The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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How much energy is required to make an ion?

So say that I have a normal hydrogen atom (not an isotope, just regular normal hydrogen atom) and I want to make it into an ion $\text{H}^+$. Since to make an ion of that formula I need to take away ...
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35 views

Determining number of electrons transferred

When determining the number of electrons transferred in a redox reaction is it the total in both half equations? For example: $$\ce{2I- + Zn^2+ -> I2 + Zn}$$ First we split it up into the two ...
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94 views

How does molecular collision excites the electron?

I have this question for a long time that in LASER when we do the pumping by heating how does molecular collision causes the atoms(molecules) to reach in excited state. E.g. in $\ce{He-Ne}$ laser when ...
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Why do atoms form either a positive or a negative charge, but not both?

I do not mean at the same time, of course, but I mean it appears from an overview of the common charges formed from ionizing various elements that each element forms one or more of either positive or ...
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46 views

Each electron shell can hold up to 2n² electrons. Is there a geometric reason for this?

It seems such a simple formula, that each electron shell can hold in principle two times a square number. I imagine there must be a geometrical reason for this, that's to do with the way electron ...
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1answer
26 views

Electrons jumping from 1 water molecule to another

Electrons can be anywhere in the universe and where they are is random. But they are still discrete particles and thus it takes energy for electrons to move. Is it possible for an electron to jump ...
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45 views

How many electrons can have the quantum number set n=5, l=3, ml=-1? [closed]

How many electrons can have the quantum number set $n=6,\ l=3,\ m_l=-1$? Also, please explain why. I know that n describes the number of shells in an atom but what do n, l, and ml have to do with ...
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50 views

The proper explanation for the general formula of the DU? [duplicate]

I found a formula for the degree of unsaturation (DU) in Clayden’s Organic Chemistry. It explains, simply, the unsaturation with the difference in H atoms. Then I stumbled upon the general formula: ...
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225 views

Is it possible to calculate energy of electron in any orbital and atom in Schrödinger wave model theory?

Is it possible to calculate the energy of electron in any orbital and atom in the Schrödinger wave model theory? If so, how? E.g. energy of the $3s^2$ electron of the $\ce{Na-}$ ion.
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p orbital electrons in s-p hybridized carbon [closed]

How many unpaired $p$-orbital electrons are there in s-p hybridized carbon? Can you show some examples for the answer? Is there anything more to explain ..
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2answers
59 views

Why does an element's chemical properties rely only on its valence electrons and not on anything else?

I understand that elements use their valence electrons for their reactions and whatnot, and that the whole idea of the electron-dot structure is all about valence electrons. But why can't the other ...
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1answer
137 views

Where exactly do the orbital angular momentum get their numbers e.g. +1/2

I was thinking about orbital angular momentum today and wondering how exactly do the numbers come about that quantize them. I was doing a little research on how they come about and I came across ...
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190 views

Why is an ionic bond a chemical and not a physical bond?

Ionic bonds seem to be intermolecular but are classified as chemical bonds. "Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions." - ...
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91 views

how does the “sea of electrons” hold metal atom together

how does the delocalized electron hold metal atom together? What is the forces of attraction between the atom and electron called ?
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1answer
55 views

Hypervalency in elements in the second period

In my experience, most texts that address hypervalency say that it only occurs from elements in the 3rd period and onwards. This explains the occurrence of $\ce{Cl2O7}$ or chlorine heptoxide. However, ...
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302 views

Which relatively simple molecules violate the octet rule?

I'm learning how to draw Lewis diagrams. Everything I've read emphasizes the octet rule. However, to the best of my knowledge, that rule only applies to elements in the first three periods. On our ...
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0answers
59 views

Why are electron configurations more stable when there are 8 electrons in the outer shell?

In this video on Khan Academy, Sal remarks that 'all atoms envy the noble gases, which are the most stable because they have eight electrons in their outer shell'. I can't think of much of a reason ...
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1answer
137 views

electron passing nodes?

When one say that the electron goes from 1 orbit , say 2S, to another (higher) orbital, say 5P, it mean that the electron is excited to that orbit by some mean. In doing so it also it will also cross ...
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2answers
252 views

Why do lone pair- lone pair have more repulsion compared to lone-bond and bond-bond pairs?

My teacher told me that lone pair and lone pair are closer together hence the repulsion is greater and they take up more space, but I do not understand? can anyone explain it to me?
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1answer
54 views

Electron vs electron density

I recently read somewhere that electrons do not exist. it's just the electron density. Is it true that there are no electrons (particles) but only in the form of electron density? And does this ...
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Is there an algorithm for ascertaining the relative size of an atomic/ionic radius?

To the best of my knowledge, the following properties affect atomic radius. The grounded-state size of the valence electron shell. The Coulomb force of the core electrons less the Coulomb force of ...
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1answer
45 views

Do I understand why the atomic radius of Kr is smaller than the atomic radius of K?

Potassium comprises 19 protons and 18 core electrons. Those electrons screen 18 protons worth of Coulomb force. Therefore, there is one proton worth of Coulomb force attracting the valence electron of ...
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1answer
138 views

Is d-block ever part of the valence electrons?

The $\mathrm{d}$-block sub-shell is always one shell lower than the $\mathrm{s}$-block and $\mathrm{p}$-block sub-shells. Assuming only the electrons in the highest energy shells count toward the set ...
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Why does the quantum number n limit the value of l, and why does l, likewise, limit the value of m?

Any quantum number that represents the size of an orbital is a positive integer, $n$. Any quantum number that represents the shape of an orbital is a non-negative integer, $l : l < n$. Any ...
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605 views

Are electron shells probability distributions?

