The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
0answers
26 views

Do the delocalised electrons orbit the nucleus? [on hold]

This question already has an answer on physics.se: Is the sea of electrons in a metal at rest when the metal is in electrostatic equilibrium? Do the delocalized electrons orbit around the nucleus ...
4
votes
2answers
81 views

In Chemistry, is it possible to use the old representation of the atom as a nucleus surrounded by orbiting particles?

In Physics, Newton's laws are enough for many applications. Sometimes, relativity must be used instead or complementary, and sometimes, Quantum Mechanics. Is this the same case with Chemistry? Are ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

What is pairing energy of electrons?

What exactly is pairing energy when electrons are paired in orbitals and what is responsible for it.
3
votes
3answers
336 views

What does it mean by 'photons of higher intensity'?

I found an Assertion and Reason question related to transition energy in Bohr's orbits. Assertion In the H-atom, photons of higher intensity are emitted when electron falls from the 2nd to 1st orbit ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Determination of initial excited state via luminescence

A one electron species initially in the some excited state ($n_i$) is irradiated with a light of wavelength 121 nm when the electron is promoted to a further higher orbit ($n_f$). In ...
0
votes
1answer
14 views

How do you know if electron is deexciting or exciting itself?

I got a question which goes like this: According to Bohr's theory, the electronic energy of H-atom in the n th Bohr's orbit is given by $$E_n=\frac{-21.7*10^{-12}}{n^2}J$$ Calculate the longest ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

Stability of Bohr Orbits

In class we had been taught that Rutherford's model was unsuccessful because it failed to show that the orbits are stable because the electrons would loose energy because of electromagnetic ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Excitation of an electron of H-atom from n=2 to any $n_2 $

I got taught that if an electron de-excites from any $n_2 $(where $n_2 >3$) to $n=2$, the energy change can be represented by $$\Delta E=13.6\left(\frac{1}{n_1^2}-\frac{1}{n_2^2}\right)\ \mathrm{...
4
votes
1answer
97 views

What is meant by 'electrons of like/unlike rotation'?

Explaining the reasons behind electron repulsion, Radiochemistry asserts that, Interelectronic repulsion in related not just to electron pairing, but also to [the] angular momentum of the ...
5
votes
0answers
76 views

How does entanglement explain myoglobin's preference for O₂?

I was reading an article about the myoglobin's unusual preference for O2 than CO, in which I found: It turns out that some electrons in the myoglobin involved in binding CO and O2 exhibit a ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Can an Ion Isotope exist?

My question is simple, Can an isotope have a charge? i.e the number of protons and electrons defer in that atom. If it does exists, Is it right to call it an Ion Isotope? (or Isotope Ion) Thanks in ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Wavelength of an electron removed from an atom of hydrogen

I have the following exercise: Determine the wavelength of an electron removed from an atom of hydrogen, in gas state, by a photon of wavelength of 45 nm. So what I immediately thought was to ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Anions produce flame colour?

I know that flame tests can be used to distinguish between some metal ions, and that the colours come from excited electrons returning to the ground state. My question is, why don't non-metal anions ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Inert Pair Effect Anomalies? [closed]

Why wouldn't the s and p orbitals of the penultimate shell in large atoms like Bismuth be able to shield the d and f orbitals of the valence shell from the effect of the nucleus hence shielding the s ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Doubt about Rutherford's experiment

In Rutherford's experiment to show the existence of nucleus in an atom, the alpha-particles were exposed on the surface of certain metal i.e. gold. He observed that more than 99% of these particles ...
0
votes
2answers
78 views

What is the reason why protons and electrons do not collide?

can someone give me an intuitive picture of why electrons don't collide with protons? I know that electrons move in a sort of cloud, which is our 'orbital', and that they mainly behave like ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Why isn't 4s1 electron of Chromium the last electron?

