An orbital is a theoretical stable standing waveform shape in which one or two electrons can be found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

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What is the correctly diagrammed electron probability distribution for p orbital?

This is what my book shows (the darker the more probable): The obvious places where the electron probability is zero is the midsection of the dumbbell. My question is how the probability ...
2
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1answer
52 views

How do Electrons Cross Nodes in Orbitals?

I was wondering in orbitals that have nodes such as the p orbital, how does the electron move from one lobe to the other? I know that people say it is because of the wave/particle nature of electrons ...
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0answers
29 views

What type of hybridization does phosphorus have in P2O5?

I'm inclined to think that P has a $dsp$ hybridization in that compound, because it makes 5 bonds and 2 of them are $\pi$ bonds - with oxygen. However, I found in some websites that it may have $sp^2$ ...
7
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73 views

Does the delocalization of p-orbitals ensure conductivity?

For example, polyacetylene is a conjugated system, i.e. with de-localized p-orbitals, but accroding to Chiang et. al. (1977) polyacetylene is semiconducting, and becomes conductive only when doped ...
5
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1answer
44 views

Guess the shape and phase of the MOs of butadiene using LCAO and Hückel's method?

I used Hückel's method along with a Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) to calculate an estimate for the orbital energies of cyclobutadiene ($\ce{C4H4}$) and butadiene ($\ce{C4H6}$). For ...
8
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2answers
613 views

Why are covalent bonds directional?

It is said that covalent bonds are directional, while ionic bonds are not. Why? Is it because of the orientation/directional properties of the overlapping orbitals?
3
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0answers
46 views

How can nitrogen achieve +5 oxidation state?

Nitrogen has no available d-orbitals. Yet, it forms compounds where its oxidation state is +5, like in nitric acid. How?
12
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3answers
2k views

How do I visualize an atom?

I have searched and searched, oh how I have searched. I am looking for a 3-dimensional visualization of a whole (i.e., moderately complex) atom that includes orbital geometry. A proper "layered" view ...
0
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1answer
48 views

How come the value of principal quantum number is an irrational number?

My textbook says that for a d-electron, the orbital angular momentum is $$ \frac{\sqrt{6}h}{2\pi} $$ But since:- $$ mvr = \frac{nh}{2\pi}$$ $$ n \in N$$ where N is the set of natural numbers. So how ...
3
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1answer
311 views

Is the Aufbau principle violated in the diagram (b)?

The question is:- In which of the following diagrams is the aufbau principle violated:- I have tried to answer this in the following way:- Now ignoring the Hund principle, the aufbau principle ...
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1answer
110 views

What's the magnetic quantum number for p orbitals? What's for px , py, and pz if looked a seperately? [closed]

Please tell me which one is true? px orbital: m = -1 , py orbital: m = 0 , pz orbital: m = +1 py orbital: m = -1 ; pz orbital: m = 0 ; px orbital: m = +1 Please tell me which one is true and ...
14
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163 views

Why does hyperconjugation help for ring cleavage?

The question was to rationalize it the ring cleavage happens concerted or non-concerted. The papers "The Mechanism of the Thermal Decomposition of 1-Pyrazolines and Its Relationship to ...
8
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3answers
251 views

Is it possible to calculate energy of electron in any orbital and atom in Schrödinger wave model theory?

Is it possible to calculate the energy of electron in any orbital and atom in the Schrödinger wave model theory? If so, how? E.g. energy of the $3s^2$ electron of the $\ce{Na-}$ ion.
8
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2answers
133 views

Why are real orbitals used to define the orbital of hydrogenic atoms instead of complex orbitals?

On the physics site, I asked the difference between real & complex orbital. Real orbitals are the superposition of complex orbitals having definite magnetic quantum number states. \begin{align} ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent?

How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent? Take, for example, $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridization. The wave functions of each hybrid orbitals are given by: \begin{align} \psi_1 &= \psi_s + \psi_{p_x} + ...
7
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1answer
161 views

Is the hybridization only related to atomic orbitals but not to the molecular orbitals?

