An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. An ion consisting of a single atom is an atomic or monatomic ion; if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a molecular or polyatomic ion.

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8 views

Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate with Zinc electrodes.

I know that the above with inert (graphite/platinum) electrodes will lead to Cu and O2 deposition. With copper electrodes we get electroplating. However, if we use Zinc (an active electrode) we ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Negative numbers for ionic radii?

I was looking for a good table of ionic radii for an experiment on the van't-hoff factor when I stumbled upon R. D. Shannon, Acta Cryst. 1976, A32, 751. In table 1, it lists 1 of the ions of carbon ...
-3
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0answers
13 views

Calculate the percentage of sulfur and oxygen in: sulfur dioxide & sulfur trioxide [on hold]

It says to divide the mass of the sulfur by the mass of the compound, but I'm having trouble trying to figure out how to find the mass of the compound.
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0answers
34 views

Is C60 a ionophore?

I don't quite understand what qualifies as an ionophore but lipid solubility and ion transporter/carrier are two of C60's hallmark features, no? Thus does this make it an ionophore? I can't seem to ...
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0answers
23 views

Does ion dissociation affect things such as molality, molarity, mole fraction, etc.?

One of my homework questions (see image) asks us to calculate the molarity, molality, mole fraction, and mass percent of the solutes of various mixtures. The question includes the remark "Remember to ...
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1answer
54 views

How does complex ion differ from ligand complex?

As I understand, in terms of "colouring", ligand complex cause a transition metal cation centre's d-shell to split, allowing the electrons in that region to absorb specific frequencies of light, and ...
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0answers
8 views

pH, conc vs activity

After studying a somewhat overview of "gamma" activity coefficient (it is not actually in our course but may come in exam as a part of unknown paragraph in ionic equilibrium) I can understand most ...
5
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1answer
162 views

Does NH4 anion exist?

$\ce{BF3}$ can react with $\ce{F-}$ to give $\ce{BF4-}$ where we have for $\ce{B}$ in this molecule the 2s orbital and the three 2p orbitals filled totally (hybrid orbitals). In case of $\ce{NH3}$ ...
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2answers
65 views

How does one determine the probability of H⁺ to H₂O in pure water?

The ratio of $\ce{H+}$ to $\ce{H2O}$ is something around $10^{-8}$. How did people determine that? You cannot use the $K_\mathrm{w}$, $\mathrm{p}\ce{H}$, $\ce{[H+]}$ ion concentration value to answer ...
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1answer
36 views

What is the net ionic equation for LiNO3 NaCl?

I've heard the following net ionic equation doesn't react: $$\ce{Li+ + NO3- + Na+ + Cl- ->~"nothing"}$$ Is this true? Could someone explain me why it would not?
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2answers
33 views

Why is it lead(II)chromate and not Lead(II)Chromate(VI)tetraoxide?

I am just beginning in chemistry and learning how to name the different molecules. I have this molecule: $\ce{PbCrO4}$ I would give it the following name: Lead(II)Chromate(VI)tetraoxide Lead and ...
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1answer
23 views

Ionization energy comparison between K+ and Cl-

So I have encountered a question which looks very suspicious to me. If you have $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{K+}$, Can you say that $\ce{K+}$ has more ionization energy than $\ce{Cl-}$? We know for a fact ...
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55 views

Why is calcium stearate (soap scum) insoluble in water while potassium/sodium stearate are soluble in water?

So, potassium and sodium containing soaps work because they have a polar end and a non-polar structure for the rest of the molecule - they can thus be dissolved in polar and non-polar solvents. This ...
5
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1answer
285 views

Is NaCl crystal always going to have even number of atoms?

I just read: In $\ce{NaCl}$, atoms don't aggregate so as to form discrete molecules but they are held together in a network structure. The ratio of the $\ce{Na}$ to $\ce{Cl}$ atoms in a sodium ...
-1
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1answer
86 views

Peroxide and 2 extra electrons?

Trying to figure out where peroxide gains 2 electrons and why it has a 2- charge? On the Lewis dot structure it shows each O has 6 electrons and that it has a single bond between the two Oxygen atoms. ...
5
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1answer
444 views

Does the hydrogen ion actually exist?

