An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. An ion consisting of a single atom is an atomic or monatomic ion; if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a molecular or polyatomic ion.

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26 views

How to explain Born repulsion between ions in gas phase?

In simple terms, the collision of two atoms $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ will result in ions $\ce{A^+}$ and $\ce{B^-}$ if $$I_a(\ce{A})+E_a(\ce{A})<I_a(\ce{B})+E_a(\ce{B})$$ where $I_a$ and $E_a$ are the ...
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1answer
43 views

Effect of pH on volatility (odor) of organic acid

Based on two assumptions: Ionic solutes can generally be considered nonvolatile As the pH of a solution of organic acid is increased, an increasing percentage of it is deprotonated, or ionized (...
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23 views

Bond Energy of Ions of Molecular Oxygen

Three of the bond energies of $\ce{O2,\ O2^{-},\ O2^{2-},\ O2^+}$ have the values approximately $200, 490$ and $625\ \mathrm{kJ\ mol^{-1}}$. The value for one of the species is uncertain and, ...
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55 views

Chemical Formula for Barium Chloride

Barium Chloride is represented as $\ce{BaCl2}$. Since chlorine is a diatomic molecule, It should be denoted as $\ce{Cl2}$. Formulating, we get \begin{array}{|c:cc|}\hline \small \rm Element & ...
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1answer
46 views

Can an Ion Isotope exist?

My question is simple, Can an isotope have a charge? i.e the number of protons and electrons defer in that atom. If it does exists, Is it right to call it an Ion Isotope? (or Isotope Ion) Thanks in ...
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1answer
44 views

Is aluminum nitrate a polyatomic?

In my book it talks about aluminum nitrate and copper (II) perchlorate. It is stated that: "In the chemical formula for aluminum nitrate and copper perchlorate, parenthesis followed by the ...
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18 views

How do ion–dipole bonds manage to break apart an ionic lattice?

I was reading this answer and its reasoning behind the dissolution of NaCl seems to lie in entropic favorability. However, as it states, many, if not most, dissolution reactions are favored by ...
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1answer
43 views

Can we safely consume ions?

When we drink salt water, we are consuming the sodium and chloride ions, right? We can't consume elemental sodium as it's highly reactive but the consumption of its ions seems to be fine. Does that ...
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2answers
113 views

Is H+ (in an aqueous solution) = H3O+? [duplicate]

I was learning about autoionization in science and my science teacher wrote $\ce{H3O+}$ as $\ce{H+}$ — now, my intuition would lead me to assume that: $$\ce{H3O+} = \ce{H+}$$ But, $\ce{H+}$ is just ...
4
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2answers
135 views

Can silver metal be used to electrochemically reduce copper?

I have a solution of copper(II) ions and several cations. I am trying to reduce the copper ions to copper metal with electricity. My Ideas was to use silver as the anode and a copper wire as the ...
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1answer
11 views

How can a conductivity experiment have higher voltage than battery?

I did an experiment where I tested the conductivity of different solutions and some substances. We connected a 9 bolt battery, some aluminum foil sticks, and a multimeter that reads the voltage. It ...
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33 views

Understanding three-dimensional structure of common salt

I started reading through The Feynman Lectures and came across this diagram. What do the numbers next to the nodes in the diagram represent? It's not explained in the text. All that is mentioned is: "...
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1answer
180 views

Stability of ferrous ions and iron(II) hydroxide in acidic conditions

I was reading a chemisty textbook when I came across the following statement. $\ce{Fe(OH)2}$ is not stable, even more so in basic conditions. [---] $\ce{Fe^2+}$ ions are also less likely to ...
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1answer
155 views

Is the concentration of negative ions always equal to that of positive ions?

Is there any way in which a solution can have more negative charge than positive charge, or vice versa? For example, in the context of acid-base chemistry, is there any scenario in which $[\ce{H+}]\ne[...
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1answer
13 views

Does the rate of ion movment in a salt bridge affect the total voltage produced by a voltaic (Galvanic) Cell?

I was thinking that different salts used in a salt bridge in a voltaic cell may have different rates of flow (perhaps ionic radius or some other property effects the rate?) I was wondering, if some ...
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10 views

Does the ionic radius of an ion affect its rate of flow in an electrolye?

Do Ions of different Ionic Radius' have different speeds or rates of flow in an electrolyte and thus produce differences in currents? If so, would ions with smaller Ionic radius' move faster or slower?...
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1answer
53 views

How would using Different Salts in a Salt Bridge Effect the Voltage Generated by Voltaic Cell?

