The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Why does the electronic distribution of Calcium is 2,8,8,2 when 3rd shell(M shell) can hold 18 electrons?

I know by the formula 2n^2, the total no. of electrons in K, L, M, N shells are 2, 8, 18, 32 respectively. But here electronic configuration of Calcium is not correct if we go solely by this formula. ...
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38 views

Aromaticity & delocalization of electrons

Are these Anti aromatic/aromatic or non aromatic? 1. Here, if we were to consider the resonating structure(s) with charge separation One ring is aromatic and other is anti aromatic, and ...
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20 views

Anomalous Electronic Configuration of Thorium

The electronic configuration of thorium ($Z=90$) is $5\mathrm f^0 6\mathrm d^2 7\mathrm s^2$. But, according to the aufbau principle, the electrons should first enter the $\mathrm f$ subshell and not ...
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Chemical energy + energy of electrons

The amount of energy released in a chemical reaction is equal to variation of the enthalpy of this system (In general). The energy released is usually is in form of light and heat. When light is ...
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20 views

How do I calculate the valence(y) of an element, knowing it's valence electrons [duplicate]

How do I calculate the valence(y) of an transition metal or just any element in the periodic table? I know it has something to do with valence electrons(The electrons in the outer most shell, right?), ...
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67 views

Can carbon and titanium bond?

Can carbon and titanium form an ionic bond, because the both have 4 valence electrons? Like so:
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1answer
25 views

Why does ionization increase from Li to Be? [duplicate]

If ionization energy decreases from $\ce{N}$ to $\ce{O}$ due to the pairing of electrons (causing electric repulsion and greater potential energy) in the $\mathrm{2p}$ orbital in the $\ce{O}$ atom, ...
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2answers
114 views

How many bonds can Hydrogen make?

Recently I saw a video which told me that Hydrogen has a valency of 1, i.e, Hydrogen can only bond with 1 other atom. But since hydrogen wants a complete shell, it can have 2 covalent bonds with 2 ...
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10 views

Why do some of the transition metals go from 4s2 to 4s1 down the line [duplicate]

I was looking at the periodic table and found for instance that Cu (copper) has an equation of [Ar] 4s1 3d10. Why would this be the case? Why is the 3d orbital filling up completely before the 4s ...
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25 views

Valence electrons in compounds with more than four bonds [duplicate]

Say you have $\ce{SF6}$, if the $\ce{S}$ goes in the center of a Lewis Structure Diagram, it would automatically have at least 12 electrons as it would have to form bonds with all of them... how does ...
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2answers
46 views

How do valence shell configurations affect attraction and repulsion forces between atoms? [closed]

It seems clear that the electrons of one atom are attracted to the protons of another and that this is the source of attractive forces between atoms. However, it is not clear why an atom with a full ...
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28 views

Can wormholes and electron tunneling be compared? [closed]

An electron without the proper potential energy can literally jump the potential barrier and be transfered from A to B. The theory of general relativity predicts the existence of hypothetic warmholes ...
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32 views

Why don't electrons have the same spin even when in same orbit? [closed]

Do electrons not have the same spin because that is just how it was found or does it contribute to another factor?
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74 views

Do really the electrons could only orbit in specific orbits with a fixed radius?

According to Bohr's model of atom The electrons could only orbit the nucleus in specific orbits or shells with a fixed radius. Only shells with a radius given by the equation below would be ...
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28 views

Lower an electron energy level by pressure [closed]

When an atom is in extreme pressure like a little before it's Schwartzchilds radius, can the electrons in higher energy levels physically be compressed into lower energy levels?.
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2answers
96 views

What is the reason for the blue color of an ammoniated electron?

I am quoting a line from a book regarding reactivity of alkali metals with liquid ammonia. The blue colour of the solution is due to the ammoniated electron which absorbs energy in the visible ...
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0answers
18 views

How do I know the valence number by looking at the groups? [duplicate]

Groups say the valence number. For example Hydrogen is on group 1, has 1 electron on it's last and only level. So we can know the valence number on that are on the groups 1-2 and 13-18. But how am I ...
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2answers
122 views

Why does the phosphate ion have resonance structures?

My first-year chemistry teacher depicted $ \mathrm{PO_{4}^{3-}}$ as exhibiting the resonance structure inset below this question. However, I can't figure out what diagramming rules (which is what ...
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17 views

What elements exhibit electron configurations contrary to what aufbau implies?

I searched online for a list of elements whose electron configurations differ from the configurations that aufbau implies that they exhibit. I found partial lists, but I couldn't find a complete one. ...
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65 views

Electron configuration and the 2p orbital

I looked through the questions already asked about this topic and they were very specific and over my head. I'm having trouble with the basics. When drawing orbital diagrams I know electrons are ...
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42 views

1+ vs. +1 Charge Notations

We are studying the atomic model and nuclear chemistry in class. In ions, charge is usually expressed like +1 or -1 or whatever ...
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1answer
57 views

Can we add an electron to an atom?

Say that we have an atom which is inert, or stable. How would one go about adding one electron. Is it possible?
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1answer
85 views

Please explain the shapes of the orbitals [duplicate]

For a lot of years, I had been believing that sphere was the most stable 3-dimensional shape. But after coming across the p,d and f-orbitals, I am unable to comprehend the fact that these orbitals ...
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71 views

What does spin-pair mutual repulsion mean?

I think that its just a term my teacher uses because I tried googling it before and couldnt come up with any decent responses. Anyways, the question was: "Describe the discontinuities of Ionization ...
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1answer
161 views

What exactly is an orbital?

