This tag should be applied to questions relating to the theory, design, techniques or performance of chemical experiments. This includes but is not limited to theoretical structures, expected products, thermal calculations, and empirical analysis. Additional tags should be applied to narrow down the ...

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15 views

How to plot standard curve using D-Galactouronic acid

I wanted to calculate the Pectinase enzyme activity. so how can I plot standard curve using D-galactouronic acid ? also is it possible using glucose ?
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1answer
23 views

How can I turn Pine-Sol into an oil?

I'm wanting to make a Pine-Sol scented candle. However, in candle making you have to add a fragrance oil. People make them all the time by adding vanilla, etc and canola oil, vegetable oil, etc. ...
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0answers
63 views
+50

How does Ostwald-Walker method work?

From searching online I found this: The apparatus consists of two sets of bulbs. The first set of three bulbs is filled with solution to half of their capacity and second set of another three ...
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0answers
38 views

Algorithm that calculates damage from adrafinil?

is there such a thing that calculated damage of adrafinil based on dosage? lets say i take a dosage of 100mg/ day for 100 days, what would the affect be? how much % of my liver will be damaged? Do ...
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1answer
73 views

Finding rf value of methyl benzoate

What is the $R_f$ value of methyl benzoate and 3 nitro methyl benzoate in hexane and ethyl acetate?
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1answer
26 views

Solution, hardener and metal required to cast key duplicates

I just watched this YouTube video for a DIY key duplication system and was trying to figure out what all the material components could be: The "mold solution" (parts 1 and 2) The "hardener" The "low ...
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1answer
60 views

Why can't organic acids be concentrated and used like concentrated sulphuric acid, etc?

Is it possible to make organic acids concentrated like inorganic acids like concentrated sulphuric acid, etc?
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2answers
30 views

Can citric acid protonation produce benzene and water

Is this reaction possible: $\ce{C6H8O7 + 12 H3O -> C6H6 + 19 H2O}$? Considering that the $\ce{H+}$ can be induced by ionization of the citric acid solution the benzene can be produced in this way?
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1answer
50 views

What will happen when a metal reacts with an acid which is neither dilute nor concentrated?

We have always studied about metals reacting with dilute and concentrated acids, but I do not understand what will happen if the same metal reacts with an acid that is neither concentrated nor dilute? ...
4
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1answer
276 views

Making Zn in school lab

I want to make $\ce{N2O}$ in my school chem lab. I'm thinking of making it from $\ce{Zn_{(s)}}$ in $\ce{HNO3_{(dil)}}$ : $$\ce{ Zn_{(s)} + HNO3_{(dil)} -> N2O + Zn(NO3)2 + H2O }$$ I'm not able ...
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4answers
84 views

How to figure out if the reaction proceeds via SN1 or SN2 mechanism?

I have been assigned with the task of figuring out whether a reaction is $\ce{S_{N}1}$ or $\ce{S_{N}2}$. The information that I have is, that the yield is dependent on solvent polarity. More ...
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0answers
40 views

Reaction in assay mixture (octanal, DTT, sodium phosphate buffer)?

I am getting precipitates in the following mixture, and am not too sure what reaction is occurring and whether it is possible to maintain all three components in my assay (I am trying to reproduce an ...
5
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1answer
103 views

What stable arrangements of hydrogen-bonded water exist in the range of 4-20 water molecules?

Water clusters made up of various numbers of water molecules have been described. Are all of these structures theoretical? What experimental evidence supports any of these structures? How does the ...
1
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1answer
66 views

Removing the hydrazine byproduct from the mitsunobu reaction

Looking to remove the hydrazine byproduct left after the mitsunobu reaction. Using DIAD and polymer bound triphenyl phosphine. The reduced diad is coeluting with my product on silica. My thoughts for ...
0
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0answers
66 views

How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Is there a means to measure pH without indicators?

I have created a solution that should contain hydroxide ions. Therefore, the pH > 7, but is there any way to roughly estimate the pH in absence of any indicator? Maybe using current, or checking ...
2
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2answers
596 views

What salts (or other substances) are available for increasing water's boiling point?