A chemistry test I did was an IGCSE test. One of the questions was Is Hydrogen Chloride ionic or covalent? Now, on a sheet I have been given, it states the hydrogen ion is $\ce{H+}$. So, it ...
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1answer
92 views

Differences between Fe3+ and Fe2+ [closed]

I would like to know the differences between Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions. I'm guessing they must differ in reactivity but I'm not sure how. Also, is there a way that we can observed the differences
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0answers
30 views

Why is silver chromate red?

Copper(II) ions are blue and chromate(VI) ions are yellow therefore copper(II) chromate(VI) would turn out to be green because it's a mixture of blue and yellow. In the same way, silver ions are ...
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1answer
26 views

Radius of ammonium ion [duplicate]

What is the radius of an ammonium ion? I can't find it anywhere, and I really need it for the conclusion of my experiment.
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49 views

What is the size of the ammonium ion?

I did an experiment in which I dissolved certain substances in water, measured the conductivity and compared that with the ion-radius. One of the things I dissolved was $\ce{NH4Cl}$. What should I use ...
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1answer
112 views

Which are stronger intermolecular forces: ionic bonds or hydrogen bonds? [closed]

Do strong ionically attracted molecules have stronger intermolecular forces than hydrogen bonding forces?
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0answers
11 views

Does Beta-ionone posses the same anti-ageing properties as Retinoids if applied topically to the skin?

I read a scholarly article on oxidisation and collagen structure in the dermis and they mentioned the use of Retinoids topically. so I looked into retinoids (admittedly on Wikipedia) for an overview ...
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1answer
110 views

Ionic reaction between lithium and chlorine

I got a weird question in my chemistry book. It says Li and Cl react to form LiCl an ionic compound. Cl has .... electrons in its outermost occupied shell and the answer of the book is 6 electrons . ...
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2answers
121 views

How does the ionic strength formula work? (simple version)

The ionic strength formula provides a way to estimate the Debye screening length. I’m having some trouble understanding the structure; $$I = \begin{matrix}\frac{1}{2}\end{matrix}\sum_{{\rm i}=1}^{n} ...
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1answer
95 views

Nuclear Fallout [closed]

If there was a nuclear explosion and years later I come out of a fallout shelter like in the popular game series Fallout, what elements would react to the radiation in a way that could harm humans and ...
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1answer
36 views

If you add sodium salt to carbonated water (sparkling mineral water), could you produce sodium bicarbonate?

I know that $\ce{CO2}$ can dissociate into bicarbonate ions within $\ce{H2O}$. If Na is added, then sodium bicarbonate is produced. Could you then create sodium bicarbonate using carbonated mineral ...
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42 views

1+ vs. +1 Charge Notations

We are studying the atomic model and nuclear chemistry in class. In ions, charge is usually expressed like +1 or -1 or whatever ...
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1answer
44 views

What is the difference between TIC and TICC?

I have picked up a textbook on mass spectrometry, and I am finding it did not clearly distinguish between total ion chromatogram (TIC) and total ion current chromatogram (TICC) in the section (1.3 Ion ...
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0answers
48 views

Why don't halogens form cations like H+?

The first ionization energy of hydrogen is $1312\;\mathrm{kJ\cdot mol}^{-1}$, which is larger than that of halogens such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Given that observation, why don't halogens ...
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0answers
15 views

Does anyone know the particle size of carbamate and protonated MEA?

Does anyone know the particle size of carbamate and protonated MEA ? that's the product when CO2 is absorbed into monoethanolamine (MEA)
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2answers
123 views

How to know properties of ion Aluminum -27? [closed]

How do I know the charge/properties of this Ion Aluminum -27? All the information given is that Al has an atomic number of 13. I want to know how to know that it has an electric charge of +3 from the ...
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1answer
34 views

How do these solutions “react”?