If I use a range of different nitrate solutions (e.g. calcium nitrate, iron nitrate) for the salt bridge in a voltaic cell, what effect would it have on the flow of ions in the Voltaic cells? Will ...
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14 views

How is hydrogen produced in the single displacement of copper (II) sulphate and zinc?

Can someone please describe, with detailed explanation, the process of this reaction? I feel like I'm missing something that's going on in between the reactant and the product... Copper sulphate is ...
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31 views

Dissociation of H3PO4 and colligative properties

Which of the following solutions that have concentrations of $0.01\ \mathrm{M}$ show the highest elevation in boiling point and why? A) $\ce{NaCl}$ B) $\ce{CaCl2}$ C) $\ce{H3PO4 }$ D) $\ce{...
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1answer
31 views

Different between molecular and ionic equations

I want to know if ALL equations have to be balanced? Say for example if Hydrogen gas (H2) burns in air (O2) to form water (H2O) I get the following: H2 + O2 --> H2O. Means that balanced would be ...
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1answer
22 views

Electrode Potential at Equilibrium

Above is an excerpt from my book. It says that at equilibrium the potential difference develops between electrode and eletrolyte and it is electrode potential. But at equlibrium, should not the ...
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30 views

What makes the double displacement reaction:CaZ + 2 NaCl = Na2Z + CaCl2 (Z is zeolite) possible?

$\ce{CaZ + 2 NaCl -> Na2Z + CaCl2}$, where Z stands for zeolite. This is the reaction which generally occurs under removal of hardness of water during a process called Permutit or Ions exchange ...
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380 views

How does aluminium react with bases to form aluminates?

An example of reaction: $$\ce{2Al + 2KOH + 6H2O->2 K[Al(OH)4] + 3H2 ^}$$ Aluminium is not ionic, how then does it attract the $\ce{OH-}$ groups to bond with them into the complex ion $\ce{[Al(OH)...
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29 views

“Negative ions are tidier”?

From Chemguide: That means that the only elements to form positive ions with noble gas structures (apart from odd ones like scandium) are those in groups 1 and 2 of the Periodic Table and ...
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15 views

High boiling point of ionic compounds [duplicate]

An ionic compound has an giant ionic lattice with strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the positively-charged cation and the negatively-charged anion. These ionic bonds are very strong ...
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1answer
43 views

Reversibility of an acid's reaction with water depending on its strength

This is how my chemistry professor compared reaction of a weak and a strong acid with water: $$\ce{HCl + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl- + Heat}$$ In this case $\ce{H2O}$ breaks the bond between $\ce{H}$ ...
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1answer
109 views

Why are bromine oxyanions uncommon?

Sodium hypochlorite is used in bleach, calcium hypochlorite is used in public swimming pools, ammonium perchlorate is used in solid rocket fuel. Sodium periodate is used in the cleaving of syn-...
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44 views

Is there a preferred way of naming the resonance hybrid in keto-enol tautomerism?

While answering a question about keto-enol tautomerism the question arose, how can I refer to the resonance hybrid instead of on of the resonance forms. In the case of the deprotonated butane-2-one, I ...
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0answers
47 views

How do sulfate and sulfite have the same charge?

I noticed while I was practicing naming compounds with polyatomic ions (I'm only in middle school) that sulfate and sulfite have the same charge. How does this make sense, since sulfate has one more ...
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1answer
165 views

Can H4O 2+ form?

Like $\ce{NH4+}$ ,Is there any possibility of formation of $\ce{H4O^{2+}}$ (of tetrahedral structure)? My theory is: it can be formed by osmosis setup where heavy acids like $\ce{H3PO4}$ or $\ce{...
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3answers
101 views

Why is the hypoiodite anion unstable in solution, whereas hypochlorite is relatively stable?

$\ce{Cl2}$ and $\ce{Br2}$ can disproportionate in a cold, aqueous, basic environment to form $\ce{ClO-}$ and $\ce{BrO-}$ respectively, yet $\ce{I2}$ directly forms $\ce{IO3^-}$. Why isn't $\ce{IO-}$ ...
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41 views

Determine stable ion? [closed]

how do you determine the stable ion formed from these elements: Mn, Sb and Se. I don't really need you to show those exact ones, they are just the ones in the example. I'm working on a chemistry unit ...
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1answer
37 views

Question Concerning colloid precipitate and Ion/Counter ion layers.