Increasing the boiling point of water by adding salts or other compounds would be very useful when working with a water bath while refluxing, because with pure water you cannot reach temperatures over ...
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0answers
20 views

What kind of suspension liquid should be used with bulk ferrofluid (so it does not stain the glass) [duplicate]

I am an Engineering student and I'm currently on a project meant to demonstrate some properties of magnetic fields. I want to put my bulk ferrofluid in a glass bottle with a suspension solution (A ...
0
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2answers
17 views

Chemical reactions in SFE?

What are the chemical reactions and/or chemical processes that take place during SFE(supercritical fluid extraction)? Namely supercritical $\ce{CO2}$.
3
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2answers
68 views

Why pipetting with a 30° angle?

After seeing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qorl6rKLmRs, I was left to wonder why use a 30° angle between the flask and the pipette when emptying it. I can imagine it is important to touch the flask ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Help with simple DIY procedure to measure diffusion?

While I am not asking the question here, a recent question concerning osmosis at the Bio SE caught my interest. In a nutshell that question was, given isotonic solutions of sugar inside and outside an ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Recrystallization of two unknown compounds?

I managed to separate a binary mixture(in solid form) of two unknown substances into two individual solid compounds. For the separation, I used an acid-base extraction with dichloromethane, NaOH, and ...
3
votes
2answers
108 views

Water flow in condenser

How should the water flow in your condenser? From the flask to the top of the condenser, or from the top of the condenser back to the flask? I could imagine both: flask to top will fill the entire ...
5
votes
1answer
148 views

Rusting of an Iron nail at oil water boundary surface

Recently at school, I did some experiments on corrosion. Everything mostly went as expected, but the result in one of the test was quite baffling. This test had an iron nail in water with some of ...
2
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0answers
17 views

Synthesizing monodisperse PbS quantum dots

For a research project, I am trying to synthesize lead (II) sulfide quantum dots using the method of Li et al.. Basically, I am injecting sulfur dissolved in 1-octadecene into a mixture of PbO, oleic ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Refluxing with tilted condenser

Can you reflux without any problems/dangers with a tilted condenser (e.g. because you don't have enough space in your fumehood)? I would say there isn't a problem, because both the surface area of the ...
1
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1answer
144 views

Separation of Binary mixture?

I will be given a binary mixture containing two unknown compounds(the mixture could be either liquid or solid- I don't know yet). The plan of the experiment is to identify the two compounds. So my ...
0
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1answer
44 views

How do you perforate a teflon sheet?

I have a sheet of thin unperforated teflon that I need to perforate by tomorrow for a lab I work in. None of my coworkers know how to perforate the sheet. Does anyone know how I can do this using ...
1
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0answers
51 views

Reactivity of thiosemicarbazide

How to form Schiff's Base at both the ends of the thiosemicarbazide? $\ce{NH2}$ of hydrazine part reacts easily to form Schiff's base i.e. imine. But $\ce{NH2}$ attached to $\ce{C=S}$ does not. How ...
2
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2answers
94 views

Calculating Avogadro's Number

For a school project, I am in a group tasked with calculating Avogadro's Number in multiple manners. Other than the Millikan Oil Drop Experiment, we know of no ways to compute it. A Google search ...
4
votes
1answer
113 views

Why is crystalline aspirin washed with chilled water in the purification process?

Take as example this or even better this: Wash the crystals with 2-3 ml of chilled water. Why does the aspirin need to be cooled down? And why do we wash the aspirin with chilled water?
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Identification of zinc/aluminium/magnesium with copper sulphate solution

We are doing an experiment and would like to be able to identify zinc/aluminium/ magnesium . Would a copper sulphate solution work ? I hear that it turns black on contact with zinc, stays clear on ...
1
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0answers
27 views

Why are multiple extractions better than a single extraction? [duplicate]

I'm extracting $\ce{N-(4-butoxyphenol)-N'-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)thiourea}$ from thiombutosine (anti-leprosy drug) tablets. I'm doing this extraction with hot ethanol. My question is why are 4 ...
4
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2answers
218 views

Why is a volumetric flask shaped the way it is?

