The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Structure of a Metal in gas phase

If we have a metal in gas phase. Suppose lets say Aluminum. Aluminum has delocalised electrons. There is Al cation -electron attraction in it. Its easier to visualize Al atomic structure in solid ...
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Ionisation Energy (removal of electron) [on hold]

My question is: Relate the ease of removal of an electron to the charge on the most stable ion formed by the element?
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34 views

Show that there can be 18 electrons in a “g” subshell

I'm learning about quantum numbers right now, and I can't figure out how to calculate the number of electrons in each shell without memorizing it. Is there a formula to find the possible numbers of ...
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116 views

Do multielectron atoms have nodes?

For hydrogen, other than in the 1s state, the electron wavefunctions have radial and/or angular nodes where the electron probability density is zero. In helium or further atoms with more than one ...
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119 views

How fast do electrons move around the nucleus?

Electrons, as we all know, are incredibly small. Smaller things do tend to move faster, right? So exactly how fast considering how small they are? Also, does the electonegativity between two atoms ...
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33 views

Why does the definition of ionisation energy only include gaseous atoms?

I know that in physics there is thermionic emission and the photoelectric effect. These are both method of removing electrons. I think these affects are only for metals due to their de-localized ...
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131 views

Why is zinc more reactive than copper?

In terms of electronegativity, from what I understand electronegativity increases going across the period, so surely this should mean that zinc less readily loses its outer shell electrons than ...
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What is the direction of charge transfer between Aluminum and aliphatic amines physisorbed on top?

Is there dipole formation upon physisorption of an aliphatic amine to an aluminum substrate? What is the charge transfer direction? What if the aluminum substrate is clean, surface oxidized or covered ...
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16 views

Why does ionization violate the stable or lowest energy rule in atoms?

Electrons that fill orbitals always do so in such a way that the resulting structure has the lowest energy state possible, though there are anomalies like chromium and so on. But ionization no ...
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37 views

The anode and cathode when corrosion happens

Let's say $\ce{Fe}$ reacts with $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$ ions. $\ce{Fe}$ would oxidize and therefore give electrons to $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$so that: $$\ce{Fe-> Fe^{2+} +2e-}$$ $$\ce{Cu^{2+} +2e^- ->Cu}$$ The ...
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87 views

NO linear vs bent - valence electron

I'd like to count the total valence electron of following neutral complex in the ionic counting (=donor-pair): $\ce{Cl-}$ : 6e $\ce{CH3-}$: 2e $\ce{PPh3}$: 2e gives 10e from these three ligands ...
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146 views

Electronegativity and HCl and HF molecules

In a book I am reading, it is said In the $\ce{HCl}$ molecule, the shared pair of electrons spend more time nearer the chlorine atom. In the $\ce{HF}$ molecule, the shared electrons spend more ...
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42 views

How does an atom get rid of electrons? [closed]

I know that if an atom has 4 electrons in its outer shell it will share 4 with other atoms to have a full valence shell. But what if the atom only has 3? I understand that it will likely get rid of ...
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Is it possible to calculate atomic radius with electron configuration?

I need to know whether is it possible to calculate the atomic radius according to the number of electrons and electron configuration. Or is there any way to calculate the atomic radius using common ...
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2answers
123 views

What causes the colour when conducting flame tests on solid salts?

The normal technique for flame tests is to dip a clean nichrome or platinum wire into a solution of the relevant salt, and observe the resulting flame colour when inserting the wire into a ...
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45 views

Is shielding of electrons really best described as shielding or is it really Coulombic repulsion between electrons?

For example, take the 2s electron in lithium - is the reason that it's ionisation energy is lower than would be expected if "shielding" didn't occur at all because the 1s electrons shield the ...
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43 views

Do Palladium(II) Chloride and Palladium (III) Chloride follow 18-Electron rule or octet rule? How to determine this?

Does $\ce{PdCl2}$ follow 18-Electron rule or octet rule? How should we determine this? http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/24290#section=Top ...
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39 views

First ionization energy of hydrogen molecule

If we have the dissociation's energies of hydrogen molecule $H_{2}$($D_{0}$) and the corresponding molecule ion $H_{2}^{+}$ ($D_{1}$) together with the first energy of ionization of hydrogen atom ...
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Is it possible for Hydrogen to lose its electron?

I know the basics of Chemistry and one thing I've always wondered if it is possible for Hydrogen to give up it's one electron? I know Hydrogen is eager to share its election through covalent bonds, ...
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97 views

Is the smallest or largest diameter important for the color of a molecule?

I learned that phenol absorbs longer wavelengths than benzene because the electron cloud is bigger. But what is about Penta-1,2,3,4-tetrien (1) and 2,2,-Dimethylpropane (2)? (1) has the largest ...
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24 views

What physical properties are manifested when an electron leaves Na and moves to Cl to form an ionic bond?

When an ionic bond is formed between Na and Cl, the lone electron in Sodium's outer shell leaves, and completes Chlorines outer shell. Are there any physical characteristics that I can use as an ...
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41 views

Periodic trends: why is effect of protons greater than electrons?

Why is it that adding protons has a greater effect than electron-electron repulsion on periodic trends like atomic radius and ionization energy (assuming # of shells constant)? It seems that if ...
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73 views

Calculating energy level from wavelength

The transition of an electron from a higher level to a lower level results in the emission of a photon of wavelength 350.0 nm. If the energy of the higher level is -3.24 x 10-19 J, calculate the ...
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136 views

Can protons be swapped in a chemical reaction?

Can the protons of two elements be swapped in a chemical reaction?
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71 views

Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?

I know that for atoms with big values of Z, relativistic effects have to be applied. Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?
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225 views

What should the Rehm-Weller equation look like?