What is Hybridization? Spelling: Hybridisation (British English) / Hybridization (American English) The hybridization is a concept that describes atomic orbitals. In other words: Hybridization is an ...
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2answers
48 views

p orbital electrons in s-p hybridized carbon [closed]

How many unpaired $p$-orbital electrons are there in s-p hybridized carbon? Can you show some examples for the answer? Is there anything more to explain ..
4
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0answers
49 views

Free Web-Based Orbital Solver to look into the Walsh orbitals of a perturbed cyclopropane

There exists a free online orbital calculator. When I draw cyclopropane it plots three molecular orbitals, but unfortunately it doesn't use the Walsh orbitals. Are there any free online tools which ...
6
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1answer
138 views

Where exactly do the orbital angular momentum get their numbers e.g. +1/2

I was thinking about orbital angular momentum today and wondering how exactly do the numbers come about that quantize them. I was doing a little research on how they come about and I came across ...
5
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1answer
49 views

Through bond interaction in biradical dioxo compound and its correlation diagram

I'd like to investigate into the ring opening, the migratory reverse reaction of the electrocyclic ring-closure of Dimethyldioxirane: As a first question I'd like to ask if I have drawn the through ...
4
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1answer
65 views

Are the p orbitals of the biradical dioxo compound in the HOMO perpendicular to the plane?

I tried to draw the frontier molecular orbitals of the following biradical structure: (A) At the top I've drawn the HOMO and LUMO, because I know that the reaction coordinate belongs to the ...
3
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2answers
125 views

Question about quantum mechanical model of atom and the quantum numbers

I studied Bohr's model of atom and then the drawbacks of it and then quantum mechanical model of atom. Now quantum model is according to uncertainty principal and dual nature of matter and it says we ...
8
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1answer
140 views

Why allene cannot be described with an allyl system?

Why is it impossible in allene to have two pi-bonds in the same orientation? => Why isn't allene planar? (4 $p$ electrons are in two 2x2 $p$-orbitals) From my chemical intuition I would guess that ...
1
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1answer
74 views

Why does hybridization produce a more stable configuration?

My text, and the other sources I've checked, include information on the effects, and kinds, of hybridized orbitals; however, they do not explain what properties of hybridized bonds conduce greater ...
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0answers
46 views

Molecules from atoms [closed]

Why do two oxygen atoms combine to form a molecule and not 3 or 4? Also, why does one sodium and one chlorine atom combine to form $\ce{NaCl}$ while two chlorine atoms are required to combine with one ...
8
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1answer
75 views

Photoisomerization of Azobenzene

Rotation around the double bond of azobenzene is restricted because it would distort the P orbital overlap between the nitrogen atoms. However, in the $n \rightarrow \pi^*$ excited state ($S_1$), the ...
2
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0answers
29 views

Stability of half and fully filled orbitals [duplicate]

1) My textbook tells me that chromium's electronic configuration is $\ce{[Ar]}\space 3d^5 4s^1$ instead of $\ce{[Ar]} \space 3d^4 4s^2$, as fully filled and half filled orbitals have more stability. ...
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1answer
84 views

What comes after the f orbital? and calculations [duplicate]

What is after the $f$ orbital? as my physical chemistry textbook does not say anything in it and how do they fill etc?
5
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0answers
47 views

How many electrons in the d orbitals of NiCl2·6H2O?

On Wikipedia, it says that $\ce{NiCl2·6H2O}$ consists of separated trans-$\ce{[NiCl2(H2O)4]}$ molecules linked more weakly to adjacent water molecules. Only four of the six water molecules in ...
5
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2answers
66 views

Bromine with 10 electrons

On a test question, my organic chemistry professor gave us a really big molecule and told us to give list the formal charges on each atom. There was a $\ce{Br}$ with 3 lone pairs and a double bond to ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Is one electron spin preferred over the other in filling of orbitals? [duplicate]

When filling an orbital diagram of an atom, usually the up-spin is filled first and then the down-spin. For example, for Nitrogen, we have : But in a model in which up-spin electron is preferred ...
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0answers
42 views

Trouble understanding 5 orientations of d orbitals

I understand $d_{xy}$ and $d_{yz}$ and those orientations but ones like $d_{z^2}$ are very strange to me. Can someone please explain that to me?
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0answers
44 views

Orbitals involved in Ni(CO)₄

Which orbitals are filled? Is it diamagnetic? According to CFT, $\ce{CO}$ is a strong field ligand, so will it pair the electrons and be diamagnetic?
9
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1answer
920 views

Difference between radial, planar, angular and spherical nodes

What is the difference between them? I think radial nodes and spherical nodes are the same, and angular and planar nodes are the same. Reference Finally, how many spherical nodes are there in ...
7
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3answers
444 views

Do core electrons have molecular orbitals?

