An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. An ion consisting of a single atom is an atomic or monatomic ion; if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a molecular or polyatomic ion.

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Why does attraction always cause release of energy making the system more stable?

Suppose $\ce{Na^+}$ and $\ce{Cl^-}$ form an ionic bond. In doing so they will come closer by attraction. Now as they come closer their speed will increase and hence the kinetic energy increases. So ...
11
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2answers
247 views

Can you in reality give neon a charge of +8?

First off, I am currently confused about why neon can even be ionized at all. But since it can be ionized, this is the energy required to give a mole of neon a charge of +8: ...
2
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1answer
46 views

Does ionization energy have anything to do with how reactive an element is?

According to my textbook, fluorine has a pretty high (compared to elements like sodium) first ionization energy. But why does it have such a high requirement to ionize? After all, it actively seeks ...
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5answers
1k views

Why do atoms form either a positive or a negative charge, but not both?

I do not mean at the same time, of course, but I mean it appears from an overview of the common charges formed from ionizing various elements that each element forms one or more of either positive or ...
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1answer
19 views

Find oxidation number of a metal in a compound

Calculate the oxidation number of $\ce{Fe}$ in $\ce{Fe2O3}$. Alright. So we have a metal and an non metal. This means that iron will lose electrons and give them to oxygen. So it will be a ...
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1answer
12 views

Nitrates in water

In my previous question, someones answer among other things, said that boiling the water increases the concentration of nitrates and nitrites. I searched on google and it's true, but how does that ...
2
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1answer
51 views

Can the structure of an azide ion contain a coordinate bond?

Can the structure of an azide ion ($\ce{N3-}$) be $\ce{N#N\bond{->}N^-}$? I know the actual structure but was asking whether the single bond can be shifted to a N to make it a triple bond and a ...
2
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1answer
65 views

About combining a cation and an anion

I’m trying to learn about ions. There is a slide with examples about combining cations with anions. It goes like this: $$\text{For} \ \ \ce{Al^3+} \ \ \text{ and } \ \ \ce{O^2-} \ \ \text{you get} ...
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1answer
43 views

Dispersion of Lithium Ions in Nature (Ratio Similar to Isotopes?)

I'm working on a project that identifies average characteristics of different elements. I'm stuck on lithium, I can't find a way to ratio lithium I and lithium II that symbolizes how it is in nature. ...
3
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1answer
64 views

Calculating the electrons an atom wants to gain/lose to reach a noble gas

I'm trying to understand ions. From what I understand, an ion is when the atom gains or loses electrons. More electrons means it is negatively charged (anion). Less electrons means it is positively ...
8
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1answer
169 views

Is an ionic bond more like a covalent bond or an intermolecular force?

I have asked a question loosely asking this, where I confused terms and did not specify what I wanted to know here, so I formed a new question. What are the differences and similarities between ionic ...
13
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1answer
277 views

Why are hydrogen ions always associated with another molecule?

I was reading N.C.E.R.T. class XI part 2 book and chapter Hydrogen,when I came across this statement: Loss of the electron from hydrogen atom results in nucleus ($\ce{H+}$) of ~1.510–3 pm size. ...
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190 views

Why is an ionic bond a chemical and not a physical bond?

Ionic bonds seem to be intermolecular but are classified as chemical bonds. "Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions." - ...
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2answers
359 views

CuCl2 dissolved in water

We dissolve $10\ \mathrm{g}$ of $\ce{CuCl2}$ in $0.1\ \mathrm{L}$ of water. Given that: $M(\ce{Cl})=35.5\ \mathrm{g/mol}$ $M(\ce{Cu})=63.5\ \mathrm{g/mol}$ How can one calculate the molar ...
3
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1answer
58 views

Comparison of atomic radii

My teacher told me that Neon has a larger atomic radius than Fluorine.I am of the understanding that it is merely a consequence of the way we define the atomic radius and that we use Van der walls ...
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0answers
90 views

“Crystal radius” vs “Ionic radius”

What is the difference between crystal radius and ionic radius? For $\ce{NaCl}$ for example the ions combine to a crystal, and I would have guessed they are equal. But I then found an example of data, ...
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0answers
42 views

why HgO & CdS compounds are colourful?

