An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. An ion consisting of a single atom is an atomic or monatomic ion; if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a molecular or polyatomic ion.

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2answers
142 views

Is the concentration of negative ions always equal to that of positive ions?

Is there any way in which a solution can have more negative charge than positive charge, or vice versa? For example, in the context of acid-base chemistry, is there any scenario in which ...
0
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0answers
6 views

Does the rate of ion movment in a salt bridge affect the total voltage produced by a voltaic (Galvanic) Cell?

I was thinking that different salts used in a salt bridge in a voltaic cell may have different rates of flow (perhaps ionic radius or some other property effects the rate?) I was wondering, if some ...
0
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0answers
10 views

Does the ionic radius of an ion affect its rate of flow in an electrolye?

Do Ions of different Ionic Radius' have different speeds or rates of flow in an electrolyte and thus produce differences in currents? If so, would ions with smaller Ionic radius' move faster or ...
3
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1answer
36 views

How would using Different Salts in a Salt Bridge Effect the Voltage Generated by Voltaic Cell?

If I use a range of different nitrate solutions (e.g. calcium nitrate, iron nitrate) for the salt bridge in a voltaic cell, what effect would it have on the flow of ions in the Voltaic cells? Will ...
0
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0answers
13 views

How is hydrogen produced in the single displacement of copper (II) sulphate and zinc?

Can someone please describe, with detailed explanation, the process of this reaction? I feel like I'm missing something that's going on in between the reactant and the product... Copper sulphate is ...
3
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0answers
29 views

Dissociation of H3PO4 and colligative properties

Which of the following solutions that have concentrations of $0.01\ \mathrm{M}$ show the highest elevation in boiling point and why? A) $\ce{NaCl}$ B) $\ce{CaCl2}$ C) $\ce{H3PO4 }$ D) ...
-1
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1answer
29 views

Different between molecular and ionic equations

I want to know if ALL equations have to be balanced? Say for example if Hydrogen gas (H2) burns in air (O2) to form water (H2O) I get the following: H2 + O2 --> H2O. Means that balanced would be ...
0
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1answer
18 views

Electrode Potential at Equilibrium

Above is an excerpt from my book. It says that at equilibrium the potential difference develops between electrode and eletrolyte and it is electrode potential. But at equlibrium, should not the ...
0
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0answers
24 views

What makes the double displacement reaction:CaZ + 2 NaCl = Na2Z + CaCl2 (Z is zeolite) possible?

$\ce{CaZ + 2 NaCl -> Na2Z + CaCl2}$, where Z stands for zeolite. This is the reaction which generally occurs under removal of hardness of water during a process called Permutit or Ions exchange ...
8
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2answers
363 views

How does aluminium react with bases to form aluminates?

An example of reaction: $$\ce{2Al + 2KOH + 6H2O->2 K[Al(OH)4] + 3H2 ^}$$ Aluminium is not ionic, how then does it attract the $\ce{OH-}$ groups to bond with them into the complex ion ...
0
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0answers
29 views

“Negative ions are tidier”?

From Chemguide: That means that the only elements to form positive ions with noble gas structures (apart from odd ones like scandium) are those in groups 1 and 2 of the Periodic Table and ...
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0answers
15 views

High boiling point of ionic compounds [duplicate]

An ionic compound has an giant ionic lattice with strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the positively-charged cation and the negatively-charged anion. These ionic bonds are very strong ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

Reversibility of an acid's reaction with water depending on its strength

This is how my chemistry professor compared reaction of a weak and a strong acid with water: $$\ce{HCl + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl- + Heat}$$ In this case $\ce{H2O}$ breaks the bond between $\ce{H}$ ...
6
votes
1answer
106 views

Why are bromine oxyanions uncommon?

Sodium hypochlorite is used in bleach, calcium hypochlorite is used in public swimming pools, ammonium perchlorate is used in solid rocket fuel. Sodium periodate is used in the cleaving of ...
5
votes
0answers
41 views

Is there a preferred way of naming the resonance hybrid in keto-enol tautomerism?

While answering a question about keto-enol tautomerism the question arose, how can I refer to the resonance hybrid instead of on of the resonance forms. In the case of the deprotonated butane-2-one, I ...
0
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0answers
40 views

How do sulfate and sulfite have the same charge?

I noticed while I was practicing naming compounds with polyatomic ions (I'm only in middle school) that sulfate and sulfite have the same charge. How does this make sense, since sulfate has one more ...
8
votes
1answer
162 views

Can H4O 2+ form?