I know that to aid the symmetry of singly occupied orbitals one electron jumps from 4s orbital to 3d orbital thus giving Chromium the configuration 3d5 4s1. But my question is, when we're evaluating ...
-2
votes
1answer
230 views

Why does Sulfur have 12 valence electrons in the Sulfate ion? [duplicate]

So I am completely and utterly confused about why sulfur has 12 valence electrons. I understand in it's configuration, it has 2 electrons for the 3s subshell, and 4 electrons from its 3p subshell, and ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

What is generally meant by distinct line spectrum?

In a single hydrogen atom the electron is excited to 6th orbit. The book says maximum 5 distinct spectral lines are possible when the electron comes to the ground state. Looks like they have only ...
5
votes
1answer
79 views

Why is oxygen paramagnetic?

Paramagnetic molecules are molecules that have single electrons. When I draw the lewis structure of $\ce{O2}$, it appears to be a diamagnetic structure. What makes it paramagnetic?
2
votes
0answers
25 views

In a galvanic cell where the two electrodes are in the same electrolyte solution, why do reduction and oxidation occur separately?

In a certain book, I was presented with the following solution: An iron nail is attached by a piece of wire to a magnesium ribbon, and the iron and magnesium are placed into the same container, with ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

What chemical properties that allow for colour exist in the dark?

Of course if there's no light around, there's no colour that you can see. On the other hand, the wall must have some property that makes it be blue. That property is still there in the dark. — ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Relationship between ionization energy and orbitals

My chemistry book says that the ionization energy depends on the orbital an electron is taken from? I'm not sure I understand what it means. Could someone please explain this?
1
vote
0answers
16 views

How to analysis the amount of reactive oxygen atom in specific molecules

From a Phd dissertation here, I read about the material follows: "Odd oxygen is a measure of oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. It contains species with an oxygen atom avaliable to serve as ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Electron movement in OLEDs and DSSCs

I was looking at the movement of charge carriers in OLED devices vs DSSCs and I was a bit confused. In DSSCs (http://www.intechopen.com/source/html/48769/media/fig2.png) the driving force seems to ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Model of a particle in a linear box

I'm briefly studying the model of a particle in a linear box when we have a chain of insaturated carbons... I have a chain with 3 bonds and 4 atoms of carbon. Applying the expression $\lambda = \...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Is a substance's band gap related to it's flame test colour?

This is really not my field at all, but I am intruiged by the cause of different metals emitting different wavelengths of light. To my knowledge, the more energy needed to "excite" an electron, the ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Excitation of electrons

IF an electron is excited, what can it do? Dissipate the energy to the object, emit another photon? IF a photon hits an object and NO electron is excited, what happened there? What are the possible ...
4
votes
0answers
67 views

If d-electrons are such poor shielders, why do trends increase more gradually across the d-block than the s or p-block?

If I understand correctly, the shielding effect of d- (and f-) electrons seems to be much poorer than those of s- and p-electrons, due to the fact that they are less penetrating, have less electron ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

structure of an electrochemical cell

in an electric circuit voltmeter is installed parallel , since it has a very big resistance and in the ideal form it s resistance is + infinite, but in chemistry, in electric cells, we install ...
0
votes
2answers
46 views

Are electron orbitals in a helium atom degenerate?

In a hydrogen atom, the presence of only one electron allows various orbitals' energy states to be dependent only on the principal quantum number and not on angular momentum. Orbital degeneracy and ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How to assign charges? [duplicate]

I know this may sound naive but this is actually confusing me : I was seeing the structure of Borax and see that the Borons (which actually needs only 3 bonds) that form 4 bonds are shown with a ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Electron's negative charge, and electricity

In my understanding, electrons carry a negative charge. However, since electricity is a flow of electrons, how can this work? Wouldn't a flow of electrons mean "negative electricity"? Also, if protons ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Delocalised electron in graphite

I have a question regarding the delocalised electron in graphite. There has been conflicting information between books. Some books said the delocalised electron in graphite exists $\bf{between}$ ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Current in a galvanic cell

I was looking through chemistry textbooks to find out how to determine how much current a galvanic cell should generate and what affects that current value. However, I did not find anything: textbooks ...
1
vote
2answers
118 views

Electrolysis of Water: Overvoltage?