The Rehm-Weller equation, which defines the energy change for photoinduced electron transfer according to Lakowicz "Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy" should look like: $\Delta ...
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86 views

Isoelectronic Species - F2 and HCl

Why isn't F2 and HCl not isoelectronic? H - 1 Cl - 17 F - 9 F2 = 2 * 9 = 18 HCl = 1 + 17 = 18 Thanks
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Doubt on Photoelectric effect

In the experiment to conduct photoelectric effect a clean metal was irradiated by monochromatic light of proper frequency, electrons are emitted. Why was monochromatic light used in the experiment? ...
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86 views

How are cathode rays produced?

Why cathode rays are produced if pressure of the gas discharge tube is lowered to about $10^{-4}$ atm? How bombardment of glass of gas discharge tube from cathode ray result in a faint glow?
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59 views

Electron affinity

Concerning the liberation of energy when an atom that is close to the configuration of a noble gas: Where does the energy dissipated from an atom upon receiving an electron come from?
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61 views

Orbital angular momentum

For hydrogen atom, L^2 and Lz can be obtained as eigenvalues for a particular wave function. But that does not completely specify the angular momentum vector. How to get about this problem? Also, in ...
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6k views

Difference between shells, subshells and orbitals

What are the definitions of these three things and how are they related? I've tried looking online but there is no concrete answer online for this question.
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63 views

How does bombarding a molecule with electrons cause ionization?

I am a chemistry student and am currently studying Mass spectrometry. In the ionization process atoms are bombarded with electrons to ionize them, but how does this work? I assume the electrons ...
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52 views

Electron interference

Assuming that electrons behave as both waves and particles, and that waves(like in double slit experiment) can interfere with themselves: Do electrons actually move in any direction, or do they just ...
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43 views

Can the electron configuration of Te be written that way?

Normally, the electron configuration of Te is known as: $$\begin{aligned} {[Kr]} 5s^2 \ce{4d^10} 5p^4 \end{aligned}$$ Then, one day I was asked in a exam if this can be written also as: ...
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Is my analysis of quantum numbers describing the ground state of At correct?

Which series of quantum numbers describes the highest (energy) occupied orbital in a ground state of At atom? a) n = 6, l = 0 b) n = 6, l = 2 c) n = 5, l = 2 d) n = 4, l = 3 e) n = 6, l = 1 ...
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998 views

Which atom goes in the middle of a lewis dot structure?

I've read online in multiple sites that the least electronegative atom goes in the middle with the exception of H, which always goes on the outside. However, in the molecule NaCN, C is in the middle. ...
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91 views

Is Sodium metal more reactive towards an alkyl halide or an alcohol in a protic polar solvent?

Will Sodium metal donate its electrons to bromine in 1,3-dibromopropane or to the hydroxyl group in ethanol in a polar protic solvent? This question comes from a problem: 'What is the major product ...
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How do electrons travel through nodes

I understand this is a basic question, but I'm having such a hard time wrapping my head around it. I'm trying to avoid thinking about it as an actual "particle" but as a wave, but that confuses me ...
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87 views

How much energy does it cost to have electron configurations that are not in accordance with Hund's rules?

What is a ballpark figure for the difference in energy for an atom that follows Hund's rule vs one that has two electrons with opposite spins? I'd be interested to know carbon and nitrogen. Is there ...
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80 views

Do electrons only fill 'spin up' first? Or could it start filling 'down spins' first?

Due to Hund's rule, electrons start filling up the orbitals without pairing up. When this is happening, do the electrons all fill up the 'up' spin? Could they fill in the 'down' spin? Why do they ...
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243 views

Are there any negatively charged electrophiles, or simply neutral and positive?

When reading up on electrophilic aromatic substitution, most resources refer to electrophiles as positively-charged species, "in general" or "mostly". What are non-positively charged electrophiles? ...
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What is the bond angle of water?

I have been trying to find out the bond angle of $\ce{H2O}$, but every site I visit has a different answer. So far, I have found the following angles listed: Site 1: 104.4º Site 2: 107.5º OR ...
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Can electrons switch orbitals within a shell?

I know that electrons can move from say 2s orbital to an unoccupied 2p orbital, as in Carbon atom which can form 4 bonds this way. But I want to know is it possible for an electron say in orbital 2p ...
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124 views

Reduce chlorine gas

I have a simple electrolysis setup which uses aqueous sodium chloride as electrolyte. The problem is that, the setup makes tons of chlorine gas along with hydrogen (I only want hydrogen). I didn't ...
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Why is chloride oxidised instead of water in copper chloride electrolysis?

For the Electrolysis of Copper Chloride: Cathode: $\ce{Cu^{2+} + 2e- <=> Cu}$ Anode: $\ce{2Cl <=> Cl2 + 2e- }$ I am confused about the reaction taking place at the anode. Wouldn't ...
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How can two electrons lie together in an orbital?

Two electron of opposite spin can lie in a single orbital.. But what about the electron-electron repulsion. Okay! I got that the nuclear charge rather the large Z-effective overcome this repulsion by ...
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Inventor of CRT?

Let's cut to the chase. I've been researching through numerous, reliable and unreliable, resources. According to the CRT official site and wiki, the first CRT( cathode ray tube) was invented by Carl ...
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In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge?

The problem is : In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge? SCl2 ,, HCl ,, BrCl ,, OCl2 ,, before I go through how I will solve this problem .. There is ...
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What is the difference between a coefficient and a subscript in a chemical equation?

Observe the following parts of an electron transfer equation: The first equation says Li with a small subscript 2, however the second one says Al with a coefficient 2 instead of $\ce{Al_2}$. Can ...