Like $\ce{NH4+}$ ,Is there any possibility of formation of $\ce{H4O^{2+}}$ (of tetrahedral structure)? My theory is: it can be formed by osmosis setup where heavy acids like $\ce{H3PO4}$ or ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

Why is the hypoiodite anion unstable in solution, whereas hypochlorite is relatively stable?

$\ce{Cl2}$ and $\ce{Br2}$ can disproportionate in a cold, aqueous, basic environment to form $\ce{ClO-}$ and $\ce{BrO-}$ respectively, yet $\ce{I2}$ directly forms $\ce{IO3^-}$. Why isn't $\ce{IO-}$ ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Determine stable ion? [closed]

how do you determine the stable ion formed from these elements: Mn, Sb and Se. I don't really need you to show those exact ones, they are just the ones in the example. I'm working on a chemistry unit ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Question Concerning colloid precipitate and Ion/Counter ion layers.

You use a precipitation method to determine [Ag+] in an unknown sample using Cl- ions. Reaction is conducted in presence of HNO3 in excess (relative to Ag+) Which statement is correct concerning the ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Chromium complexes and nomenclature

In theory, $\ce{[Cr(H2O)6]^3+}$ ions have a bluish violet colour. However, many times in the lab we end up with a dark green solution. This is due to hydrolysis, coordination with sulphate (or other) ...
11
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2answers
342 views

Why quaternary nitrogen but not tertiary oxygen?

Why do quaternary ammonium ions with a partially positive nitrogen form fairly readily and are often stable but tertiary oxygens, apparently called oxonium ions, are more rare/less stable? The trend ...
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0answers
66 views

Why does sodium chloride not conduct as much as aluminum chloride in water?

I understand how $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{AlCl3}$ dissolves in water but I'm wondering why one is more conductive than the other. Is it their extra ions to conduct the electricity? I know that in ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Are there ion combinations which can't be separated using the ion exchange resin method?

I am currently investigating the uses of ion exchange resins (both cation and anion resins). I have not come across any ion combinations that cannot be separated using this method, are there any ...
0
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1answer
28 views

The stability of the cupric and cuprous ions

My teacher told me that $\ce{Cu^2+}$ is more stable than $\ce{Cu+}$ in solution, but why? I think $\ce{Cu+}$ is $\ce{[Ar] 3d^10 }$ ,$\ce{Cu^2+}$ is $\ce{[Ar] 3d^9}$, why is $\ce{Cu^2+}$ more stable ...
2
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1answer
60 views

Why can't electrons be transferred using hydrogen ions?

I have a homework question that asks: Recognizing how oxidation and reduction occurs is essential for analyzing and understanding biochemical reactions. Which of the following methods would NOT ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Deuterium removal from water

What percentage of deuterium might be removed from water after a typical electrolysis procedure? From a post on this site I read that, "In the first stage, $\ce{NaOH}$ solution (initially $0.5\rm{M}$) ...
0
votes
3answers
52 views

How are ionic formulas written?

Why is $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$ Barium hydroxide not Barium dihydroxide? Why is Lithium carbonate $\ce{Li2CO3}$ instead of $\ce{LiCO3}$? Is there a formula or is just the case for these two?
0
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2answers
49 views

hydroxide ion in water — How does the dynamic change?

It's well known that $\ce{H+}$ ions in water always form $\ce{H3O+}$ ions. Likewise, $\ce{OH-}$ should exist always as $\ce{H3O2-}$ ion. If I am correct at this point, how would the dynamics be ...
0
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0answers
23 views

Electrical driving force

The question is kind of related to chemistry. Electrical driving force happens between ions when negative or positive charged ions is concentrated on a side more than the other. The teacher ...
1
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0answers
36 views

Anti-bonding orbitals for ionic bonds

Are there any concept of Bonding and Antibonding orbitals in the case of Ionic bonds, as there are in case of covalent bonds (electron sharing) ? OR: Is it possible to break an ionic bond by pushing ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Polyatomic Reaction Charges

When a polyatomic ion reacts with another atom to create an ionic compound, often, we know the charge of the polyatomic ion. But how can we infer the charge of the atom it is reacting with? For ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Spectator ions in redox reactions

I'm trying to get a fool proof way of finding the products of a redox reaction. I can do both the oxidation and reduction the half reactions. For example in the potassium permanganate with hydrogen ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Mg(HCO3)2 dissociation

What is the equation of $\ce{Mg(HCO3)2}$ dissociation? There are more steps because it's a complex substance? How to do this. Is it correct $\ce{MgHCO3+ + HCO3-}$?
0
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0answers
60 views

Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate with Zinc electrodes

I know that the above with inert (graphite/platinum) electrodes will lead to $\ce{Cu}$ and $\ce{O2}$ deposition. With copper electrodes we get electroplating. However, if we use Zinc (an active ...
4
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0answers
64 views

Negative numbers for ionic radii?

