An orbital is a theoretical stable standing waveform shape in which one or two electrons can be found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

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Why is fulfilled electronic configuration of only $p$ orbital is stable

Why is the fulfilled electronic configuration of only $p$ orbital is stable. I mean why $II-B $ group with fulfilled $d$ orbital,$II-A$ group with fulfilled $s$ orbital...are not stable. Why makes ...
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784 views

Why only two atoms share an electron and not three?

In a covalent bond between two atoms, an electron from one of the either atom is shared by overlapping of their orbitals. So, Why can't three atoms share an electron and overlap their orbitals?
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69 views

Structure of Atom and nodes

Nodes are the points in space around a nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is zero. Then, What actually is a radial node and an angular node structurally,and what information do they ...
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Where does the 9th electron go in a $\ce{N=O}$ bond?

In the first resonating structure you can see 5 unpaired electrons and 4 shared electrons on nitrogen, then isn't this a extended octet? If it is so, then in which orbital that 9th electron is ...
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Splitting of $d$ orbitals when ligands approach central metal ion

In my high school chemistry book, it is written that when ligands approach the central metal ion (transition metal ion) to form dative bonds, the $3d$ orbitals split into two: two which are in higher ...
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95 views

How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is ...
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337 views

Is there an easy way to find number of “valence electrons”?

I want an high-school level answer.What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement?(eg. $3$ in an atom with electronic arrangement $2,8,3$) ...
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Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic ...
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168 views

Are orbitals always filled in from closest to nucleus to farthest away?

On a review sheet for a quiz I have tomorrow, I have a question like this: "In which orbital, 4f or 6s, would an electron have a greater likelihood of being near the nucleus". I figured that the 6s ...
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113 views

How do 1s and 2p orbitals overlap?

In the following figure we can see that the p-orbitals overlap 1s orbital (though relatively very little). How can an electron in p-orbital, be simultaneously in the 1s orbital at any given point ...
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Finding the number of orbitals on a central atom

In $\ce{BeCl2}$ the number of orbitals on central atom, i.e. on beryllium, are 2. In $\ce{BF3}$, the number of orbitals on central atom , i.e. on boron, are 3. Similarly in $\ce{NH3}$ there are 4, ...
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References to draw 3D molecules with directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals

My instructor has been drawing 3D molecules that show the directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals. I've been trying to find references online that show this process, but I'm having ...
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147 views

Carbanion Orbital Diagram

Given the carbanion, $ R_3C^- $, the carbon is $ sp^3 $ hybridized unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. In drawing its orbital diagram, however, I am having ...
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463 views

Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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Why apart from when building atoms in the first place, the 3d is the lower energy orbital?

"If the phosphorus is going to form PCl5 it has first to generate 5 unpaired electrons. It does this by promoting one of the electrons in the 3s orbital to the next available higher energy orbital. ...
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Is there any difference between a completely filled orbital and an half-filled one?

Is there any reduction in size of the orbital for a half-filled orbital? Is the probability at any point of finding an electron doubled if there are two electrons instead of one? Is there any ...
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130 views

Why aren't there any triangular molecules?

Look at the molecular structure of benzene: It's a perfect hexagon. Why aren't there any molecules arranged in a triangular fashion with bonds forming the edges and the molecules the vertices? Or, ...
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Between which orbitals are the highest and lowest energy differences?

Between which orbitals is the energy difference the highest and between which orbitals is the energy difference the lowest? I guess that d and f-orbitals have smaller energy differences?
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523 views

How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold?

I was taking a chemistry test and I encountered the following question: How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold? A. 6 B. 10 C. 2 D. 14 E. 1 Since there can be [-ℓ, ℓ] ...
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301 views

Finding electron configuration of Lanthanide-ions

When I have a Gadolinium ion (3+ => Gd3+), how can I calculate the electron configuration of it? electron cfg (Gd) = [Xe]4f^7 5d^1 6s^2 Do I need to first subtract the 2 electrons in the s-orbital ...
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907 views

Total magnetic moment of atom

Whenever I read about coordination compounds in my textbooks, I always find a discussion about spin-only magnetic moment which is given by $\sqrt{n(n+2)}$ BM, Where $n$ is the number of unpaired ...
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294 views

Degeneracy of orbitals?

