This tag should be applied to questions relating to the theory, design, techniques or performance of chemical experiments. This includes but is not limited to theoretical structures, expected products, thermal calculations, and empirical analysis. Additional tags should be applied to narrow down the ...

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20 views

Experimental Validation of Schrodinger's Electron Cloud theory

I am currently doing a report for school on the electron cloud atomic structure theory. One of the major points on my report is the experiments performed by the scientists (Schrodinger and Heisenberg) ...
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0answers
18 views

How to prepare glacial acetic acid from sodium acetate?

What would be the most practical process to prepare glacial acetic acid from sodium acetate? I'm thinking to react the sodium acetate with an acid to convert the solution to acetic acid and sodium ...
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3answers
46 views

Something about the idea of Molarity is confusing me

Okay, so molarity is defined as moles of solute per liter of solution. It is used to describe the concentration. So in the lab, when I see a bottle labeled something like $\mathrm{3.5~M}~\ce{H2SO4}$, ...
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1answer
26 views

NO2 gas was detected in FTIR

We have a laser chamber full of $\ce{F2}$ gas (no air should be in the chamber) and several parts including steel, wires, ceramics, zinc.... This is for laser generation so the temperature is pretty ...
3
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1answer
21 views

Changes in freezing point of sodium acetate

Background: I was recently playing around with some reusable heat packs, the kind that operate by phase change of sodium acetate trihydrate and noticed that they didn't reach the temperature that I ...
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0answers
16 views

Quantitative analysis of alcohol

I would like to determine the amount of alcohol present in a given sample of a solution. I would like to do this without spectroscopic methods. This is part of a chemistry project in which I want to ...
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1answer
430 views

Does Cute Poison actually work?

For those of you that have watched Season 1 of Prison Break (TV Series), in the "Cute Poison" Episode Micheal Scofield combined $\ce{CuSO4}$ (Copper Sulfate) and $\ce{H3PO4}$ (Phosphoric Acid) to ...
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0answers
43 views

Chemistry investigatory project

Well I have to conduct this investigatory project for Chemistry. I had an idea to test all the soft drinks for presence of alcohol, phosphate, sucrose, etc. I know how to do qualitative analysis for ...
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0answers
20 views

Does oxygen catalyze the decomposition of sucrose?

When a bottle of sports drink that contained sucrose is opened, is it expected that the sucrose contained therein will split into its constituents (fructose and glucose) more rapidly than it will via ...
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0answers
53 views

Synthesizing 2-methyl-2-butanol

I have recently been trying to come up with a method to create 2-methyl-2-butanol or tert-amyl alcohol. I wanted to avoid complex/expensive steps since as a home chemist/student, I don't have access ...
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0answers
10 views

Preparation of Mg-EDTA for titrations

I need to prepare such a solution for a titration by EDTA displacement, but nearly every source I find only mentions it by referencing the method, not by listing the prepare of the solution itself. ...
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1answer
271 views

How to produce dry pure oxygen

I'm supposed to produce dry and pure oxygen using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with a manganese dioxide catalyst. $$\ce{2H2O2 (aq) → 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)}$$ The gas will be collected in a ...
3
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0answers
23 views

Storage issues with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) reagent used to derivatize amino acids

I have made up an o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) reagent according to Handbook of HPLC page 715 that will be used to derivatize amino acids before an HPLC run. There is no information given on reagent ...
3
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1answer
35 views

Reverse-Engineer a material

Let's say I am seeking to find an alloy with certain properties, is there any method or process that enables one to backtrack from desired properties to actual structure and composition of a material? ...
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0answers
21 views

Cured epoxy remover

I have plastic extrusion plant, we are plastic granule producers. Actually I want to remove filler sand which is mixed with epoxy in cfl bulb plastic cabinet. In cfl lower portion to fix filaments ...
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0answers
32 views

Container to supercool water

The internet is full of videos like this showing water bottles for drinking used to supercool water. These bottles, not unexpectedly, appear a bit finicky, since they have lots of edges to serve as ...
3
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0answers
859 views

How long would it take to dissolve someone using fluoroantimonic acid? [closed]

After writing an answer on worldbuilding.SE, I came here to ask a question. How long would it take to dissolve a human body using fluoroantimonic acid? I understand that since the human body isn't ...
2
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1answer
98 views

How Many mL of 1.0M HCl Would be Required to Completely Decompose Sucrose into Glucose and Fructose?

