The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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What is meant by 'electrons of like/unlike rotation'?

Explaining the reasons behind electron repulsion, Radiochemistry asserts that, Interelectronic repulsion in related not just to electron pairing, but also to [the] angular momentum of the ...
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64 views

How does entanglement explain myoglobin's preference for O₂?

I was reading an article about the myoglobin's unusual preference for O2 than CO, in which I found: It turns out that some electrons in the myoglobin involved in binding CO and O2 exhibit a ...
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45 views

Can an Ion Isotope exist?

My question is simple, Can an isotope have a charge? i.e the number of protons and electrons defer in that atom. If it does exists, Is it right to call it an Ion Isotope? (or Isotope Ion) Thanks in ...
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30 views

Wavelength of an electron removed from an atom of hydrogen

I have the following exercise: Determine the wavelength of an electron removed from an atom of hydrogen, in gas state, by a photon of wavelength of 45 nm. So what I immediately thought was to ...
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51 views

Anions produce flame colour?

I know that flame tests can be used to distinguish between some metal ions, and that the colours come from excited electrons returning to the ground state. My question is, why don't non-metal anions ...
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19 views

Inert Pair Effect Anomalies? [closed]

Why wouldn't the s and p orbitals of the penultimate shell in large atoms like Bismuth be able to shield the d and f orbitals of the valence shell from the effect of the nucleus hence shielding the s ...
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59 views

Doubt about Rutherford's experiment

In Rutherford's experiment to show the existence of nucleus in an atom, the alpha-particles were exposed on the surface of certain metal i.e. gold. He observed that more than 99% of these particles ...
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2answers
75 views

What is the reason why protons and electrons do not collide?

can someone give me an intuitive picture of why electrons don't collide with protons? I know that electrons move in a sort of cloud, which is our 'orbital', and that they mainly behave like ...
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1answer
75 views

Why isn't 4s1 electron of Chromium the last electron?

I know that to aid the symmetry of singly occupied orbitals one electron jumps from 4s orbital to 3d orbital thus giving Chromium the configuration 3d5 4s1. But my question is, when we're evaluating ...
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139 views

Why does Sulfur have 12 valence electrons in the Sulfate ion? [duplicate]

So I am completely and utterly confused about why sulfur has 12 valence electrons. I understand in it's configuration, it has 2 electrons for the 3s subshell, and 4 electrons from its 3p subshell, and ...
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1answer
19 views

What is generally meant by distinct line spectrum?

In a single hydrogen atom the electron is excited to 6th orbit. The book says maximum 5 distinct spectral lines are possible when the electron comes to the ground state. Looks like they have only ...
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73 views

Why is oxygen paramagnetic?

Paramagnetic molecules are molecules that have single electrons. When I draw the lewis structure of $\ce{O2}$, it appears to be a diamagnetic structure. What makes it paramagnetic?
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25 views

In a galvanic cell where the two electrodes are in the same electrolyte solution, why do reduction and oxidation occur separately?

In a certain book, I was presented with the following solution: An iron nail is attached by a piece of wire to a magnesium ribbon, and the iron and magnesium are placed into the same container, with ...
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63 views

What chemical properties that allow for colour exist in the dark?

Of course if there's no light around, there's no colour that you can see. On the other hand, the wall must have some property that makes it be blue. That property is still there in the dark. — ...
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22 views

Relationship between ionization energy and orbitals

My chemistry book says that the ionization energy depends on the orbital an electron is taken from? I'm not sure I understand what it means. Could someone please explain this?
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16 views

How to analysis the amount of reactive oxygen atom in specific molecules

From a Phd dissertation here, I read about the material follows: "Odd oxygen is a measure of oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. It contains species with an oxygen atom avaliable to serve as ...
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13 views

Electron movement in OLEDs and DSSCs

I was looking at the movement of charge carriers in OLED devices vs DSSCs and I was a bit confused. In DSSCs (http://www.intechopen.com/source/html/48769/media/fig2.png) the driving force seems to ...
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25 views

Model of a particle in a linear box

I'm briefly studying the model of a particle in a linear box when we have a chain of insaturated carbons... I have a chain with 3 bonds and 4 atoms of carbon. Applying the expression $\lambda = \...
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64 views

Is a substance's band gap related to it's flame test colour?