What exactly is an orbital? Atomic or molecular. Is it the function that describes the behaviour of the electron? Is it the Schroedinger's equation solution, e.g., for Hydrogen atom? Is it the ...
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2answers
66 views

Filling up of orbitals

As we know that the orbitals in a sub shell are degenerate, so is it necessary to fill up the electrons starting from x then to y and then z (if in p-subshell) or they can be filled like shown in the ...
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9 views

Filling up of electrons [duplicate]

Is it necessary that filling up orbitals start from spin-up orientation only? And also, is it mandatory to fill the electrons with one kind of spin or they can be filled with spin up and spin down(as ...
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22 views

Electrons flow difference between circuit and electroplating process by considering battery's positive and negative side [duplicate]

Electrons flow from the negative end to the positive end of a battery (via a circuit) but in electroplating process electrons flow from the battery's positive end to the battery's negative end. Why ...
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1answer
52 views

Negative charge of orbit [closed]

Why is the energy of orbit (of electron) negative. Explain. Electrons are negatively charged and electrons revolve round the nucleus in the orbit hence the orbit is negatively charged but what are the ...
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1answer
76 views

How are subshells and shells arranged in an atom?

If 2s and 2p are in the second energy level, and 3s, 3p, and 3d are in the next (3rd) energy level, how are these subshells arranged in space in relation to one another? Particularly, could this be ...
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164 views

What are the effects of the repulsive forces between electron on the potential energy graph for the dihydrogen molecule?

This diagram is from my textbook. It states that as long atoms get closer, the energy decreases due to the attractive forces between the electrons and the nuclei. When the nuclei get too close, the ...
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96 views

Why do electrons need to be paired?

I’d read that it takes energy to place electrons in pairs, just less than it would take to place two electrons in different subshells. I get that. What I don’t get is, then, why would electrons want ...
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1answer
76 views

Why Fe 3+ is more common than Fe 2+

I heard that $\ce{Fe}(\mathrm{III})$ is more common than $\ce{Fe}(\mathrm{II})$ but I've not heard a very clear explanation. Could someone please explain this incorporating electron configurations in ...
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101 views

Why does electronegativity create a stronger acid, but so does greater electron distribution?

I just learned that: Acids get stronger with: Increasing electronegativity of atom bonded to $\ce{H}$. Size of atom bearing negative charge. Hybridization of negative charge (more s character, ...
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402 views

Wave and particle properties of protons and electrons

Do both electrons and protons have wave and particle properties and if they do, do they show them at the same time?
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557 views

Does the shared electron in Covalent bonds revolve around nucleus?

We know that electrons are charges that revolve around the nucleus. Then, when in covalent bonds the electron is shared; does the electron obey the rule?
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207 views

Why and when are bonds broken

I am new to chemistry (I have only done a GCSE in it) so forgive me if I am missing something obvious. But I am trying to very roughly simulate some chemical reactions. My background is in Artificial ...
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41 views

Experimental Validation of Schrodinger's Electron Cloud theory

I am currently doing a report for school on the electron cloud atomic structure theory. One of the major points on my report is the experiments performed by the scientists (Schrodinger and Heisenberg) ...
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329 views

How do Electrons Cross Nodes in Orbitals?

I was wondering in orbitals that have nodes such as the p orbital, how does the electron move from one lobe to the other? I know that people say it is because of the wave/particle nature of electrons ...
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589 views

How do scientists count the exact number of electrons, protons, neutrons in the atom?

An atom is very small so it is probably difficult to focus exactly on a single atom. I wonder how scientists count the exact number of electrons, protons, neutrons in an atom of a certain element. ...
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71 views

Why don't electrons just crash into the nuclueus? [closed]

This question has already an answer on Physics.SE: Why don't electrons crash into the nuclei they “orbit”? I've seen some answers to this questions on google, but they don't go into really ...
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1answer
72 views

Uniform circular motion of electrons?

Can we use the uniform circular motion formulae to calculate the velocity of an electron along with the formula of radius of nth Bohr orbit? And using that can we calculate the kinetic energy of an ...
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1answer
40 views

Electron's Energy In The Atom

I know that the exact (OK most of the times not the exact) energy of an electron can be calculated by solving Schrodinger's differential equation, but can we explain an electron's energy of a specific ...
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1answer
58 views

Confused about writing out electron configurations

I watched the Crash Course chemistry video about the electron. In the video Hank showed an example configuration of iron as $\mathrm{(1s)^2 (2s)^2 (2p)^6 (3s)^2 (3p)^6 (4s)^2 (3d)^6}$ and explained ...
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136 views

Few basic questions about ionic bonding and batteries (lead)

I've got a few very very basic questions about ionic bonds and their role in batteries. My assumptions (correct me if I'm wrong): Ionic bonds occur between a metal and a non-metal (the non-metal ...
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73 views

How much energy is required to make an ion?

So say that I have a normal hydrogen atom (not an isotope, just regular normal hydrogen atom) and I want to make it into an ion $\text{H}^+$. Since to make an ion of that formula I need to take away ...
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62 views

Determining number of electrons transferred

When determining the number of electrons transferred in a redox reaction is it the total in both half equations? For example: $$\ce{2I- + Zn^2+ -> I2 + Zn}$$ First we split it up into the two ...
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1answer
147 views

How does molecular collision excites the electron?

I have this question for a long time that in LASER when we do the pumping by heating how does molecular collision causes the atoms(molecules) to reach in excited state. E.g. in $\ce{He-Ne}$ laser when ...
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Why do atoms form either a positive or a negative charge, but not both?

I do not mean at the same time, of course, but I mean it appears from an overview of the common charges formed from ionizing various elements that each element forms one or more of either positive or ...
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Each electron shell can hold up to 2n² electrons. Is there a geometric reason for this?

It seems such a simple formula, that each electron shell can hold in principle two times a square number. I imagine there must be a geometrical reason for this, that's to do with the way electron ...