I know that orbitals are probability distributions. Are electron shells probability distributions too?
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Why isn't helium always He 1s?

Part 1: According to what I've learned so far, helium is in the first row of the periodic table, so its $n$ should always equal $1$. However, a question in my text asks about helium 2s. What is helium ...
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85 views

Why any other element except fluorine wouldn't take electrons from oxygen?

My teacher said that fluorine is more electronegative than oxygen thus it will take electrons of oxygen. But now, why won't other Group 17 elements, like chlorine, bromine, iodine, would take ...
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29 views

What is the purpose of the solution in a galvanic cell?

In other words: What is the purpose of the solution that the electrodes are immersed in, in a galvanic cell, and is it possible to generate a current without any solution?
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2answers
85 views

Formation of species in electrolysis

I understand the principles of electrolysis of salts in aqueous solutions, but there are two points on which i am unsure. At the positive electrode, how can you work out which ions will ...
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2answers
210 views

Energy of photons emitted by de-excitation of electrons

When an electron of an atom returns from an excited state to the ground state, it emits energy in the form of a photon. How does the change in energy level compare to the energy of the emitted photon? ...
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1answer
74 views

By using the magnetic susceptibility, calculate the number of unpaired elections in the complex

I'm having trouble making sense of this answer. I believe I am doing all the steps right, but my main concern is that I am not arriving at a whole number. If my answer is correct, should I just round ...
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0answers
48 views

How did Millikan measure the mass of these oil droplets?

I was reading the R.A. Millikan's oil drop experiment and the following part confused me:- "By measuring the rate of fall, Millikan was able to measure the fall of the oil droplets (which were dropped ...
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92 views

Velocity of electrons ejected from Cl atom

When neutral $\ce{Cl}$ atoms are bombarded by high energy photons, causing ejection of electrons, which subshells' ejected electrons will have highest velocity? I chose $1s$ because I thought more ...
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189 views

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds?

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds? Or could an inner shell create a bond under some conditions?
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Bromine with 10 electrons

On a test question, my organic chemistry professor gave us a really big molecule and told us to give list the formal charges on each atom. There was a $\ce{Br}$ with 3 lone pairs and a double bond to ...
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2answers
100 views

Why is energy released as electrons move?

Why is it that energy is released from electrons when they move from one atom to a more electronegative one?
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Is one electron spin preferred over the other in filling of orbitals? [duplicate]

When filling an orbital diagram of an atom, usually the up-spin is filled first and then the down-spin. For example, for Nitrogen, we have : But in a model in which up-spin electron is preferred ...
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2answers
104 views

How many electrons does each shell hold?

why some times 2nd shell onward it can hold 8 electrons and other times it is like they can hold K2 L8 M18 N32? when do i have to use first method(K2 L8 M8 N8) and when to use second method (k2 L8 ...
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Quantum Numbers and Ions

How do quantum numbers change for ions? A sample question: Give the set of four quantum numbers that could represent the electron lost to form the Rb ION from the Rb atom. The answer given is n=5; ...
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1answer
52 views

How was it determined that the electron observed in the cathode ray experiments was the same particle that gave an atom its balancing negative charge?

How was it determined that the electron observed in the cathode ray experiments was the same particle that gave an atom its balancing negative charge? Couldn't there have been an entirely different ...
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1answer
73 views

Structure of a Metal in gas phase

If we have a metal in gas phase. Suppose lets say Aluminum. Aluminum has delocalised electrons. There is Al cation -electron attraction in it. Its easier to visualize Al atomic structure in solid ...
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Ionisation Energy (removal of electron) [closed]

My question is: Relate the ease of removal of an electron to the charge on the most stable ion formed by the element?
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1answer
55 views

Show that there can be 18 electrons in a “g” subshell

I'm learning about quantum numbers right now, and I can't figure out how to calculate the number of electrons in each shell without memorizing it. Is there a formula to find the possible numbers of ...
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1answer
140 views

Do multielectron atoms have nodes?

For hydrogen, other than in the 1s state, the electron wavefunctions have radial and/or angular nodes where the electron probability density is zero. In helium or further atoms with more than one ...
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2answers
185 views

How fast do electrons move around the nucleus?

Electrons, as we all know, are incredibly small. Smaller things do tend to move faster, right? So exactly how fast considering how small they are? Also, does the electonegativity between two atoms ...
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70 views

Why does the definition of ionisation energy only include gaseous atoms?

I know that in physics there is thermionic emission and the photoelectric effect. These are both method of removing electrons. I think these affects are only for metals due to their de-localized ...
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2answers
890 views

Why is zinc more reactive than copper?

In terms of electronegativity, from what I understand electronegativity increases going across the period, so surely this should mean that zinc less readily loses its outer shell electrons than ...
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1answer
17 views

What is the direction of charge transfer between Aluminum and aliphatic amines physisorbed on top?

Is there dipole formation upon physisorption of an aliphatic amine to an aluminum substrate? What is the charge transfer direction? What if the aluminum substrate is clean, surface oxidized or covered ...
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1answer
27 views

Why does ionization violate the stable or lowest energy rule in atoms?

Electrons that fill orbitals always do so in such a way that the resulting structure has the lowest energy state possible, though there are anomalies like chromium and so on. But ionization no ...
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64 views

The anode and cathode when corrosion happens

Let's say $\ce{Fe}$ reacts with $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$ ions. $\ce{Fe}$ would oxidize and therefore give electrons to $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$so that: $$\ce{Fe-> Fe^{2+} +2e-}$$ $$\ce{Cu^{2+} +2e^- ->Cu}$$ The ...