Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Geometry of tetrabromidomanganate(II)

What is geometry and hybridization of $\ce{[MnBr4]^2-}$ for $\ce{Mn}$ ($Z = 25$)? I am not sure if it is tetrahedral or square planar. I assumed $\ce{Br}$ is a weak ligand and got its geometry to be ...
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Hybridization of carbon in CO2

I know that if there exists a carbon atom with single bonds only (with other atoms),then it is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridized. And if at least one of the bond is double bond then its $\mathrm{sp^2}$ ...
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70 views

Why is the lone pair of pyridine's nitrogen atom not part of the aromatic ring?

In pyrrole, the lone pair of electrons belonging to the nitrogen is part of the aromatic ring. However, in pyridine it is part of an sp2-hybridized orbital. Why can't it be in the p-orbital and take ...
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Why can't oxygen in furan be sp-hybridized?

From ChemWiki's article on Huckel's Rule: So far, you have encountered many carbon homocyclic rings, but compounds with elements other than carbon in the ring can also be aromatic, as long as ...
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20 views

Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
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29 views

What is the hybridisation of CF3 free radical?

Having 3 sigma bonds in a similar manner to CH3 free radical it should also have hybridisation sp2. However, if we look at its shape, it is pyramidal and not planar unlike CH3 free radical(which is ...
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108 views

Is the phenyl cation or ethynylium more stable?

I recently gave an exam and I received an interesting question to which I believe the answer is wrong. Given two compounds, a benzene molecule with carbocation at one of its constituting carbon atoms ...
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Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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98 views

What is the hybridization state of Sn in SnCl2?

What is hybridization state of $\ce{SnCl2}$ (Tin(II) chloride)? Can we give similar explanation for $\ce{CCl2}$? Why does $\ce{F2}$ molecule does not get hybridized? My Work- For ...
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44 views

Flaws in Hybridization

Why do larger atoms such as P, Se, and Ge not hybridize? Where is the connection to "overlap" in all of this? I read that overlap is a possible reason for the non-hybridization. Is it true that when ...
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If I have an alloy of two materials, will I have a chemical reaction between the two materials

I have always been told that an alloy is a mixture without chemical interference between the materials, but if I look at highly doped silicon (doped with Aluminum via ion implantation and then lattice ...
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Hybridization in Oxygen and Nitrogen

What is the proper orbital hybridization O and N in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{NH_3}$? The rules say that they are sp and sp2 hybridized, respectively, but some sources say both are sp3. I have problems ...
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51 views

What is the hybridisation state of the sulphur atom in S4N4F4?

The molecule is shown in the textbook as: I can rationalise that the N is sp2 hybridised with a single electron in the p-orbital perpendicular to the plane of the S/N ring. (The sp2 lone pair is ...
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Is there any possibility of tautomerisation to en-ol form?

In the picture, you can see the bridge whose end points are in para relation (for making the image clear). Now, what my friend said is that there is no possibility of tautomerisation as there is no ...
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68 views

What are the height and width of the large and small nodes of the sp3 hybridized orbitals of carbon and silicon?

I will make an effort to interpret answers based on wave functions, but I am a senior pursuing a bachelor's degree in Biology, so I don't have the background in quantum physics for a purely ...
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45 views

my question is about hybridization and a bit quantum mechanics?

I have read in many books that hybridisation is the intermixing of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbital of almost same energy. Hybridisation always takes place when orbitals does not have ...
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How is hybridisation of a carbon atom determined by looking at the molecule's structure and observing the lone pair and/or sigma bond present? [duplicate]

How can I judge the hybridization of a carbon atom of any carbon containing compound just by looking at its structure? How can I say this by the help of lone pairs and sigma bonds present?
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138 views

What is the oxidation state of carbon atoms in Ethanoic acid?

The oxidation states of $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ carbon in ethanoic acid are $-3$ if we do not consider the electronegativity difference of these two carbons due to their different hybridisation but this ...
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70 views

Relation between various bond angles of Nitrogen compounds

I was thinking what could be order of bond angles of NH3, NF3, N(CH3)3 and N(C2H5)3. Considering NF3 and NH3: Since there is backbonding between 2p-2p orbitals of N and F, there will be a partial ...
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Why is the silicon hybridized instead of one of the oxygens in the Silicon dioxide?

At the top, it's the common one, but i would like to know if the bottom one can exist too, if not, why? Doesn't the first one require more energy?
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Why does AsH5 not exist?

Why does $\ce{AsH5}$ not exist? Is it because the s-orbital of H doesn't and can't overlap with the d-orbital of As after As makes $\rm sp^{3}d$ hybridization?Theoretically the bond can occur because ...
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Hybridisation of carbon atom

How do I figure out the hybridisation of the carbon with the negative charge? One logic is that it is an sp3 carbon because of 3 sigma bonds + 1 lone pair. Another reasoning is that it is sp2, ...
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What is the hybridization type of ICl7 iodine heptachloride?

I have two questions: Do all atoms undergo hybridization when they form molecules? I know 5 types of hybridizations: $$sp,sp^2,sp^3,sp^3d,sp^3d^1,sp^3d^2$$ but what is the type of hybridization in ...
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What is the hybridisation of titanium in the hexaaqua- and hexaamminetitanium(III) complex?

I want to check if their hybridizations are as follows: $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ in $\ce{[Ti(NH3)6]^3+}$ and $\mathrm{d^2sp^3}$ in $\ce{[Ti(H2O)6]^3+}$.
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When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization?

When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization? Do all structures have hybridization or only some specific structures have it and why?
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358 views

How does VB theory explain the bond angles in SiO2?