You use a precipitation method to determine [Ag+] in an unknown sample using Cl- ions. Reaction is conducted in presence of HNO3 in excess (relative to Ag+) Which statement is correct concerning the ...
5
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1answer
108 views

Chromium complexes and nomenclature

In theory, $\ce{[Cr(H2O)6]^3+}$ ions have a bluish violet colour. However, many times in the lab we end up with a dark green solution. This is due to hydrolysis, coordination with sulphate (or other) ...
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343 views

Why quaternary nitrogen but not tertiary oxygen?

Why do quaternary ammonium ions with a partially positive nitrogen form fairly readily and are often stable but tertiary oxygens, apparently called oxonium ions, are more rare/less stable? The trend ...
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70 views

Why does sodium chloride not conduct as much as aluminum chloride in water?

I understand how $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{AlCl3}$ dissolves in water but I'm wondering why one is more conductive than the other. Is it their extra ions to conduct the electricity? I know that in $\ce{...
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1answer
28 views

Are there ion combinations which can't be separated using the ion exchange resin method?

I am currently investigating the uses of ion exchange resins (both cation and anion resins). I have not come across any ion combinations that cannot be separated using this method, are there any ...
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1answer
33 views

The stability of the cupric and cuprous ions

My teacher told me that $\ce{Cu^2+}$ is more stable than $\ce{Cu+}$ in solution, but why? I think $\ce{Cu+}$ is $\ce{[Ar] 3d^10 }$ ,$\ce{Cu^2+}$ is $\ce{[Ar] 3d^9}$, why is $\ce{Cu^2+}$ more stable ...
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1answer
65 views

Why can't electrons be transferred using hydrogen ions?

I have a homework question that asks: Recognizing how oxidation and reduction occurs is essential for analyzing and understanding biochemical reactions. Which of the following methods would NOT ...
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1answer
74 views

Deuterium removal from water

What percentage of deuterium might be removed from water after a typical electrolysis procedure? From a post on this site I read that, "In the first stage, $\ce{NaOH}$ solution (initially $0.5\rm{M}$) ...
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3answers
52 views

How are ionic formulas written?

Why is $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$ Barium hydroxide not Barium dihydroxide? Why is Lithium carbonate $\ce{Li2CO3}$ instead of $\ce{LiCO3}$? Is there a formula or is just the case for these two?
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2answers
50 views

hydroxide ion in water — How does the dynamic change?

It's well known that $\ce{H+}$ ions in water always form $\ce{H3O+}$ ions. Likewise, $\ce{OH-}$ should exist always as $\ce{H3O2-}$ ion. If I am correct at this point, how would the dynamics be ...
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24 views

Electrical driving force

The question is kind of related to chemistry. Electrical driving force happens between ions when negative or positive charged ions is concentrated on a side more than the other. The teacher ...
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37 views

Anti-bonding orbitals for ionic bonds

Are there any concept of Bonding and Antibonding orbitals in the case of Ionic bonds, as there are in case of covalent bonds (electron sharing) ? OR: Is it possible to break an ionic bond by pushing ...
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1answer
28 views

Polyatomic Reaction Charges

When a polyatomic ion reacts with another atom to create an ionic compound, often, we know the charge of the polyatomic ion. But how can we infer the charge of the atom it is reacting with? For ...
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58 views

Spectator ions in redox reactions

I'm trying to get a fool proof way of finding the products of a redox reaction. I can do both the oxidation and reduction the half reactions. For example in the potassium permanganate with hydrogen ...
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1answer
88 views

Mg(HCO3)2 dissociation

What is the equation of $\ce{Mg(HCO3)2}$ dissociation? There are more steps because it's a complex substance? How to do this. Is it correct $\ce{MgHCO3+ + HCO3-}$?
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68 views

Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate with Zinc electrodes

I know that the above with inert (graphite/platinum) electrodes will lead to $\ce{Cu}$ and $\ce{O2}$ deposition. With copper electrodes we get electroplating. However, if we use Zinc (an active ...
4
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65 views

Negative numbers for ionic radii?

I was looking for a good table of ionic radii for an experiment on the van't-hoff factor when I stumbled upon R. D. Shannon, Acta Cryst. 1976, A32, 751. In table 1, it lists 1 of the ions of carbon ...
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40 views

Is C60 a ionophore?

I don't quite understand what qualifies as an ionophore but lipid solubility and ion transporter/carrier are two of C60's hallmark features, no? Thus does this make it an ionophore? I can't seem to ...