I've heard from a few sources that over-voltage in a electrolysis cell for water will cause a greater heat buildup with no yield. Is this true, and if it is, why is it true? From my electronics ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Placement of Electrodes for Electrochemistry?

I'm kind of curious as to the relationship between resistance and the yield of electrochemical methods. If I have my electrodes rather close together in a conductive solution the resistance will be ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

Question about Electrical Potentials and mols of electrons transferred

Given 2 half-cell rxn's and their potentials, balance the full cell and solve for ECell: $$Fe^{3+} + e^{-} ->Fe^{2+}; E=0.68V$$ $$Cr_2O_7^{2-}+14H^++6e^--> 2Cr^{3-}+7H_2O;E=1.33V$$ So I know ...
12
votes
1answer
112 views

Photoionisation microscopy of hydrogen - where are the p orbitals?

In this Physics Review Letters article, which was published in 2013, but I found recently, the authors report photoionisation microscopy images of hydrogen atoms in various electronic states. A. ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Pauli-forbidden term symbols for atomic carbon

Carbon has a $\mathrm{p^2}$ configuration, and within the Russell-Saunders coupling scheme, we have $$\begin{align} s_1 = s_2 &= \frac{1}{2} & S &= 1,0 \\ l_1 = l_2 &= 1 & L &=...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Electrolytic Conductivity v Metallic Conductivity in a galvanic cell

I am analyzing the current output of a galvanic cell with aluminum electrode in aluminum sulfate solution and platinum electrode in acetic acid solution. What I am confused about is whether molar ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How to calculate the energy of each electron transiction level , bohr

What does the Z on -2,18x10^18xZ^2 / n^2 means? I want to calculate the energy of each level on the transiction of the electron using that formula .
1
vote
3answers
120 views

Why does increasing orbital energy mean an electron can be more easily lost?

Why is the higher the orbital energy, the easier the electron lost? Also, if the distance between the electron and nucleus is getting father,the electronegativity is getting weaker, the electron is ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

How do we see coordination complex colors?

The color of a coordination complex can be predicted using the Crystal Field Theory. The basic principle involved in this is that complexes absorb certain wavelengths of light and transmit the other ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Trends in conductivity in groups 1 and 2

I have read that the trend for conductivity in groups 1 and 2 is a decrease down the groups (generally). Apparently this is because the atoms of each element get larger, so while the number of ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

Problem with photoelectric effect

Here is the problem: A metal received light with wavelength $300~\mathrm{nm}$ in experiment A and light with wavelength $500~\mathrm{nm}$ in experiment B. In one experiment the electron speed was ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Partial Coverage During Zinc Plating Bath

I am experiencing partial coverage of a part during a DIY home zinc plating operation and was hoping someone here may be able to identify the cause of this. I am using a solution of household vinegar ...
0
votes
0answers
106 views

Why does the electronic distribution of Calcium is 2,8,8,2 when 3rd shell(M shell) can hold 18 electrons?

I know by the formula 2n^2, the total no. of electrons in K, L, M, N shells are 2, 8, 18, 32 respectively. But here electronic configuration of Calcium is not correct if we go solely by this formula. ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Aromaticity & delocalization of electrons

Are these Anti aromatic/aromatic or non aromatic? 1. Here, if we were to consider the resonating structure(s) with charge separation One ring is aromatic and other is anti aromatic, and ...
1
vote
0answers
121 views

Anomalous Electronic Configuration of Thorium

The electronic configuration of thorium ($Z=90$) is $5\mathrm f^0 6\mathrm d^2 7\mathrm s^2$. But, according to the aufbau principle, the electrons should first enter the $\mathrm f$ subshell and not ...