The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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What is the purpose of the solution in a galvanic cell?

In other words: What is the purpose of the solution that the electrodes are immersed in, in a galvanic cell, and is it possible to generate a current without any solution?
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24 views

Rate the following ions by their stability [on hold]

Rate the following ions by their stability: ($\ce{N2}$)+ ($\ce{NO}$)+ ($\ce{CN}$)+ ($\ce{He2}$)+ ($\ce{Cl2}$)+ Can you provide with molecular orbital diagrams for the above ions as well?
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2answers
72 views

Formation of species in electrolysis

I understand the principles of electrolysis of salts in aqueous solutions, but there are two points on which i am unsure. At the positive electrode, how can you work out which ions will ...
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2answers
33 views

Energy of photons emitted by de-excitation of electrons

When an electron of an atom returns from an excited state to the ground state, it emits energy in the form of a photon. How does the change in energy level compare to the energy of the emitted photon? ...
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1answer
65 views

By using the magnetic susceptibility, calculate the number of unpaired elections in the complex

I'm having trouble making sense of this answer. I believe I am doing all the steps right, but my main concern is that I am not arriving at a whole number. If my answer is correct, should I just round ...
4
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37 views

How did Millikan measure the mass of these oil droplets?

I was reading the R.A. Millikan's oil drop experiment and the following part confused me:- "By measuring the rate of fall, Millikan was able to measure the fall of the oil droplets (which were dropped ...
6
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1answer
79 views

Velocity of electrons ejected from Cl atom

When neutral $\ce{Cl}$ atoms are bombarded by high energy photons, causing ejection of electrons, which subshells' ejected electrons will have highest velocity? I chose $1s$ because I thought more ...
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1answer
158 views

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds?

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds? Or could an inner shell create a bond under some conditions?
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54 views

Bromine with 10 electrons

On a test question, my organic chemistry professor gave us a really big molecule and told us to give list the formal charges on each atom. There was a $\ce{Br}$ with 3 lone pairs and a double bond to ...
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1answer
47 views

Why is energy released as electrons move?

Why is it that energy is released from electrons when they move from one atom to a more electronegative one?
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21 views

Is one electron spin preferred over the other in filling of orbitals? [duplicate]

When filling an orbital diagram of an atom, usually the up-spin is filled first and then the down-spin. For example, for Nitrogen, we have : But in a model in which up-spin electron is preferred ...
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2answers
64 views

How many electrons does each shell hold?

why some times 2nd shell onward it can hold 8 electrons and other times it is like they can hold K2 L8 M18 N32? when do i have to use first method(K2 L8 M8 N8) and when to use second method (k2 L8 ...
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65 views

Quantum Numbers and Ions

How do quantum numbers change for ions? A sample question: Give the set of four quantum numbers that could represent the electron lost to form the Rb ION from the Rb atom. The answer given is n=5; ...
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27 views

How was it determined that the electron observed in the cathode ray experiments was the same particle that gave an atom its balancing negative charge?

How was it determined that the electron observed in the cathode ray experiments was the same particle that gave an atom its balancing negative charge? Couldn't there have been an entirely different ...
3
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1answer
62 views

Structure of a Metal in gas phase

If we have a metal in gas phase. Suppose lets say Aluminum. Aluminum has delocalised electrons. There is Al cation -electron attraction in it. Its easier to visualize Al atomic structure in solid ...
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0answers
29 views

Ionisation Energy (removal of electron) [closed]

My question is: Relate the ease of removal of an electron to the charge on the most stable ion formed by the element?
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1answer
41 views

Show that there can be 18 electrons in a “g” subshell

I'm learning about quantum numbers right now, and I can't figure out how to calculate the number of electrons in each shell without memorizing it. Is there a formula to find the possible numbers of ...
5
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1answer
122 views

Do multielectron atoms have nodes?

For hydrogen, other than in the 1s state, the electron wavefunctions have radial and/or angular nodes where the electron probability density is zero. In helium or further atoms with more than one ...
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2answers
158 views

How fast do electrons move around the nucleus?

Electrons, as we all know, are incredibly small. Smaller things do tend to move faster, right? So exactly how fast considering how small they are? Also, does the electonegativity between two atoms ...
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52 views

Why does the definition of ionisation energy only include gaseous atoms?

I know that in physics there is thermionic emission and the photoelectric effect. These are both method of removing electrons. I think these affects are only for metals due to their de-localized ...
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2answers
496 views

Why is zinc more reactive than copper?

In terms of electronegativity, from what I understand electronegativity increases going across the period, so surely this should mean that zinc less readily loses its outer shell electrons than ...
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1answer
13 views

What is the direction of charge transfer between Aluminum and aliphatic amines physisorbed on top?

Is there dipole formation upon physisorption of an aliphatic amine to an aluminum substrate? What is the charge transfer direction? What if the aluminum substrate is clean, surface oxidized or covered ...
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1answer
19 views

Why does ionization violate the stable or lowest energy rule in atoms?

Electrons that fill orbitals always do so in such a way that the resulting structure has the lowest energy state possible, though there are anomalies like chromium and so on. But ionization no ...
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1answer
45 views

The anode and cathode when corrosion happens

Let's say $\ce{Fe}$ reacts with $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$ ions. $\ce{Fe}$ would oxidize and therefore give electrons to $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$so that: $$\ce{Fe-> Fe^{2+} +2e-}$$ $$\ce{Cu^{2+} +2e^- ->Cu}$$ The ...
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1answer
121 views

NO linear vs bent - valence electron

I'd like to count the total valence electron of following neutral complex in the ionic counting (=donor-pair): $\ce{Cl-}$ : 6e $\ce{CH3-}$: 2e $\ce{PPh3}$: 2e gives 10e from these three ligands ...
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1answer
179 views

Electronegativity and HCl and HF molecules

In a book I am reading, it is said In the $\ce{HCl}$ molecule, the shared pair of electrons spend more time nearer the chlorine atom. In the $\ce{HF}$ molecule, the shared electrons spend more ...
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1answer
57 views

How does an atom get rid of electrons? [closed]

I know that if an atom has 4 electrons in its outer shell it will share 4 with other atoms to have a full valence shell. But what if the atom only has 3? I understand that it will likely get rid of ...
3
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1answer
54 views

Is it possible to calculate atomic radius with electron configuration?