I am currently conducting an experiment into the glucose content of certain sports drinks. However, I have hit a roadblock. A majority of the drinks that I intend to test contain sucrose. I am ...
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1answer
74 views

Organic solutions that corrode metals

Most of the common organic solvents are regarded as noncorrosive, but stainless steel can be attacked by formic, acetic, and propanoic acids. Corrosion of stainless steel by organic solvent ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

What causes the difference in heat energy released by combustion for the butanol isomers?

I am currently working on an investigation where I am burning isomers of butanol to test for the heat of combustion values to see which fuel is most efficient. The fuels I am testing are 1-butanol, ...
5
votes
1answer
38 views

NaOH Normality Slowly Changing

Our lab uses a sodium hydroxide solution of a (theoretically) known normality (0.8000 - 1.0000) to titrate product samples for quality control. However, we suspect that the normality of the ...
5
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0answers
34 views

Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction: questions about rate determining step, k and activation energy

In one of our lab courses, we performed a variation of the BZ reaction, the experimental procedure is outlined below: Experimental Procedure 10 mL of 3.0 M $\ce{H2SO4}$ was added to test tube T1. ...
4
votes
1answer
41 views

How are the chemical reactions of the table of standard reduction potentials experimentally determined?

My background: I've read several books and articles on electrochemistry and even do photoelectrochemical research in a lab, so I'm somewhat familiar with the concepts and techniques. In texts on ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

Why can't I reproduce this photolytic reaction of ferrocyanide?

I was so intrigued by the reported observation that sunlight precipitates the iron from $\cf{K4Fe(CN)6}$ (originally attributed to Matuschek, 1901) that I wanted to see it myself. I put a saturated ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Titration of reducing sugars on honey

So I'm trying to figure out how to titrate the reducing sugars on honey without generating iodine. The reaction so far I think I could do is do a Fehling reaction with $\ce{Cu}^{2+}$and then ...
3
votes
1answer
260 views

Why are the mass ratios of O to KClO3 and O2 to KClO3 the same?

I just did a lab that involved heating KClO3 (with MnO2 as a catalyst) to decompose it into KCl and oxygen gas. That part is easy. What's throwing me is the % yield calculations. The theoretical ...
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1answer
56 views

How to calculate the requirements for breaking a bond?

Once you have calculated the bond energy (enthalpy) required to break a bond, say it’s a $\ce{C-OH}$ bond, how do you then calculate or determine the temperature in °C and time it would take at that ...
2
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1answer
134 views

Making carbon monoxide gas from formic acid and sulphuric acid?

Can I create carbon monoxide gas by just mixing formic acid and sulphuric acid together. Or do they have to be heated?
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2answers
51 views

Chloroform-acid wash

If I wash chloroform (stabilized with amylene) with sulphuric acid in a separating funnel, where will the chloroform be found (top or bottom)? I think the chloroform will be at the bottom, because it ...
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votes
2answers
76 views

How can I convert the number of particles per liter to gram per liter

How can I convert the number of particles per liter to gram per liter? I know the size of these particle and so, I calculated the volume and then by the density I calculate the mass. After that I ...
5
votes
1answer
396 views

Best Fuel for Potato Gun

I have been using deodorant to propel potatoes (potato gun :D), but I want to switch over to pure butane. However, in order to do this safely I have to know how much butane is typically in deodorant ...
12
votes
1answer
133 views

Byproducts in Indigo Synthesis?

I have been messing around with making Indigo dye while waiting for bacteria to grow. I have been following the Baeyer-Drewson method. Basically, you mix nitrobenzaldehyde with an acetone water mix ...
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0answers
23 views

How can I use sunlight to heat a RBF and reflux a reaction?

This may seem like a off topic question but I really need help on it. I am currently working on a polymerization reaction in which I'm breaking down plastic polymers into smaller molecules. However, ...
2
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0answers
10 views

Limits on contaminant size in filtration for extraction, and standard alternatives?

