The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Orbital angular momentum

For hydrogen atom, L^2 and Lz can be obtained as eigenvalues for a particular wave function. But that does not completely specify the angular momentum vector. How to get about this problem? Also, in ...
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Difference between shells, subshells and orbitals

What are the definitions of these three things and how are they related? I've tried looking online but there is no concrete answer online for this question.
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41 views

How does bombarding a molecule with electrons cause ionization?

I am a chemistry student and am currently studying Mass spectrometry. In the ionization process atoms are bombarded with electrons to ionize them, but how does this work? I assume the electrons ...
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48 views

Electron interference

Assuming that electrons behave as both waves and particles, and that waves(like in double slit experiment) can interfere with themselves: Do electrons actually move in any direction, or do they just ...
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32 views

Can the electron configuration of Te be written that way?

Normally, the electron configuration of Te is known as: $$\begin{aligned} {[Kr]} 5s^2 \ce{4d^10} 5p^4 \end{aligned}$$ Then, one day I was asked in a exam if this can be written also as: ...
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Is my analysis correct when answering this question about quantum numbers?

Which series of quantum numbers describes the highest (energy) occupied orbital in a ground state of At atom? a) n = 6, l = 0 b) n = 6, l = 2 c) n = 5, l = 2 d) n = 4, l = 3 e) n = 6, l = 1 ...
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79 views

Which atom goes in the middle of a lewis dot structure?

I've read online in multiple sites that the least electronegative atom goes in the middle with the exception of H, which always goes on the outside. However, in the molecule NaCN, C is in the middle. ...
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35 views

Is Sodium metal more reactive towards an alkyl halide or an alcohol in a protic polar solvent?

Will Sodium metal donate its electrons to bromine in 1,3-dibromopropane or to the hydroxyl group in ethanol in a polar protic solvent? This question comes from a problem: 'What is the major product ...
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87 views

How do electrons travel through nodes

I understand this is a basic question, but I'm having such a hard time wrapping my head around it. I'm trying to avoid thinking about it as an actual "particle" but as a wave, but that confuses me ...
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60 views

How much energy does it cost to have electron configurations that are not in accordance with Hund's rules?

What is a ballpark figure for the difference in energy for an atom that follows Hund's rule vs one that has two electrons with opposite spins? I'd be interested to know carbon and nitrogen. Is there ...
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Do electrons only fill 'spin up' first? Or could it start filling 'down spins' first?

Due to Hund's rule, electrons start filling up the orbitals without pairing up. When this is happening, do the electrons all fill up the 'up' spin? Could they fill in the 'down' spin? Why do they ...
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Are there any negatively charged electrophiles, or simply neutral and positive?

When reading up on electrophilic aromatic substitution, most resources refer to electrophiles as positively-charged species, "in general" or "mostly". What are non-positively charged electrophiles? ...
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Can electrons switch orbitals within a shell?

I know that electrons can move from say 2s orbital to an unoccupied 2p orbital, as in Carbon atom which can form 4 bonds this way. But I want to know is it possible for an electron say in orbital 2p ...
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116 views

Reduce chlorine gas

I have a simple electrolysis setup which uses aqueous sodium chloride as electrolyte. The problem is that, the setup makes tons of chlorine gas along with hydrogen (I only want hydrogen). I didn't ...
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61 views

Why is chloride oxidised instead of water in copper chloride electrolysis?

For the Electrolysis of Copper Chloride: Cathode: $\ce{Cu^{2+} + 2e- <=> Cu}$ Anode: $\ce{2Cl <=> Cl2 + 2e- }$ I am confused about the reaction taking place at the anode. Wouldn't ...
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How can two electrons lie together in an orbital?

Two electron of opposite spin can lie in a single orbital.. But what about the electron-electron repulsion. Okay! I got that the nuclear charge rather the large Z-effective overcome this repulsion by ...
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32 views

Inventor of CRT?

Let's cut to the chase. I've been researching through numerous, reliable and unreliable, resources. According to the CRT official site and wiki, the first CRT( cathode ray tube) was invented by Carl ...
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66 views

In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge?

The problem is : In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge? SCl2 ,, HCl ,, BrCl ,, OCl2 ,, before I go through how I will solve this problem .. There is ...
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324 views

What is the difference between a coefficient and a subscript in a chemical equation?

Observe the following parts of an electron transfer equation: The first equation says Li with a small subscript 2, however the second one says Al with a coefficient 2 instead of $\ce{Al_2}$. Can ...
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Protons or electrons are responsible for chemistry of an atom?

Is the question in a correct form? I can't add anything as a comment. Thank you.
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Why unbonded electrons exits in pair

Basically the term which we use to refer them is lone pair. In Lewis structure why we represent those unbonded electron in pairs. Like here (structure of SO2) Here if we assume both the unbonded ...
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Why is up spin in the px orbital and down spin in the py orbital considered an excited state?

Why is this form of p orbital occupation an excited state? I understand that there should be one up spin and one down spin in one orbital box by Pauli's exclusion rule. But in the p orbitals, it ...
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196 views

Why is B2 paramagnetic?

Why is B2 paramagnetic? It's just 2 borons with a triple bond between them. Aren't all the electrons paired?
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Bombarding atoms with electron gun?

Just to explain this question in a better way just think about the Rutherford's experiment(the alpha particle bombarded on Gold foil) be conducted using a electron gun in place of the Alpha one.. So ...
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59 views

Is this Hess's Law Electrochemistry question incorrect?

