Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Why are the axial bonds of PF5 longer than those of the equatorial bonds? (Hybridization)

The axial bonds of $\ce{PF5}$ are longer than those of the equatorial positions. One explanation is that because the axial bonds are experiencing more repulsion than those of the equatorial and ...
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Understanding the hybridization of cyclohexane?

I'm having quite a fair bit of trouble comprehending the hybridization of cyclohexane. I understand that this is a ringed structure with single C-C bonds, therefore all the carbons should have sp3 ...
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How to identify reactions that change hybridization?

Usually looking at the reactions like the followings, e.g. addition of $Cl_2$ to $PCl_3$ to form $PCl_5$ combustion of $CH_4$ to produce $CO_2$ I started by considering the changes in molecular ...
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Order of priority in hybridization of d-orbitals

During hybridization of d-orbitals why the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are used up before the $d_{xy}$, $d_{yz}$ and $d_{zx}$ ?
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Hybridization of the oxygen in furan?

I fail to understand why the hybridization of oxygen in furan is $\ce{sp^2}$. I think that since there are 2 bond pairs and two lone pairs so it should be $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized? Is it to do with the ...
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sp² hybridized orbital

I do not understand why and how an atom with $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization has only one p orbital?? For example in pyridine why is the lone pair of nitrogen not counted as a pi electron.
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Why do electrons not get paired up in [Fe(H2O)5NO]2+?

The magnetic moment of [Fe(H2O)5NO]2+ is 3.87 Bohr magneton, which implies there are 3 unpaired electrons. Since iron is in +1 oxidation state (due to charge transfer with nitrosyl group), it's ...
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Why are sp hybridized carbocations high energy?

You don’t see carbocations on double bonds very much, and here’s a good reason: compared to sp3, there is more s character in the orbitals, so the empty orbital is held more closely to the ...
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Electron Pair Geometry in Ibuprofen (Electron Pair Geometry in Organic Compounds)

I am trying to determine the electron pair geometry (and molecular geometry) of some atoms in ibuprofen. The first one I am trying to do is the double bonded oxygen. Ibuprofen is pictured below: I ...
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87 views

Hybridization - Mixing one atomic s orbital with 2p orbitals

Explain why three ${sp^2}$ hybrid orbitals result when one s atomic orbital is blended with two p atomic orbitals.
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53 views

Structure of XeF4 [closed]

How can we get the structure of $Xe F_{4}$ using the concept of hybridization and number of lone pairs.
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36 views

Determine which orbitals will form hybrids with one another

I've been teaching myself chemistry, so any help is greatly appreciated. I've been reading an online tutorial that claims the two orbitals that merge in Aluminum trihydride are 1 orbital of 2s and 2 ...
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76 views

Determine the bond angle in a compound [closed]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
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279 views

Hybridization in azide ion?

In the azide ion, there is a symmetrical arrangement of three nitrogen atoms. If I've been told to figure out the hybridization of each nitrogen atom, what's the best way to go about doing this? My ...
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1answer
51 views

What is lowest energy state, how does an atom gain it and what does it have to do with hybridization?

I understand that hybridisation occurs due to the atom wanting to exist in the most stable state possible, and the most stable state has the lowest energy. What I don't understand, however, is say, in ...
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168 views

Why hybridization occurs in diatomic molecule

In diatomic nitrogen There are two electron configurations I'd like to compare: 1s2 2s2(lone pair) 2p3(the bonding electrons sigma,pi,pi) 1s2 2sp(lone pair) 2sp(sigma bonding) 2p2(pi,pi bonding) ...
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108 views

Doesn't the fact that the lone pair on the nitrogen in amides occupy a p orbital contradict Hund's rules?

Since the $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized orbitals are lower in energy than the p orbital shouldn't the $\ce{sp^2}$ orbitals fill first? Why is this not the case - two electrons fill the p orbitals while all ...
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150 views

Why F replaces axial bond in PCl₅?

Why does $\ce{F}$ replace an axial bond in $\ce{PCl5}$? I realize that it would be more stable there than at equatorial bond, but what is the reason of its stability? Similarly in $\ce{AB4}$ type of ...
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37 views

Explanation of Bent's Rule [duplicate]

Why does the %s character increase on the orbital with electropositive atom? I do not seem to properly grasp this concept. Is this rule based on observation or is there any proof to it? If there is a ...
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59 views

Hybridised orbitals

What determines which type of hybridisation (sp3/sp2/sp) a molecule will take? Methane/ethylene/acetylene all have the same electron configuration but undergo different different types of ...
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Type of hybridisation

State the hybridisation of asterisked carbon in $\ce{CH3 - CH = C^{✪} = CH2}$ I am not sure between $sp^2$ and $sp$ hybridization. Because of double bond I think it should be $sp^2$ but because of 2 ...
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1answer
104 views

Bent's rule for Sulfur trioxide and Sulfur dioxide

How is Bent's rule applied on $\ce{SO3}$ and $\ce{SO2}$? Bond length of $\ce{SO3}$ < $\ce{SO2}$. Is this a direct consequence of applying the Bent's rule?
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Carbon atoms at the edge of a diamond

It is well known (the simplest textbook example) that a diamond has a well-defined arrangement of sp3 carbon atoms, as each atom is connected to four others in a ...
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533 views

Why is one lobe of an sp3 hybridized orbital smaller than its other half?

A hybrid sp3 orbital is drawn with one lobe smaller than its other half, the latter which is of equal size when drawing the p orbital. Why is it so?
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Why does bond angle decrease in the order H₂O, H₂S, H₂Se?