I need to know whether is it possible to calculate the atomic radius according to the number of electrons and electron configuration. Or is there any way to calculate the atomic radius using common ...
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2answers
173 views

What causes the colour when conducting flame tests on solid salts?

The normal technique for flame tests is to dip a clean nichrome or platinum wire into a solution of the relevant salt, and observe the resulting flame colour when inserting the wire into a ...
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2answers
49 views

Is shielding of electrons really best described as shielding or is it really Coulombic repulsion between electrons?

For example, take the 2s electron in lithium - is the reason that it's ionisation energy is lower than would be expected if "shielding" didn't occur at all because the 1s electrons shield the ...
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1answer
55 views

Do Palladium(II) Chloride and Palladium (III) Chloride follow 18-Electron rule or octet rule? How to determine this?

Does $\ce{PdCl2}$ follow 18-Electron rule or octet rule? How should we determine this? http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/24290#section=Top ...
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0answers
52 views

First ionization energy of hydrogen molecule

If we have the dissociation's energies of hydrogen molecule $\ce{H_{2}}$($D_{0}$) and the corresponding molecule ion $\ce{H_{2}^{+}}$ ($D_{1}$) together with the first energy of ionization of hydrogen ...
5
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1answer
44 views

Is it possible for Hydrogen to lose its electron?

I know the basics of Chemistry and one thing I've always wondered if it is possible for Hydrogen to give up it's one electron? I know Hydrogen is eager to share its election through covalent bonds, ...
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1answer
112 views

Is the smallest or largest diameter important for the color of a molecule?

I learned that phenol absorbs longer wavelengths than benzene because the electron cloud is bigger. But what is about Penta-1,2,3,4-tetrien (1) and 2,2,-Dimethylpropane (2)? (1) has the largest ...
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1answer
26 views

What physical properties are manifested when an electron leaves Na and moves to Cl to form an ionic bond?

When an ionic bond is formed between Na and Cl, the lone electron in Sodium's outer shell leaves, and completes Chlorines outer shell. Are there any physical characteristics that I can use as an ...
2
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1answer
53 views

Periodic trends: why is effect of protons greater than electrons?

Why is it that adding protons has a greater effect than electron-electron repulsion on periodic trends like atomic radius and ionization energy (assuming # of shells constant)? It seems that if ...
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2answers
56 views

Electron shell, how do they know it?

I started to learn Chemistry with something like Hydrogen having 1 electron in the first shell, Oxygen having 2 electron in the first shell and 6 electron in the second shell... But I don't really ...
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1answer
78 views

Calculating energy level from wavelength

The transition of an electron from a higher level to a lower level results in the emission of a photon of wavelength 350.0 nm. If the energy of the higher level is -3.24 x 10-19 J, calculate the ...
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1answer
144 views

Can protons be swapped in a chemical reaction?

Can the protons of two elements be swapped in a chemical reaction?
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2answers
93 views

Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?

I know that for atoms with big values of Z, relativistic effects have to be applied. Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?
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2answers
336 views

What should the Rehm-Weller equation look like?

The Rehm-Weller equation, which defines the energy change for photoinduced electron transfer according to Lakowicz "Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy" should look like: $\Delta ...
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1answer
110 views

Isoelectronic Species - F2 and HCl

Why isn't F2 and HCl not isoelectronic? H - 1 Cl - 17 F - 9 F2 = 2 * 9 = 18 HCl = 1 + 17 = 18 Thanks
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66 views

Doubt on Photoelectric effect

In the experiment to conduct photoelectric effect a clean metal was irradiated by monochromatic light of proper frequency, electrons are emitted. Why was monochromatic light used in the experiment? ...
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1answer
162 views

How are cathode rays produced?

Why cathode rays are produced if pressure of the gas discharge tube is lowered to about $10^{-4}$ atm? How bombardment of glass of gas discharge tube from cathode ray result in a faint glow?
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2answers
59 views

Electron affinity

Concerning the liberation of energy when an atom that is close to the configuration of a noble gas: Where does the energy dissipated from an atom upon receiving an electron come from?
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1answer
76 views

Orbital angular momentum

For hydrogen atom, L^2 and Lz can be obtained as eigenvalues for a particular wave function. But that does not completely specify the angular momentum vector. How to get about this problem? Also, in ...
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2answers
10k views

Difference between shells, subshells and orbitals

What are the definitions of these three things and how are they related? I've tried looking online but there is no concrete answer online for this question.
3
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1answer
81 views

How does bombarding a molecule with electrons cause ionization?

I am a chemistry student, and my current are of study is mass spectrometry. In the ionization process, atoms are bombarded with electrons, but how does this work? I assume the flow of electrons ...
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1answer
52 views

Electron interference

Assuming that electrons behave as both waves and particles, and that waves(like in double slit experiment) can interfere with themselves: Do electrons actually move in any direction, or do they just ...
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1answer
45 views

Can the electron configuration of Te be written that way?

Normally, the electron configuration of Te is known as: $$\begin{aligned} {[Kr]} 5s^2 \ce{4d^10} 5p^4 \end{aligned}$$ Then, one day I was asked in a exam if this can be written also as: ...