We know that the electron configuration in $3d$ orbitals of $\ce{Zn^2+}$, in $4d$ orbitals of $\ce{Cd^2+}$ and in $5d$ orbitals of $\ce{Hg^2+}$ ions are completely same. Then why the compounds of ...
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1answer
47 views

Explain why these ions are more strongly hydrated in an aqueous solution?

Note-I've already answered this question. All I want to know is if my reasoning is correct. Case 1: Rb+ Na+ ----This ion is more strongly favored Case 2: Mg2+ ----This ion is more strongly ...
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0answers
46 views

Possible ionization and fragmentation of chemicals

Is there any generic method where I can know/calculate/generate the possible ionization and fragmentation of a specific chemical, for example, hydrogen chloride and water. Replies are greatly ...
5
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1answer
134 views

Vaporized sodium hydroxide?

Some time ago, I was making a $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. The solution I had made was much too concentrated, and the heat released in the dissolution of the ions caused the water to begin steaming. ...
1
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1answer
70 views

Reaction of sulfate ion in copper sulfate electrolysis

I am planning to try copper plating a piece of metal by performing electrolysis on an aqueous solution of copper sulfate. I plan run an electrical current with the metal I want to plate as the cathode ...
8
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3answers
336 views

Differentiation between Zn(2+), Al(3+), Mg(2+) in solution

If I have three aqueous ionic solutions in which I know that the cation is $\ce{Al^3+}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, or $\ce{Zn^2+}$, and that how do I find out which is which? I was thinking to add $\ce{OH-}$ in ...
4
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1answer
75 views

Naming ionic compounds with multiple cations and anions

I have seen complex ionic compounds that have mixed anions and/or mixed cations. For Example I have seen this: $$\ce{NaKCl2}$$ Also known as Sodium Potassium Chloride. The only information I can ...
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1answer
548 views

Really how rare are hydrogen atoms?

Hasok Chang, a chemist, but perhaps more a philosopher recently published the book Is Water H2O? . Chang used the question and an extensive web of arguments ultimately as a platform to support a ...
7
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1answer
81 views

Smoke alarm ion neutralisation

Smoke alarms are a necessary part of many modern day buildings, especially in laboratories and of course, the family home. According to the World Nuclear Association page Smoke Detectors and ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Debye-Huckel theory with non-polar solvents

I want to calculate the activity coefficients of mixed solvent salt solutions. I am seeing very strange behavior when I try calculating the activity coefficient of salts in non-polar solvents using ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Identify this solution

The solution is emerald green in colour. When added with water, it gives a pale blue solution When reacted with $\ce{BaCl2}$, it gives a sky blue solution and a white precipitate. When reacted with ...
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2answers
103 views

How many electrons does each shell hold?

why some times 2nd shell onward it can hold 8 electrons and other times it is like they can hold K2 L8 M18 N32? when do i have to use first method(K2 L8 M8 N8) and when to use second method (k2 L8 ...
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0answers
108 views

Quantum Numbers and Ions

How do quantum numbers change for ions? A sample question: Give the set of four quantum numbers that could represent the electron lost to form the Rb ION from the Rb atom. The answer given is n=5; ...
2
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1answer
94 views

What is the reason for strong acids/bases dissociating in water?

I have read that the actual definition of a strong acid is one which will fully dissociate in water, so please do not turn the problem on its head when answering. It is also my understanding that ...
2
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2answers
80 views

Analogies of azide?

Azide is a fairly common ion, but why aren’t there similar versions such as $\ce{P3-}$ or $\ce{B3+}$? Do they exist, is there something wrong with these ions as to make them more likely to just break ...
2
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1answer
80 views

How to remove nitrate from water sample?

Are there any simple methods to completely remove nitrate ions from few ml of impure water sample ? One method I am curious about is the following process : Add one or more reagents to water in ...
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0answers
29 views

Why does the molar conductivity decrease with increasing charge density?

This is a question in a problem sheet I have been set. Is it do do with the following equation: $\Lambda=\Lambda_0-a\sqrt c$? Surely charge density is proportional to concentration so therefore molar ...
3
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1answer
75 views

Can we picture metallic bonding as an equilibrium between electrons and cations?

Can we picture metallic bonding as an equilibrium between electrons and cations? Suppose: $$\ce{Al^3+ + 3e- <=> Al}$$
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1answer
75 views

What is more stable: a carbonate ion or a sulphate ion?