This is really not my field at all, but I am intruiged by the cause of different metals emitting different wavelengths of light. To my knowledge, the more energy needed to "excite" an electron, the ...
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23 views

Excitation of electrons

IF an electron is excited, what can it do? Dissipate the energy to the object, emit another photon? IF a photon hits an object and NO electron is excited, what happened there? What are the possible ...
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67 views

If d-electrons are such poor shielders, why do trends increase more gradually across the d-block than the s or p-block?

If I understand correctly, the shielding effect of d- (and f-) electrons seems to be much poorer than those of s- and p-electrons, due to the fact that they are less penetrating, have less electron ...
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19 views

structure of an electrochemical cell

in an electric circuit voltmeter is installed parallel , since it has a very big resistance and in the ideal form it s resistance is + infinite, but in chemistry, in electric cells, we install ...
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2answers
43 views

Are electron orbitals in a helium atom degenerate?

In a hydrogen atom, the presence of only one electron allows various orbitals' energy states to be dependent only on the principal quantum number and not on angular momentum. Orbital degeneracy and ...
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12 views

How to assign charges? [duplicate]

I know this may sound naive but this is actually confusing me : I was seeing the structure of Borax and see that the Borons (which actually needs only 3 bonds) that form 4 bonds are shown with a ...
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20 views

Electron's negative charge, and electricity

In my understanding, electrons carry a negative charge. However, since electricity is a flow of electrons, how can this work? Wouldn't a flow of electrons mean "negative electricity"? Also, if protons ...
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83 views

Delocalised electron in graphite

I have a question regarding the delocalised electron in graphite. There has been conflicting information between books. Some books said the delocalised electron in graphite exists $\bf{between}$ ...
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77 views

Current in a galvanic cell

I was looking through chemistry textbooks to find out how to determine how much current a galvanic cell should generate and what affects that current value. However, I did not find anything: textbooks ...
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113 views

Electrolysis of Water: Overvoltage?

I've heard from a few sources that over-voltage in a electrolysis cell for water will cause a greater heat buildup with no yield. Is this true, and if it is, why is it true? From my electronics ...
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1answer
39 views

Placement of Electrodes for Electrochemistry?

I'm kind of curious as to the relationship between resistance and the yield of electrochemical methods. If I have my electrodes rather close together in a conductive solution the resistance will be ...
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1answer
34 views

Question about Electrical Potentials and mols of electrons transferred

Given 2 half-cell rxn's and their potentials, balance the full cell and solve for ECell: $$Fe^{3+} + e^{-} ->Fe^{2+}; E=0.68V$$ $$Cr_2O_7^{2-}+14H^++6e^--> 2Cr^{3-}+7H_2O;E=1.33V$$ So I know ...
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110 views

Photoionisation microscopy of hydrogen - where are the p orbitals?

In this Physics Review Letters article, which was published in 2013, but I found recently, the authors report photoionisation microscopy images of hydrogen atoms in various electronic states. A. ...
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1answer
40 views

Pauli-forbidden term symbols for atomic carbon

Carbon has a $\mathrm{p^2}$ configuration, and within the Russell-Saunders coupling scheme, we have $$\begin{align} s_1 = s_2 &= \frac{1}{2} & S &= 1,0 \\ l_1 = l_2 &= 1 & L &=...
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20 views

Electrolytic Conductivity v Metallic Conductivity in a galvanic cell

I am analyzing the current output of a galvanic cell with aluminum electrode in aluminum sulfate solution and platinum electrode in acetic acid solution. What I am confused about is whether molar ...
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20 views

How to calculate the energy of each electron transiction level , bohr

What does the Z on -2,18x10^18xZ^2 / n^2 means? I want to calculate the energy of each level on the transiction of the electron using that formula .
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Why does increasing orbital energy mean an electron can be more easily lost?