A volumetric flask does not look like an Erlenmeyer flask, but has more of a pear shape. Is it just to distinguish more easily between them while they are on the shelf?
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2answers
101 views

Preparation of phenylamine/aniline

This is the procedure I carried out in class: Reduction of nitrobenzene by using tin and $HCl$ acid After the completion of the reaction, $NaOH$ added to neutralize excess acid and dissolve any ...
1
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2answers
56 views

Different techniques of distillations

I know that fractional distillation is used to separate two liquids that are miscible in one another and have close boiling points. However, I am really confused about vacuum and steam distillation - ...
0
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2answers
56 views

What is the process involved in performing a mass spectrometry experiment?

I have heard that mass spectrometry is very time consuming: why is this? What is the process involved in performing a mass spectrometry experiment? What steps are the most time consuming?
2
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1answer
94 views

What is the difference between the reactivity of Lead subacetate and Lead II acetate undergoing a hydrothermal process?

I am attempting to adapt a hydrothermal method for synthesizing $\ce{PbS}$ nanocrystals to my school that contains a mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (.05 mmol, SDS) ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Explain isotopic uranium/perchloric acid digestion [closed]

What is happening in this video? Can you explain this technically as well as in layman's terms? I'll summarize it. I see a technician moving fuming mixtures of presumably uranium and organic ...
1
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0answers
21 views

To model early fluid flow which types of pumps should be used?

I have I microchannel test rig , I want to push a 150-300 ml/hr from water in my test , I would like to know which pump type i can use ?
5
votes
1answer
198 views

Why is filter paper fluorescent?

Typical filter paper used in chemistry lab (e.g. Whatman #1) exhibits autofluorescence in near UV with excitation maximum at 365 nm and emission maximum at 440 nm. It was reported in literature1 that ...
7
votes
2answers
183 views

Questions about Buffer System (Lab)

I will be doing a lab on Hydrogen Phosphate buffer system tomorrow and I have a few questions about the buffer system. I am not sure if my assumptions are correct. (1) What would happen to the rate ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Steam distillation- how it actually works?

To obtain phenylamine after it is formed from the reduction of nitrobenzene with tin, we carried out steam distillation. This is what I learned in class: "During the process,steam is injected ...
2
votes
1answer
287 views

Why can we not use water instead of blank control solution in enzyme catalysis with Peroxidase experiment?

I have to do a lab about enzyme catalysis with Peroxidase in my Chemistry class. We are to use the blank control solution in the experiment. My question is, why can we not use water instead? I did ...
4
votes
2answers
59 views

What's Standardization, and why do it?

Surprisingly, there are very few resources online (outside of obscure lab pages) that explain exactly what standardization is (not even Wikipedia!). The context is the phrase standardize the titrant ...
1
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1answer
22 views

How do you measure the chemical composition of stuff? [closed]

I'm not a scientist of any sort, I'm just curious. Here are some specific examples. Let's say I collect some rainwater and I want to find out what is in it that isn't water. How would you do that? ...
-2
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1answer
93 views

How alkanes can be prepared by aldehydes and ketones? [closed]

Preparation of alkanes by aldehydes and ketones, its chemical reaction and mechanism.
5
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2answers
91 views

Getting to use the lab!

Today I finally mustered the courage to go and talk to the director of the labs to politely ask him if I could use the labs out of class hours. Long story short, our lab sessions "are bad" because we ...
0
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2answers
57 views

Using Spectrophotometer to analyse enzyme reaction

Suppose we have two enzymes with concentration of 1X and 0.1X We then add a substrate and incubate the mixture for 1 or 10 or 20 minutes.( So,there will be total of six samples.) Question ...
5
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3answers
94 views

How do I create a concentrated solution of singlet oxygen (in the dark)?

Without appealing to reactions that require photons / light, how do chemists achieve a very high concentration of continually produced, though quite short lived, singlet oxygen in aqueous solution ...