Why is that in an external magnetic field(uniform) the degeneracy of d,f orbitals is lost but the degeneracy of p orbitals remain intact if the main cause of losing degeneracy is the difference in ...
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Bonding and Antibonding

So I understand, electrons exist in orbitals, mainly s, p, d, f and that when they bond with one another it will form sigma and pi bonds and that whether it bonds in a certain orientation a molecular ...
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124 views

Can there exist any element which has an 8th principle shell?

I am a high school student . While studying the atomic structure a question raised in my mind. We know that an atom can have the highest limit of 7 bohr energy shells or principle energy shells ; ...
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Why do transition elements make colored compounds?

Why do transition metals element make colored compound both in solid form and in solution? Is it related with their electrons or something else?
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219 views

Energies of atomic orbitals on molecular orbital diagrams

When we plot molecular orbital diagrams we use a linear combination of atomic orbitals. Where can I find the energies of particular atomic orbitals? In the picture below, the energies of 2s and 2p ...
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Why does Oxygen not like to be doubly Anionized?

The Electron Affinity of a neutral Oxygen atom is -142 KJ (it releases this energy). The Electron Affinity for the now anionized Oxygen is 710 KJ (Work must be done on the atom). My question is, why ...
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331 views

Bonding and anti-bonding orbitals in the light of time-dependent Schrödinger equation?

In organic chemistry, people draw 2p orbitals like this: and then they explain how the orbitals combine to non-bonding (π*) or bonding (π) molecular orbitals, like this: depending on whether the ...
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121 views

A question about Pauli’s exclusion principle and electron orbital

According to Pauli’s exclusion principle, an $s$ orbital contains at most two electrons with the opposite spin (up and down). Why can't an $s$ orbital contain a third electron whose state is the ...
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290 views

In sp2 hybrid orbital, why does the p orbitals only have 3 sides instead of 4?

Usually two separate p orbitals would have '4 lobes' while in a sp2 hybrid those 2 p orbitals would only have '3 lobes'. why? I'm referring to diagrams such as the one shown below:
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In orbital hybridisation, what determines the number of orbitals that hybridise to be at the same energy level?

For example, in phosphorus pentachloride five orbitals hybridize, but why not 6, as in the hydrated Al ion? I have read that the reason six orbitals hybridize is that a maximum of six oxygens can ...
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513 views

Why are atoms with eight electrons in the outer shell extremely stable?

Atoms that have eight electrons in their outer shell are extremely stable. It can't be because both the $s$ and the $p$ orbitals are full, because then an atom with 13 or 18 would be extremely stable. ...
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Why is H₂O a dipole?

Water ($\ce{H2O}$) is a dipole. The reason why is simply because it is not symmetrical, and there are more electrons on the oxygen side than on the hydrogen side.. (Also because of the ...
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Highest Energy Electron - possible typo in my book?

Sorry for the super simple question... Which of the following possesses the highest energy electron? A) Br– B) Ca++ C) Cr+ D) As Don't Bromine and Arsenic have equally high energy electrons (i.e. in ...
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Hierarchy of electronic wavefunctions

The previous question contained too much unnecessary information and was edited. I am wondering about the "hierarchy" of wavefunctions. If one can combine atomic orbitals (AO) into molecular orbitals ...
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Are there any molecules with delta bonds in their ground states?

When looking at excited states of molecules, $\delta$ bonds are relatively common, but I've never come across a molecule with a $\delta$ bond in its ground state. Are there molecules with $\delta$ ...
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Symmetry lost in orbitals?

I've always thought that orbitals lead to a loss of symmetry, and have never been able to give myself a satisfactory answer to this. I'll explain via an example: Let's take an $\ce{N^3+}$ atom. It's ...
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Why is the 2s orbital lower in energy than the 2p orbital when the electrons in 2s are usually farther from the nucleus?

My chemistry book explains that even though electrons in the 2p orbital are closer to the nucleus on average, electrons from the 2s orbital spend a very short time very close to the nucleus ...
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Why do elements in columns 6 and 11 assume 'abnormal' electron configurations?

When I look around for why copper and chromium only have one electron in their outermost s orbital and 5/10 in their outermost d orbital, I'm bombarded with the fact that they are more stable with a ...
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How is Vanadium's 3+ ion paramagnetic?

"Both Vanadium and its 3+ ion are paramagnetic. Use electron configuration to explain why this is so" The electron configuration of Vanadium is [Ar] 4s2 3d3. If drawn in a box diagram, it would ...
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How do orbitals coexist with a nucleus?

Many diagrams of orbitals I've seen involve electrons moving through a center point—where the nucleus is. How can this be? Clearly they don't actually pass through the nucleus, so what does happen?