Following up on How to perform solvent extraction of a solid I realized that I haven't quantified the size of the contaminants. I know they aren't soluble in acetone and the target is, but I don't ...
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2answers
436 views

Are PTFE stir bars resistant to all lab solvents?

It seems like glass-coated stir bars are a specialty item. Standard stir bars are coated in PTFE. Is PTFE resistant to all typical lab solvents? Or is there a reference to check to ensure it is ...
2
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1answer
63 views

How do I find the empirical formula for Co(C2O4)*H2O with mass of Oxalate and Oxide Product?

I have the formula $\ce{Co(C2O4)*H2O}$ in a reaction that forms cobalt oxide $\ce{Co3O4}$ – My data here says that my oxalate hydrate weighed 0.3283 g and my product oxide weighed 0.1158 g which I ...
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0answers
22 views

How do I set my vacuum regulator for filtration?

I know about what pressure the gauge reads on my hand pump when I am doing filtration at max vacuum (greatest vacuum that does not break the filter) which is about 20 inches $\ce{Hg}$ vacuum. How do I ...
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1answer
35 views

What is CIF (a PCB developer) and what does it do?

I made a PCB (printed circuit board) for the first time, and the process included covering the board with the shape we want, exposing the board to UV light and then putting it in a developer which ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

Alcohol in the bloodstream modeled by differential equations

Does anyone know any good references which use partial differential equations to model the alcohol concentration in the bloodstream? I'm a mathematician, so I'm searching for a rigorous mathematical ...
0
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1answer
52 views

Cleaning silver - which method is better? [duplicate]

What is the advantage of this approach over polishing the silver with an abrasive? "Silver tarnish is an outer coating of silver sulfide, $\ce{Ag2S}$, formed when silver reacts with trace quantities ...
3
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0answers
35 views

Calculating K Value of a Clock Reaction

Uncertainty Not Included Some Units Not Included R2 value calculated from Header (Concentration, 1 over Concentration and LN Concentration) vs Time Column of ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Help determining the amount of hexavalent chromium to use?

My friend is working on her Masters and needed my help confirming some math. The literature she is referencing says to expose her fish to $3~\mathrm{mg~L^{-1}}$ of hexavalent chromium. We at our ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

How to perform solvent extraction of a solid

Suppose I have a solid compound from which I want to extract a target chemical I know is soluble in acetone. So I crush and mix the compound in acetone, dissolving the target and suspending the ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Distillation Heating Mantle Setup

In my lab courses, we were taught to use textbooks off the shelf as elevating props to adjust the heights of heating mantles to the right height during distillations, but I was wondering if there was ...
3
votes
2answers
107 views

How do I setup the electrodes for cyclic voltammetry on a capacitor made on dry copper sheets?

I'm trying to measure capacitance of a cell I'm creating. It's composed of two copper-sheets with nano-material coated on one side, sandwiched with a membrane and wetted with $\ce{KOH}$. All of the ...
6
votes
1answer
53 views

Does phosphoric acid remove stainless steel electropolished layer?

Electropolished stainless steel has a high corrosion resistance due to the oxide film that is created during electropolishing. The film mainly consist of chromium(III) oxide. Phosphoric acid is ...
5
votes
0answers
54 views

Can I make Ferrofluid without evaporating Ammonium?

I want to make ferrofluid, which is ferromagnetic particles suspended in a carrier fluid. Three methods I have seen involve using magnetic ink (for MICR codes), cassette tapes, or ferric chloride as ...
6
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0answers
62 views

How Do I Identify What Impurities Are in My Product?

I am writing a lab report for Organic Chemistry about a multi-step synthesis that we conducted. While our product has the proper melting point, its IR spectrum has peaks not present in the respective ...
7
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2answers
155 views

Proper use of vacuum pump during vacuum distillation

I am preparing to do a vacuum distillation and am unsure exactly how to manage the vacuum. The vacuum pump I have is a two-stage rotary vane pump which is capable of 250 microns or lower. It has a ...
6
votes
1answer
95 views

H2SO4 with ethanoic acid reaction?

Earlier today I was preparing an ester (propyl ethanoate) and I noticed that instead of putting the propanol, ethanoic acid and $\ce{H2SO4}$ in the test tube and warming it (taking time and external ...