I know that bond angle decreases in the order $\ce{H2O}$, $\ce{H2S}$ and $\ce{H2Se}$. I want to know the reason. I think this is because lone pair repulsion but how?
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Hybridization in PH3

Does $\ce{PH3}$ exhibit $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridization? Arguments against hybridization: $\ce{PH3}$ is less basic than $\ce{NH3}$. This jibes with the supposition that $\ce{PH3}$ keeps its lone pair ...
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Do filled Orbitals also hybridize?

Recently I was watching a video on Valence Bond Theory, on the MIT Open-Course youtube channel. The teacher there said that for hybridization to occur, electron promotion from fully filled orbitals to ...
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What is the origin of the differences between the MO schemes of O₂ and N₂?

Here are the MO schemes of $\ce{N2}$ (left) and $\ce{O2}$ (right). Why is the $\sigma$-MO formed by the $p$ AOs energetically above the $\pi$-MO for $\ce{N2}$ but not for $\ce{O2}$? Can it be ...
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317 views

Does hybridization take place in other atoms apart from central atom in a molecule?

I have seen my textbooks always give formula and description of hybridization of central atom of a molecule.But I wonder will other atoms present(not Hydrogen) go in hybridization or only the central ...
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372 views

Nitric acid vs. chloric acid strength

Here the central chlorine atom is best described as $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized. This makes sense; the molecule is pyramidal. Also, due to the molecule's pyramidal geometry, this rules out the ...
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104 views

Are ther known compounds of Argon? What is their molecular geometry and hybridisation?

Can Argon hybridize orbitals and/or form covalent-like/ionic-like compounds? Is there any study of that? I would be happy to read concrete references. What kind of molecular geometries for argon ...
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222 views

Determining central atom in NCl3

Less electronegative atom is the central atom. $\ce{N}$ is more electronegative than $\ce{Cl}$ as $\ce{Cl}$ has larger atomic radius. So why in $\ce{NCl3}$, $\ce{N}$ is the central atom?
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66 views

Hybridization in Light of Resonance

According to this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns4Py96Bkn8&NR=1 1) Is this true? (You might recall I asked a similar question about $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization implying $\ce{sp^2}$ ...
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224 views

sp3 hybridisation in carbon

Before $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridisation, does the $\ce{C}$ -atom get excited to $\ce{1s^2~2s^1~2p^3}$ state, as it happens before $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridisation? What is the energy of the $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised ...
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PI Bonding in Carbon Dioxide

I am fairly sure the first diagram I drew for carbon dioxide is wrong in terms of showing pi bonding. This is because we use a pi orbital twice, which isn't possible. The second diagram corrects this ...
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Is this textbook bonding picture of hybridization in ethene wrong?

Regarding the above picture, why is the C-C $\sigma$ bond composed of two $\ce{sp^2}$ orbitals while the C-H $\sigma$ bonds composed of $\ce{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals? I don't see why; I thought the ...
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Why does sp2 hybridization imply adjacent sp2 hybridization?

EDIT: I misquoted my teacher; he said something more along the lines of: in conjugated systems, if an atom is $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized, then every atom it is bound to is also $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized. ...
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Hybridization of Fe in FeBr3 [closed]

What is the Hybridization of Fe atom in FeBr3? Please explain in detail not just using formula.
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Why does ammonia have sp hybridization?

Apparently it has $sp^3$ hybridization, but I don't understand why. Ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) seems to me to not require $sp$ hybridization because all of its bond lengths are already equal. It has 3 ...
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Does the hybridization model gives us any further insight on Molecular Geometry?

It doesn't seem as though the hybridization model adds anything useful to the discussion of molecular geometry as predicted by the VSEPR model. It's just another way of labeling linear, trigonal ...
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Is hybridization used in ab-initio valance bond calculation?

Many general chemistry textbooks introduced the concept "hybridization" to construct a symmetry-adapted VB-type wavefunction. In the textbooks, usually the minimal basis is used and without optimizing ...
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852 views

How can the Bonding in IF7 be explained using LCAO method?

I know that the VSEPR theory explains $IF_7$ (iodine heptafluoride)'s structure as a pentagonal bipyramidal one.The valence bond theory can be used to say that it has $sp^3d^3$ hybridisation(i think ...
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Predicting electronic geometry, observable geometry, and hybridization for any atom in a molecule

Can someone please explain the intuition around the answers to this problem: I'm finding it very confusing because it seems like you have to nitpick between two resonance structures to get the ...
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308 views

References to draw 3D molecules with directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals

My instructor has been drawing 3D molecules that show the directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals. I've been trying to find references online that show this process, but I'm having ...
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Hybridisation of the Carbon in an Carbanion

Given the carbanion, $ R_3C^- $, the carbon is $ sp^3 $ hybridized unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. In drawing its orbital diagram, however, I am having ...
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Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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What utility does the Tau bond model of orbital overlap have?

In his book on molecular orbital theory, Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions, Ian Fleming notes that Pauling formulated an early alternative model to Huckel theory for explaining the ...
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Energy required to break single bond vs double bond vs triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule

Assuming every other conditions are the same, what would be the comparison of energy required to break single bond, double bond and triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule?
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Why do compounds like SF6 and SF4 exist but SH6 and SH4 don't?

Both $\ce{SF6}$ and $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SF4}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ have the same central atom and the same hybridization but my teacher specifically mentioned that $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ don't exist. ...
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How do I figure out the hybridization of a particular atom in a molecule?

I'm learning how to apply the VSEPR theory to Lewis structures and in my homework I'm being asked to provide the hybridization of the central atom in each Lewis structure I've drawn. I've drawn out ...