Questions about chemicals and chemical processes that affect and influence medicine.

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5
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2answers
69 views

Is ciprofloxacin acidic or basic?

I would expect an aqueous solution of ciprofloxacin to be basic for the following reasons: The carboxyl group has pKa = 6.09 and the secondary amino group has pKa = 8.74. Because 8.74 is further ...
-3
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0answers
13 views

Hydrolysis of esters, amides [closed]

At what pH the ester or amide groups present in the drugs get hydrolysed, in the human body? Does it depend on the particular cell physiology?
2
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0answers
22 views

Shape of the blood CO2 dissociation curve

What equation determines the shape of the blood $\ce{CO2}$ dissociation curve? I know that since it factors all possible forms of $\ce{CO2}$ carriage, there are a bunch of factors (e.g. Henry's law, ...
3
votes
0answers
23 views

Arterial blood CO2 content, division and partial pressure

My lecturer cites Boron and Boulpaep's Medical Physiology (2nd edition) for the following claims: the total $\ce{CO2}$ content of arterial blood is $26.4$ mmol/L or $48\%$ v/v (not sure if these ...
7
votes
1answer
64 views

Is lithium L-threonate a potential brain medicine?

Lithium ions have known neuroprotective qualities. That would explain its therapeutic benefit in some mental disorders. It is also well known that lithium carbonate must be taken in toxic doses to get ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

What's the difference between pharmacotherapy and chemotherapy

Is it fair to say that pharmacotherapy (the use of pharmaceuticals to treat disease) is a subset of chemotherapy (the use of chemicals to treat disease)? If not, why? Aside from the fact the former ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable?

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable? Trifluoromethyl diazirines stability is well documented, however I am yet to find an explanation of why... Can it be homoaromatic or even aromatic? 2 pie ...
4
votes
3answers
305 views

How do water insoluble medications get absorbed in the blood stream?

If a chemical is ingested (supplement or drug) orally, which is insoluble in water, how can it be absorbed into the body? Is there something inside a capsule that the compound is mixed with?
1
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0answers
56 views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , ...
2
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0answers
46 views

Combining amphetamine and MAOIs

Could combining amphetamine and a (possibly selective) MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) increase the amphetamines potency without serious toxic side effects? If so by what factor, and would this be ...
9
votes
1answer
102 views

Are the tars in cannabis considerably more dangerous than those in tobacco?

The claim that "the tars in cannabis are considerably more dangerous than those in tobacco" is made in Patricks An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry (4th edition, p. 169). It's just a simple one ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Need a stable qualitative test for acetoacetic acid

I am looking at using urine ketone test strips (Ketostix) for a project. I have some technical limitations: must be able to be flooded with urine for 2 hours without creating a false negative (some ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Skin adhesive that can be used daily without damaging skin

What is the branch of chemistry that deals with skin adhesives? Is there an adhesive that is not water soluble that is safe to use every day?
0
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0answers
48 views

Urine dipstick reagent for ketones

Is there a urine dipstick reagent for ketones that will last several hours without becoming falsely negative? The ketostix brand of urine dipstick for ketones uses sodium nitroprusside. My ...
5
votes
1answer
47 views

How are hormone levels measured?

I have been searching google and didn't found any links that describes how this process is performed - I mean the chemical procedure, not the process of taking the blood from the vein.
2
votes
1answer
299 views

How important are those fields of chemistry in biotechnology and medicinal chemistry

At my university there is some fields of chemistry that i don't know if i should focus on them... How important are in biotechnology and medicinal chemistry those fields of chemistry? : Quantum ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

PAPS , is it a carrier or not

In sulfate conjugation , is it considered as a carrier or help to make sulfonation if I got a question and I have to choose ( enzyme helps to make the reaction or is a carrier to transfer the sulfate ...
2
votes
1answer
379 views

Why is acetylsalicylic acid still more acid than benzoic acid?

In this question, it is explained why salicylic acid is a stronger acid than benzoic acid. So, why acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), whose conjugate base cannot hydrogen bond since there is no hydrogen, ...
12
votes
3answers
744 views

Can we prolong life? [closed]

This is rather a bunch of questions that I decided to post on Chemistry StackExchange since I thought the chemists would have the most knowledge about the chemical processes of life. So recently I ...
2
votes
1answer
220 views

Why does the US not manufacture sodium thiopental themselves?

A shortage of a given chemical (sodium thiopendal) has prompted Utah to allow firing squads for executions. This shortage is due to mostly European chemical factories refusing to export the drug to ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Looking for a compound [closed]

TL;DR; I need a compound that is harmeless to the human body, odorless, tasteless, causes some kind of visible reaction (urine coloration perhaps) AND can be bought without medical recomendation. LONG ...
13
votes
3answers
221 views

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease?

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease without damaging other parts of the body? If so, would the liquefied plaque be eliminated as regular fluid is through ...
6
votes
1answer
675 views

Are there any magnetic particles that are safe to inhale?