The sulphate ion has more number of resonance structures than the carbonate ion. Hence, it should be more stable than the carbonate ion. But my book says that the carbonate ion is stronger than the ...
11
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1answer
958 views

Can metals have a net negative charge

Normal metals like sodium or Calcium have a positive charge as $\ce{Na}^+$ or $\ce{Ca}^{2+}$. Transition metals have a loot of variable oxidation states. Yesterday I read about Iridium in Wikipedia ...
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1answer
41 views

Ionize Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas in Electrolytic Cell?

As is well known, water can be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gasses. However, all redox reactions can be run in reverse. If I were to electrolyze water in 2 closed containers (in order to trap ...
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1answer
25 views

How do you figure out the dissociation energy for ions?

Specifically $\ce{KF}$ into the $\ce{K+}$ and $\ce{F-}$ ions. I can find tables on the DE into atoms, but where would I go to find the DE between ions? I am also given that the bond length is ...
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0answers
100 views

Calculating the Molarity of an Ion?

I'm completely stuck on this one - I was doing an experiment in a lab and now I cannot find the molarity of an ion in a solution. I've looked everywhere on the web but after 2 hours of searching I ...
3
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1answer
33 views

When does a solute form ions?

If I have $\ce{HCl}$ and I put it in water, it will form ions. But, if I take $\ce{HCl}$ and put in benzene, it won't. How do you know that? If I had other substances, how would I know if it forms ...
9
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1answer
1k views

Is the atom the smallest particle, which takes part in chemical reactions?

According to modern atomic theory, the atom is the smallest particle which can take part in a chemical reaction. But during the formation of hydronium ion, $\ce{H+}$ ion reacts with $\ce{H2O}$ to form ...
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0answers
15 views

Separating ions in an aqueous solution [duplicate]

Let me describe a setup. You have a bucket full of water and add an appropriate amount of NaCl (common salt) in it. You wait for it to dissolve. Gradually NaCl will dissociate forming ions. Then you ...
2
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2answers
249 views

Why is the second reaction being neglected?

If we want to find the concentration of $\ce{H+}$ ions at equilibrium when a weak conjugate base such as $\ce{C2H3O2-}$ added to water, why do we take the conjugate base reaction for calculation i.e ...
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1answer
71 views

Why does the potential difference of a current drop, when silver nitrate is added to deionised water?

Semi-related to Why do some salt ions in solution conduct electricity better than others? After conducting more experiments, using deionised water as an analyte only, I found the potential difference ...
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2answers
224 views

Are Na and Cl ions from NaCl in water separate charged particles?

Suppose I pour some sodium chlorine into water. So, what happens is that NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) meaning that the ionic bond between Na and Cl breaks up (correct this far?) Now, does this mean ...
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2answers
66 views

Why Ca 2+ and not Ca +2

I have been learning chemistry for a year or two but I still can't understand this. According to maths we should place the plus or minus sign in front of a number like -2. However, In chemistry we ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is NH2 negatively charged?

Whenever I look up the Lewis structure for $\ce{NH2^-}$, it shows 8 electrons. Now I understand the octet rule, but I still don't see how an electron can just appear from nowhere. There are 5 valence ...
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1answer
79 views

Does the speed of an ion affect the current that can flow through a solution?

Typically, when a cathode and anode are inserted into a solution that allows current to flow, the ions are moving with a certain kinetic energy. If the ions were to gain kinetic energy (through ...
2
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1answer
186 views

Why do some salt ions in solution conduct electricity better than others?

My experiment involves a potentiometric titration, and I have used $\ce{AgNO3}$ as a titrant and KCl/KI/deionised water only as an analyte. In the image below of my data, the potential difference as ...
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1answer
134 views

What is the total concentration (in mol dm−3) of ions in each of the following solutions, assuming complete dissociation

$0.750\ \mathrm{mol\ dm^{-3}}$ solution of $\ce{K2CO3}$ (I believe is $2.25\ \mathrm{mol\ dm^{-3}}$) $0.355\ \mathrm{mol\ dm^{-3}}$ solution of $\ce{AlCl3}$ (I believe is $1.42\ \mathrm{mol\ ...