I was looking for a good table of ionic radii for an experiment on the van't-hoff factor when I stumbled upon R. D. Shannon, Acta Cryst. 1976, A32, 751. In table 1, it lists 1 of the ions of carbon ...
0
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0answers
39 views

Is C60 a ionophore?

I don't quite understand what qualifies as an ionophore but lipid solubility and ion transporter/carrier are two of C60's hallmark features, no? Thus does this make it an ionophore? I can't seem to ...
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0answers
70 views

Does ion dissociation affect things such as molality, molarity, mole fraction, etc.?

One of my homework questions (see image) asks us to calculate the molarity, molality, mole fraction, and mass percent of the solutes of various mixtures. The question includes the remark "Remember to ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

How does complex ion differ from ligand complex?

As I understand, in terms of "colouring", ligand complex cause a transition metal cation centre's d-shell to split, allowing the electrons in that region to absorb specific frequencies of light, and ...
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0answers
8 views

pH, conc vs activity

After studying a somewhat overview of "gamma" activity coefficient (it is not actually in our course but may come in exam as a part of unknown paragraph in ionic equilibrium) I can understand most ...
5
votes
1answer
194 views

Does NH4 anion exist?

$\ce{BF3}$ can react with $\ce{F-}$ to give $\ce{BF4-}$ where we have for $\ce{B}$ in this molecule the 2s orbital and the three 2p orbitals filled totally (hybrid orbitals). In case of $\ce{NH3}$ ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

How does one determine the probability of H⁺ to H₂O in pure water?

The ratio of $\ce{H+}$ to $\ce{H2O}$ is something around $10^{-8}$. How did people determine that? You cannot use the $K_\mathrm{w}$, $\mathrm{p}\ce{H}$, $\ce{[H+]}$ ion concentration value to answer ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

What is the net ionic equation for LiNO3 NaCl?

I've heard the following net ionic equation doesn't react: $$\ce{Li+ + NO3- + Na+ + Cl- ->~"nothing"}$$ Is this true? Could someone explain me why it would not?
0
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2answers
40 views

Why is it lead(II)chromate and not Lead(II)Chromate(VI)tetraoxide?

I am just beginning in chemistry and learning how to name the different molecules. I have this molecule: $\ce{PbCrO4}$ I would give it the following name: Lead(II)Chromate(VI)tetraoxide Lead and ...
0
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1answer
71 views

Ionization energy comparison between K+ and Cl-

So I have encountered a question which looks very suspicious to me. If you have $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{K+}$, Can you say that $\ce{K+}$ has more ionization energy than $\ce{Cl-}$? We know for a fact ...
2
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0answers
335 views

Why is calcium stearate (soap scum) insoluble in water while potassium/sodium stearate are soluble in water?

So, potassium and sodium containing soaps work because they have a polar end and a non-polar structure for the rest of the molecule - they can thus be dissolved in polar and non-polar solvents. This ...
5
votes
1answer
305 views

Is NaCl crystal always going to have even number of atoms?

I just read: In $\ce{NaCl}$, atoms don't aggregate so as to form discrete molecules but they are held together in a network structure. The ratio of the $\ce{Na}$ to $\ce{Cl}$ atoms in a sodium ...
0
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1answer
170 views

Peroxide and 2 extra electrons?

Trying to figure out where peroxide gains 2 electrons and why it has a 2- charge? On the Lewis dot structure it shows each O has 6 electrons and that it has a single bond between the two Oxygen atoms. ...
5
votes
1answer
525 views

Does the hydrogen ion actually exist?

A chemistry test I did was an IGCSE test. One of the questions was Is Hydrogen Chloride ionic or covalent? Now, on a sheet I have been given, it states the hydrogen ion is $\ce{H+}$. So, it ...
0
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1answer
2k views

Differences between Fe3+ and Fe2+ [closed]

I would like to know the differences between Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions. I'm guessing they must differ in reactivity but I'm not sure how. Also, is there a way that we can observed the differences