In medicine, there is an (old?) experiment where a subject is asked to inhale radioactive Xenon gas, and radiation counters are placed at different positions near the lungs. Using this experiment, it ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Hydrolysing large molecules to reveal amino acids

Consider Oxytocin: I am asked to hydrolyse Oxytocin and reveal 5 amino acids which are the result of this hydrolysis. I must admit I have no idea where to begin. I know that generally amino acids ...
2
votes
2answers
615 views

Chirality on Propranolol

I'm a bit confused when asked to specify the chiral carbons on this sketch of Propranolol as I'm not sure how the $\ce{H3C}$ and $\ce{CH3}$ play in if they are reversed in the name like that...Does ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Negative ions and health: pseudo science or something more?

Over the last year or so I've heard from friends, who subscribe to holistic medicine, talk about negative ions, saying that they are good for your mental/physical health. Being the only one among them ...
6
votes
1answer
504 views

Why do many pharmaceuticals contain fluorine?

What exactly does fluorination of some compound do in a biological sense? I read the following things about what fluorine does for drugs: Fluorine withdraws electron density and can make an acid ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Interpreting a Formula Tattoo (Bipolar?)

Found This Online. Something to do with bipolar disorder?
1
vote
1answer
168 views

How to Experimentally Quantify the Response of a Receptor to a Ligand?

In medicinal chemistry, there are multiple reasons why one would want to experimentally determine the effect of a particular molecule on a receptor e.g. measuring how 'strongly' that molecule brings ...
1
vote
2answers
209 views

How do the fields of medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy, and pharmacology differ?

I would like to know what the difference between medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy and pharmacology. All of them seem to involve the development of drugs, so I am confusd as to ...
3
votes
2answers
448 views

Why does blood get further oxidized than Iron oxide?

Oxygenated blood is bright red and deoxygenated blood is dark red or brown. If you take oxygenated blood and leave it in the air it will turn dark red, then brown, then finally a bluish green from ...
1
vote
1answer
152 views

Are salt substitutes good alternatives to sodium chloride?

I bought a low salt Ketchup from Heinz and it says it uses ‘ALSOSALT’ substitute (potassium chloride). It says it does have 5 mg of sodium. Is potassium chloride (with possible additives) a good ...
5
votes
2answers
288 views

What is the active ingredient in this “stimulant?”

It is an easily defensible argument that this is a medical question rather than a chemistry one, however, I feel that it leans ever so slightly towards chemistry, and so I posted it here. There is a ...
6
votes
2answers
207 views

What is the mechanism of action of anaesthetics?

A range of very different compounds are used in medicine as anaesthetics. They don't seem to have much in common chemically but they all seem to keep people asleep while medics are doing nasty things ...
3
votes
1answer
626 views

Determine compound acidity based on structure

In an exercise I have the following structures Moclobemide: Paracetamol: Hexobarbital: I know for example by heart that paracetamol is an acid. What is the best approach in determination of ...
0
votes
2answers
494 views

What is the importance of using a pKa value instead of a pKb value when describing drug chemistry?

Why do we only consider the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ value of a drug regardless of whether it is an acid or base? Why do we not use the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{b}$ value?
1
vote
1answer
113 views

What happens to the structure of tetracyclines when they expire?

I need to explain (chemically) why expired tetracyclines should not be used, relating to the changes in tetracycline structure that occur. All I can find is that they cause nephrosis, but not why.
7
votes
1answer
2k views

What does the “3,4” mean in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)?

I'm curious to know, what exactly does the 3,4 part of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine represent?
1
vote
3answers
832 views

Open Source tools to draw a set of 2d molecular graphs from sdf file

I have a sdf file for around 50 small-molecules for which I am doing structure-activity study. I would like to draw 2d graphs of all the molecules such that the image would fit into a single journal ...
3
votes
1answer
224 views

Prediction of surface atoms in molecule from its graph

If we are given a molecular graph i.e. al the atoms involved and their connectivity, how can we make reasonable prediction if the atom would lie in the surface or in the inner part. On way might be ...
3
votes
1answer
625 views

What is the effect of substituting oxygen with sulfur in drug molecules?

What sort of changes in the properties of organic or drug molecules can be anticipated if you substitute some or all of the oxygen atoms with sulphur atoms, and vice versa. My interest in this ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

What does ingredients being “biologically active” mean?

From Wikipedia Cosmeceuticals refers to the combination of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products with biologically active ingredients purporting to have medical ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Are there ways to predict which chemicals will kill certain bacteria?

Are there ways to compute what chemicals kill a give bacteria but not another given bacteria ? Does that help much to make medication ?
12
votes
1answer
524 views

Why does the sulfone ring in tazobactam open when the lactam is hydrolyzed?

One of the drugs I work with is a beta-lactam (4-membered ring with an amide bond) fused to a sulfone ring, tazobactam. It's relatively stable in water; the lactam is not significantly hydrolyzed ...
17
votes
1answer
946 views

What are known examples of drugs that racemize/stereoconvert in vivo, and how are they converted?

It is known that although only the (S)-enantiomer of the infamous sedative thalidomide possesses teratogenic properties, it is not very useful to administer the pure (R)-enantiomer since it is ...