Silicon dioxide has a huge variety of structures. Most of them have a tetrahedral SiO2 unit cell — the O–Si–O angle is 109.5°, accordingly. The VB/hybridization approach to this tetrahedron ...
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How are electronic configurations including hybrid orbitals notated?

I know the general scheme for notating electronic configurations is (with s and p orbitals) [noble gas core]nsel.$n$pel. etc., where $n$ is the principal quantum number and el. is the number of ...
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The logic for hybridisation formula

Hybridisation for a molecule is given by: $$\frac{1}{2}(V + H - C + A)$$ Where, V = Number of valance electrons in central atom H = Number of surrounding monovalent atoms C = Cationic charge A = ...
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Bond strength by Similar size or Overlap? [duplicate]

Which of the sp³-sp³ or sp³-sp² forms a more stronger bond.. As we know that former one will make weaker bond as both are larger orbitals but in latter one.. One is bigger and other smaller.. So ...
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why do electron pairs not take axial positions in the VSEPR structure of ClF3? [duplicate]

when we make a Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory based structure for an molecule after calculating its hybridisation ; when we have to decide the positions of the ions we put them in such ...
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Bond lengths in hydrocarbons

It seems like the first molecule has a bond order of $1$, the second and third have a bond order of $7/6$ and the fourth molecule has a bond order of $3/2$. Why is the answer not $4 < 2 = 3 ...
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Why is the F-F bond in fluorine a p p sigma bond?

Won't the lone pair s hybridize to sp3 making it an sp3 sp3 sigma bond? If it still is p p sigma bond what is the spatial location of the lone pairs?
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204 views

Can Carbon Form bonds without Hybridization?

Carbon has two electrons in its p orbital which should be able to form bonds, are there any examples in which this occurs instead of carbon hybridizing before bonding?
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How to illustrate the bonding in PCl4(+) and CO2 by drawing the atomic orbitals?

Illustrating the bonding in the following molecules by drawing how the atomic orbitals are used to form the compounds A. $\ce{PCl_4^+}$ B. $\ce{CO_2}$ I believe the question is prompting to ...
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Are sp-, sp²- and sp3-hybridizations for carbon compounds rather the rule or rather the exceptions? [closed]

Please give some examples for carbon compounds without hybridizations.
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Do atoms undergo orbital overlapping in molecules, or hybridisation?

I was learning valence bond theory myself, and first it introduced me to orbital overlapping concept, how orbitals of different atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. It gave the example of ...
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dsp3 and sp3d Hybridization

What is the difference between dsp3 and sp3d Hybridization ? Are they one in the same ? Also , I have a book that says that in compounds where the central atom is dsp3 hybridized , it's shape is ...
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Hybrid orbitals forming molecular orbitals

My teacher showed me this diagram on how the hybrid orbitals of two atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. I was confused by this because I thought that VB and MO theories were two separate ...
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219 views

Structure of OSF4

Recently I had given a test where I was asked to specify the hybridisation of $\ce{OSF4}$ and its structure. I guessed that the structure would be trigonal bipyramidal, but I was unsure since I hadn't ...
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How to rationalise the planar structre of I2Cl6?

$\ce{I2Cl6}$ is a dimer of $\ce{ICl3}$. $\ce{ICl3}$ is T-shaped, with $\ce{I}$ being $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ and having two lone pairs. I read in Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms by R. K. Sharma that ...
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Finding Hybridization of Certain Atoms in Lewis Structure

So, I'm having trouble with this problem. We're given this incomplete lewis structure and asked to find the hybridization of 3 of the atoms. I figured that the labelled Cl would be sp3 because of ...
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Why does basicity go down along the group 15 hydrides?

As we go down Group 15, the sizes of atoms increase and these are the central atoms in their corresponding hydrides. Shouldn't the large size of central atom (in case of $\ce{Bi}$) actually help the ...
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carbon monoxide and orbital hybridization

If we look at CO in terms of orbital hybridization, we conclude that both atoms are sp hybridized since they share a triple bond. My question: When creating those hybrid orbitals, those ought to be ...
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Why and how does carbon hybridize itself according to its need? [duplicate]

Sometimes carbon forms sp3 orbital and sometimes sp2 and sp. Also, carbon chains are more stable with sp3 orbitals. So, why and how does carbon hybridize itself to other orbitals? My question is more ...
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Hybridization, MOT and Paramagnetism

In what way can hybridization or molecular orbital theory be used to explain paramagnetism? For instance, when something is hybridized to make enough bonding electrons, do all the electrons end up ...
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448 views

Comparing C=O bond length in CO2 and CH2O

Why is the C=O bond in $\ce{CO2}$ shorter than that in $\ce{CH2O}$? How can I use hybridisation theory to explain this?
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How to prove that the orientation of the atomic orbitals in the superposition $\psi= a\psi_{1} + b\psi_{2}$depends on the coefficients $a$ & $b$?

Hybridisation is a quantum superposition of orthogonal atomic orbitals; for instance $$\newcommand{\k}[2]{\langle #1 \lvert #2 \rangle} \psi_{sp^3}= c_1\psi_{2s}+ c_2\psi_{2p_{x}} + c_3\psi_{2p_y} + ...
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How to tell which atoms are sp3 hybridized given the structure of a molecule? Confused specifically about given diagram

So this problem has me completely stumped. I get the general concept of hybridization but I have no clue how to apply it to this diagram. What are the atoms in the unlabelled areas such as f and ...
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Structure of Benzyne [duplicate]

I have seen in a lot of pictures that benzyne looks like: But aren't $\ce{C_6}$ and $\ce{C_5}$ $-$ $\ce{sp}$ hybridized? And hence bond angle should be $180^{\circ}$ or at least near about it? ...