Why is the higher the orbital energy, the easier the electron lost? Also, if the distance between the electron and nucleus is getting father,the electronegativity is getting weaker, the electron is ...
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40 views

How do we see coordination complex colors?

The color of a coordination complex can be predicted using the Crystal Field Theory. The basic principle involved in this is that complexes absorb certain wavelengths of light and transmit the other ...
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16 views

Trends in conductivity in groups 1 and 2

I have read that the trend for conductivity in groups 1 and 2 is a decrease down the groups (generally). Apparently this is because the atoms of each element get larger, so while the number of ...
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61 views

Problem with photoelectric effect

Here is the problem: A metal received light with wavelength $300~\mathrm{nm}$ in experiment A and light with wavelength $500~\mathrm{nm}$ in experiment B. In one experiment the electron speed was ...
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1answer
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Partial Coverage During Zinc Plating Bath

I am experiencing partial coverage of a part during a DIY home zinc plating operation and was hoping someone here may be able to identify the cause of this. I am using a solution of household vinegar ...
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85 views

Why does the electronic distribution of Calcium is 2,8,8,2 when 3rd shell(M shell) can hold 18 electrons?

I know by the formula 2n^2, the total no. of electrons in K, L, M, N shells are 2, 8, 18, 32 respectively. But here electronic configuration of Calcium is not correct if we go solely by this formula. ...
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66 views

Aromaticity & delocalization of electrons

Are these Anti aromatic/aromatic or non aromatic? 1. Here, if we were to consider the resonating structure(s) with charge separation One ring is aromatic and other is anti aromatic, and ...
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84 views

Anomalous Electronic Configuration of Thorium

The electronic configuration of thorium ($Z=90$) is $5\mathrm f^0 6\mathrm d^2 7\mathrm s^2$. But, according to the aufbau principle, the electrons should first enter the $\mathrm f$ subshell and not ...
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22 views

Chemical energy + energy of electrons

The amount of energy released in a chemical reaction is equal to variation of the enthalpy of this system (In general). The energy released is usually is in form of light and heat. When light is ...
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20 views

How do I calculate the valence(y) of an element, knowing it's valence electrons [duplicate]

How do I calculate the valence(y) of an transition metal or just any element in the periodic table? I know it has something to do with valence electrons(The electrons in the outer most shell, right?), ...
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1answer
140 views

Can carbon and titanium bond?

Can carbon and titanium form an ionic bond, because the both have 4 valence electrons? Like so:
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1answer
34 views

Why does ionization increase from Li to Be? [duplicate]

If ionization energy decreases from $\ce{N}$ to $\ce{O}$ due to the pairing of electrons (causing electric repulsion and greater potential energy) in the $\mathrm{2p}$ orbital in the $\ce{O}$ atom, ...
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2answers
481 views

How many bonds can Hydrogen make?

Recently I saw a video which told me that Hydrogen has a valency of 1, i.e, Hydrogen can only bond with 1 other atom. But since hydrogen wants a complete shell, it can have 2 covalent bonds with 2 ...
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11 views

Why do some of the transition metals go from 4s2 to 4s1 down the line [duplicate]

I was looking at the periodic table and found for instance that Cu (copper) has an equation of [Ar] 4s1 3d10. Why would this be the case? Why is the 3d orbital filling up completely before the 4s ...
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26 views

Valence electrons in compounds with more than four bonds [duplicate]

Say you have $\ce{SF6}$, if the $\ce{S}$ goes in the center of a Lewis Structure Diagram, it would automatically have at least 12 electrons as it would have to form bonds with all of them... how does ...