a covalent bond between two atoms, an electron from one of the either atom is shared by overlapping of their orbitals. So, Why can't three atoms share an electron and overlap their orbitals?
1
vote
1answer
144 views

Structure of Atom and nodes

Nodes are the points in space around a nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is zero. Then, What actually is a radial node and an angular node structurally,and what information do they ...
2
votes
2answers
118 views

Where does the 9th electron go in a $\ce{N=O}$ bond?

In the first resonating structure you can see 5 unpaired electrons and 4 shared electrons on nitrogen, then isn't this a extended octet? If it is so, then in which orbital that 9th electron is ...
4
votes
1answer
75 views

Splitting of $d$ orbitals when ligands approach central metal ion

In my high school chemistry book, it is written that when ligands approach the central metal ion (transition metal ion) to form dative bonds, the $3d$ orbitals split into two: two which are in higher ...
1
vote
1answer
160 views

How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is ...
2
votes
1answer
831 views

Is there an easy way to find number of “valence electrons”?

I want an high-school level answer.What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement?(eg. $3$ in an atom with electronic arrangement $2,8,3$) ...
2
votes
2answers
111 views

Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic ...
0
votes
1answer
213 views

Are orbitals always filled in from closest to nucleus to farthest away?

On a review sheet for a quiz I have tomorrow, I have a question like this: "In which orbital, 4f or 6s, would an electron have a greater likelihood of being near the nucleus". I figured that the 6s ...
2
votes
3answers
126 views

How do 1s and 2p orbitals overlap?

In the following figure we can see that the p-orbitals overlap 1s orbital (though relatively very little). How can an electron in p-orbital, be simultaneously in the 1s orbital at any given point ...
2
votes
2answers
246 views

LCAO (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals) and Phases

So when combining atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals, you can either add the wave functions or subtract them. But at the same time, orbitals can exist in opposite phases (say one lobe of the p ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Finding the number of orbitals on a central atom

In $\ce{BeCl2}$ the number of orbitals on central atom, i.e. on beryllium, are 2. In $\ce{BF3}$, the number of orbitals on central atom , i.e. on boron, are 3. Similarly in $\ce{NH3}$ there are 4, ...
2
votes
1answer
207 views

References to draw 3D molecules with directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals

My instructor has been drawing 3D molecules that show the directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals. I've been trying to find references online that show this process, but I'm having ...
3
votes
2answers
315 views

Hybridisation of the Carbon in an Carbanion

Given the carbanion, $ R_3C^- $, the carbon is $ sp^3 $ hybridized unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. In drawing its orbital diagram, however, I am having ...
1
vote
1answer
567 views

Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
4
votes
0answers
68 views

Why apart from when building atoms in the first place, the 3d is the lower energy orbital?

"If the phosphorus is going to form PCl5 it has first to generate 5 unpaired electrons. It does this by promoting one of the electrons in the 3s orbital to the next available higher energy orbital. ...
5
votes
2answers
91 views

Is there any difference between a completely filled orbital and an half-filled one?

Is there any reduction in size of the orbital for a half-filled orbital? Is the probability at any point of finding an electron doubled if there are two electrons instead of one? Is there any ...
1
vote
1answer
156 views

Why aren't there any triangular molecules?

Look at the molecular structure of benzene: It's a perfect hexagon. Why aren't there any molecules arranged in a triangular fashion with bonds forming the edges and the molecules the vertices? Or, ...
0
votes
0answers
65 views

Between which orbitals are the highest and lowest energy differences?

Between which orbitals is the energy difference the highest and between which orbitals is the energy difference the lowest? I guess that d and f-orbitals have smaller energy differences?
5
votes
1answer
621 views

How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold?

I was taking a chemistry test and I encountered the following question: How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold? A. 6 B. 10 C. 2 D. 14 E. 1 Since there can be [-ℓ, ℓ] ...
2
votes
1answer
402 views

Finding electron configuration of Lanthanide-ions

When I have a Gadolinium ion (3+ => Gd3+), how can I calculate the electron configuration of it? electron cfg (Gd) = [Xe]4f^7 5d^1 6s^2 Do I need to first subtract the 2 electrons in the s-orbital ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Total magnetic moment of atom

Whenever I read about coordination compounds in my textbooks, I always find a discussion about spin-only magnetic moment which is given by $\sqrt{n(n+2)}$ BM, Where $n$ is the number of unpaired ...
2
votes
2answers
358 views

Degeneracy of orbitals?