It is my understanding that to apply Hess' Law to this equation the top equation sign would be reversed and the outcome would be +0.65 V. Often the system produces incorrect answers. I was looking ...
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How is the charge of covalently bonded atoms determined?

My question is about what it is - at the subatomic level - that determines the charge on atoms which participate in covalent bonding in reality. I understand that formal charge is just that - it's a ...
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Balancing redox equation

So I had these two reactions that confused me .. I tried the standard way of balancing it (Putting oxygen number everywhere, +1,+2,-2 etc.) and then go on with it but it didn't work So anyways here ...
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I am trying to picture how electrons move around in atomic orbitals

Are they thought to continuously pop in and out of existence at various points inside the orbital defined by probabilities or do they follow definite paths that are made fuzzy by the Heisenberg ...
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218 views

Explanation for the reactions in a saltwater battery with zinc and copper electrodes

I am a physicist, not a chemist. I'm trying to get a basic understanding of the reactions taking place in a battery using a saltwater electrolyte with copper and zinc terminals. I'm writing a general ...
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47 views

Since aqueous acids release Hydrogen cations into the solution, will an electric current create Hydrogen gas?

I was wondering that since acids dissociate in water to make a lot of $\ce{H+}$ cations. Is it possible that introducing a supply of electrons via an electric current, would create $\ce{H2}$ gas?
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Reduce sizing of molecule - Oxygen

Can the size of molecule oxygen reduce smaller? If yes, how is that possible? Is it related to proton and electron surrounding the nucleus?
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41 views

Behavior of NaCl in water with electrodes

If I had some NaCl dissolved in water, it is conductive, so if I were to put two electrodes in the container (powered), what is causing the flow of electrons? Do the NaCl ionic bonds break and the ...
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42 views

MacGyvered chlorine gas protection

I was watching Periodic Video's chlorine video, which discusses Chlorine's ferocity in stripping electrons whenever possible, and the professors mentioned its consequent use in WWII as a chemical ...
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183 views

Why does the Schroedinger equation for hydrogen atom look like this?

Here is how I saw the Hamiltonian being written in one Quantum Mechanics book: Well, That's all very nice and complicated, but looking at the last term, and seeing the use of $r$ in there, ...
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How are electrons in conjugated molecules excited? [duplicate]

I have recently started reading about colour in organic molecules and come across conjugation of pi bonds. My question is pretty short... In transition metal ions I understand colour is caused by ...
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Why weren't the electrons attracted to doubly charged Helium particles in the Rutherford experiment?

I have a chapter and in it there was a topic on the Rutherford experiment. It is written that doubly charged helium particles or alpha particles were thrown towards a very thin gold foil and some of ...
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18 electron rule question

Fe(η5-C5H5)2 does not react with hydrogen, but its nickel analogue, Ni(η5-C5H5)2 is readily hydrogenated to give Ni(η5-C5H5)(η3-C5H7). Use the 18 electron rule to explain this behaviour. My answer so ...
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Could someone please explain the difference between m/z and m/e in mass spectroscopy

The definition: The abbreviation m/z is used to denote the dimensionless quantity formed by dividing the mass number of an ion by its charge number. It has long been called the mass-to-charge ratio ...
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UV-Visible Spectroscopy in the analysis of sodium chloride in potato chips

Here is the question and answer out of an exam paper: Firstly, I thought UV-Visible can also use radiation in the visible spectrum. Also when analyzing sodium chloride (a molecule), then UV-Visible ...
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88 views

Is the valence band neutral?

While studying about band theory of semiconductors, I observed that when the electrons were excited from the valence band to the conduction band, they left behind holes in the valence band. From my ...
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138 views

Is it possible to compress an atom to infinite density?

I know, by nature, normally atoms are stable. But I wonder, if it is possible to compress an atom, say the Hydrogen atom, to infinite density by applying external force? After all, electrons and ...
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Lone Pair 'more repulsion' VSPR Theory

I've always been told in chemistry lessons that lone pairs repel more due to a greater charge density than bonding pairs. And that makes sense when steric effects are involved when bond orbitals ...
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903 views

Why only two atoms share an electron and not three?

In a covalent bond between two atoms, an electron from one of the either atom is shared by overlapping of their orbitals. So, Why can't three atoms share an electron and overlap their orbitals?
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Why is the orbital angular momentum of a pi electron along the axis of two atoms' molecule one?

I'm reading quantum chemistry. The book says that the orbital angular momentum of a $\pi$ electron along the symmetry axis of a molecule made up of two atoms is $\pm 1$. I think this is a primary ...
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67 views

Ground state electron configuration of chromium

What is the ground state electron configuration of chromium? Is it [Ar]4s23d4 or Is it [Ar]4s13d5
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Electrons and their affect on the atomic radius [closed]

What happens to the atomic radius when an magnesium atom loses an electron? What happens to the atomic radius when a sodium atom loses an electron?
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2k views

Why is fluorine the most electronegative atom?

It seems related to the atomic size but hydrogen has a smaller atomic size than fluorine. Why is fluorine the most electronegative atom?
3
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1answer
77 views

Why does helium seem to exhibit an ionization energy affected by the shielding of electrons?

According to Wikipedia, the shielding effect only happen in atoms which have more than 1 electron shells. The core electrons repel the electron in the valence shell. However, I have heard some ...
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Photoelectric effect and electron loss

I've read that when a certain amount of UV light is shone on a metal surface, electrons are ejected (the photoelectric effect). Are these electrons from the metal atoms themselves? and in case they ...