If I were to combine solutions of $\ce{(NH4)2CO3}$ and $\ce{HNO3}$ in water, the only ionic compounds that could form are $\ce{H2CO3}$ and $\ce{NH4NO3}$ right? But since both are soluble no ...
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0answers
23 views

Different ion effect

I need to have the highest concentration of (bi)carbonate ions in a water solution. Thus far, my only idea was to use Potassium Bicarbonate (safe and cheap) as it has the highest solubility but it ...
5
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2answers
177 views

Calculating the charges of anions and cations

I am new to chemistry. Could someone explain me how to calculate the charges on anions and cations. I've heard about some crossing method (the left subscript becomes the right superscript and the ...
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0answers
67 views

Brewing tea with deionized water

I am wondering what efect brewing tea (let us assume for the sake of simplicity it is green tea, brewed at about 80 °C) in deionized water might have on the product. Will the lack of ions in the ...
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0answers
45 views

Calculating binding energies for excitated levels in potassium?

Suppose a laser is used to excite electronic transitions in potassium from the $3p$ orbitals to ones higher than $4s$. When I attempt to use the Bohr model to calculate binding energies, what I obtain ...
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1answer
307 views

Memorizing polyatomic ions? Using Periodic Table

In my Chemistry course, we must memorize a list of common polyatomic ions. Is their an easy way of memorizing ions such as Sulfate $\ce{SO4^2-}$ by looking at just the periodic table. I listed the ...
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0answers
103 views

Why is the radius of hydrated Na+ greater than that of hydrated K+?

Although $\ce{Na+}$ has ionic radius of 95 pm and an atomic weight of 23, and $\ce{K+}$ has ionic radius of 133 pm and an atomic weight of 39, hydrated $\ce{Na+}$ is larger than hydrated $\ce{K+}$: ...
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0answers
12 views

How to sequester Na+ which prohibits the formation of a micro-emulsion in solution

I am mixing alkaline solutions ($\ce{Na2CO3}$) with crude oil containing carboxylic acids to create micro-emulsions. The carboxylic acids react with the alkaline moieties to create an in-situ ...
0
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1answer
29 views

How do electrolytes work? [duplicate]

I just want to know how to electrons travel from one end to the other. The concept I have in my mind is that the ions functions as "buses" for the electrons then send them to the other side, but ...
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2answers
65 views

Why do metals form ions in solution? [closed]

I'm looking at redox half-reactions, such as the one below: $$\ce{Zn(s) -> Zn^2+(aq) + 2 e-}$$ Does the zinc react with the water and dissociate into ions? Why doesn't solid zinc have a charge?
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0answers
89 views

Qualitative Analysis of Different Cations

So, we were taught in lab how to identify a couple of cations and anions through elimination and confirmatory tests. I was wondering, however—how would this work if the test solution were made up of ...
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1answer
52 views

Original concentration calculation homework

A student performs the following gravimetric analysis of iron ions in a water system $$\ce{Fe^2+ (aq) + CO3^2- (aq) <=> FeCO3 (s)}$$ If this student used excess carbonate and obtained the ...
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0answers
26 views

Bisulfate vs Bisulfite to neutralize off gassing in paint [duplicate]

I need to neutralize the off gassing in wall paint that contains one or more of the antimicrobial compounds of isothiazolinone, chloromethylisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, ...
3
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1answer
170 views

Will the ions in salt bridge be used up?

Ions in salt bridge move to the electrolytes of two half cells to balance the charges. But will the ions in salt bridge be used up? If it will, is the electron flow then stop?
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1answer
84 views

Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions? Are there any other metals that also bond covalently?
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1answer
104 views

Why is zinc sulfate used in daniell cell [duplicate]

Why is zinc sulfate needed in the construction of a daniell cell. It seems that because the zinc is getting oxidized and not reduced there is no need to have a solution of zinc sulfate as it will ...
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3answers
96 views

Do only metals form ions?

Do nonmetals form ions? I am asking this because I was reading something and I came across the phrase "metal ions," which left me to wonder whether or not there are nonmetal ions as well.
2
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1answer
64 views

Why do ligands have such a small effect on overall absorption of a complexed ion?

When a metal cation is complexed, there is strong UV-Vis absorption due to the splitting of its $d$ orbitals, thereby allowing electronic transitions. My understanding is that ligands contribute very ...
2
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1answer
169 views

What happens to iron(III) sulfate (ferric sulfate) in aqueous solution?

Iron(II) sulfate (ferrous sulfate) is a salt that, in an aqueous solution, dissolves and yields $\ce{Fe^{2+}(aq)}$ and $\ce{SO4^{2-}(aq)}$. It then decomposes to ferric sulfate shortly thereafter. ...