Why is that in an external magnetic field(uniform) the degeneracy of d,f orbitals is lost but the degeneracy of p orbitals remain intact if the main cause of losing degeneracy is the difference in ...
5
votes
2answers
152 views

Bonding and Antibonding

So I understand, electrons exist in orbitals, mainly s, p, d, f and that when they bond with one another it will form sigma and pi bonds and that whether it bonds in a certain orientation a molecular ...
3
votes
1answer
145 views

Can there exist any element which has an 8th principle shell?

I am a high school student . While studying the atomic structure a question raised in my mind. We know that an atom can have the highest limit of 7 bohr energy shells or principle energy shells ; ...
6
votes
2answers
4k views

Why do transition elements make colored compounds?

Why do transition metals element make colored compound both in solid form and in solution? Is it related with their electrons or something else?
3
votes
1answer
242 views

Energies of atomic orbitals on molecular orbital diagrams

When we plot molecular orbital diagrams we use a linear combination of atomic orbitals. Where can I find the energies of particular atomic orbitals? In the picture below, the energies of 2s and 2p ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Why does Oxygen not like to be doubly Anionized?

The Electron Affinity of a neutral Oxygen atom is -142 KJ (it releases this energy). The Electron Affinity for the now anionized Oxygen is 710 KJ (Work must be done on the atom). My question is, why ...
5
votes
2answers
370 views

Bonding and anti-bonding orbitals in the light of time-dependent Schrödinger equation?

In organic chemistry, people draw 2p orbitals like this: and then they explain how the orbitals combine to non-bonding (π*) or bonding (π) molecular orbitals, like this: depending on whether the ...
5
votes
1answer
133 views

A question about Pauli’s exclusion principle and electron orbital

According to Pauli’s exclusion principle, an $s$ orbital contains at most two electrons with the opposite spin (up and down). Why can't an $s$ orbital contain a third electron whose state is the ...
1
vote
1answer
327 views

In sp2 hybrid orbital, why does the p orbitals only have 3 sides instead of 4?

Usually two separate p orbitals would have '4 lobes' while in a sp2 hybrid those 2 p orbitals would only have '3 lobes'. why? I'm referring to diagrams such as the one shown below:
1
vote
2answers
263 views

In orbital hybridisation, what determines the number of orbitals that hybridise to be at the same energy level?

For example, in phosphorus pentachloride five orbitals hybridize, but why not 6, as in the hydrated Al ion? I have read that the reason six orbitals hybridize is that a maximum of six oxygens can ...
6
votes
1answer
561 views

Why are atoms with eight electrons in the outer shell extremely stable?

Atoms that have eight electrons in their outer shell are extremely stable. It can't be because both the $s$ and the $p$ orbitals are full, because then an atom with 13 or 18 would be extremely stable. ...
9
votes
2answers
479 views

Why is H₂O a dipole?

Water ($\ce{H2O}$) is a dipole. The reason why is simply because it is not symmetrical, and there are more electrons on the oxygen side than on the hydrogen side.. (Also because of the ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Highest Energy Electron - possible typo in my book?

Sorry for the super simple question... Which of the following possesses the highest energy electron? A) Br– B) Ca++ C) Cr+ D) As Don't Bromine and Arsenic have equally high energy electrons (i.e. in ...
8
votes
4answers
212 views

Hierarchy of electronic wavefunctions

The previous question contained too much unnecessary information and was edited. I am wondering about the "hierarchy" of wavefunctions. If one can combine atomic orbitals (AO) into molecular orbitals ...
6
votes
2answers
206 views

Are there any molecules with delta bonds in their ground states?

When looking at excited states of molecules, $\delta$ bonds are relatively common, but I've never come across a molecule with a $\delta$ bond in its ground state. Are there molecules with $\delta$ ...
11
votes
3answers
374 views

Symmetry lost in orbitals?

I've always thought that orbitals lead to a loss of symmetry, and have never been able to give myself a satisfactory answer to this. I'll explain via an example: Let's take an $\ce{N^3+}$ atom. It's ...
24
votes
8answers
17k views

Why is the 2s orbital lower in energy than the 2p orbital when the electrons in 2s are usually farther from the nucleus?

My chemistry book explains that even though electrons in the 2p orbital are closer to the nucleus on average, electrons from the 2s orbital spend a very short time very close to the nucleus ...
12
votes
5answers
3k views

Why do elements in columns 6 and 11 assume 'abnormal' electron configurations?

When I look around for why copper and chromium only have one electron in their outermost s orbital and 5/10 in their outermost d orbital, I'm bombarded with the fact that they are more stable with a ...