Valence electrons are associated with molecular orbitals and hybridizations. Do core electrons have molecular/hybridized orbitals, or the original atomic orbitals?
1
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1answer
34 views

Order of priority in hybridization of d-orbitals

During hybridization of d-orbitals why the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are used up before the $d_{xy}$, $d_{yz}$ and $d_{zx}$ ?
3
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1answer
98 views

Are the energies of orbitals that are not filled in an atom, equal?

In a hydrogen atom only 1s orbital is filled. Does this mean that the energies of all other orbitals are equal? If so,why?
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21 views

Why Bari centre is considered as Zero energy level?

Why the degenerate energy level of d orbitals before forming complex is considered zero? what advantages are there for taking the mean of t2g and eg orbitals as zero?
18
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1answer
257 views

What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any ...
5
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1answer
276 views

Hybridization of the oxygen in furan?

I fail to understand why the hybridization of oxygen in furan is $\ce{sp^2}$. I think that since there are 2 bond pairs and two lone pairs so it should be $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized? Is it to do with the ...
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1answer
106 views

sp² hybridized orbital

I do not understand why and how an atom with $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization has only one p orbital?? For example in pyridine why is the lone pair of nitrogen not counted as a pi electron.
6
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1answer
113 views

What is an orbital boundary surface?

Could anybody explain the following statement: "The boundary surface is a common way to represent atomic orbitals, incorporating the volume in which there is about a 90 percent probability of finding ...
4
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1answer
216 views

Effect of effective nuclear charge increase on the stabilization of 2s and 2p orbitals

Are 2s or 2p orbitals more stabilized when going from left to right in the period? There are good arguments for both possible answers: 1) 2p orbitals are more stabilized because they penetrate less ...
10
votes
1answer
252 views

Is there a general / simple formula for Slater's rules?

I just learned how Slater's rules work on Wikipedia. These rules really are very simple. But the presentation of the rules seemed not very efficient. I would think there would be someway to set up and ...
5
votes
1answer
142 views

Do multielectron atoms have nodes?

For hydrogen, other than in the 1s state, the electron wavefunctions have radial and/or angular nodes where the electron probability density is zero. In helium or further atoms with more than one ...
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0answers
37 views

Calculating the angular momentum for these orbitals

Here is the question: I got through part a (with 1, -1, 0, and 0), but I'm stuck for part b. I looked up the radial and spherical harmonic wavefunctions for $n, l, m_l$ = 211 ; and I figure since ...
6
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1answer
303 views

Why is copper (II) coordination number so big?

Consider tetraaminecopper (II) ion. $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4]++}$ or $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]++}$ Copper (II) ion has electron configuration $\ce{[Ar] 3d^9}$. How do the 4 electron pairs from ammonia atoms form ...
4
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1answer
294 views

Which orbitals of the hydrogen atom are degenerate for n=3?

Here's the link to the picture of the question. The answer says its E. All of them. First of all isn't there only 1 electron in hydrogen? And how could the s orbital be degenerate? Doesn't ...
4
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2answers
521 views

Why are sp hybridized carbocations high energy?

You don’t see carbocations on double bonds very much, and here’s a good reason: compared to sp3, there is more s character in the orbitals, so the empty orbital is held more closely to the ...
3
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3answers
117 views

Why does symmetry have to be maintained in molecular orbitals?

Using the example of $\ce{XeF4}$: What is the physical explanation enforcing the symmetry of the $\ce{1b_{1g}}$ orbital on the fluorine atoms? Why isn't the symmetry of a nonbonding orbital ...