The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Is this Hess's Law Electrochemistry question incorrect?

It is my understanding that to apply Hess' Law to this equation the top equation sign would be reversed and the outcome would be +0.65 V. Often the system produces incorrect answers. I was looking ...
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41 views

How is the charge of covalently bonded atoms determined?

My question is about what it is - at the subatomic level - that determines the charge on atoms which participate in covalent bonding in reality. I understand that formal charge is just that - it's a ...
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78 views

Balancing redox equation

So I had these two reactions that confused me .. I tried the standard way of balancing it (Putting oxygen number everywhere, +1,+2,-2 etc.) and then go on with it but it didn't work So anyways here ...
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44 views

I am trying to picture how electrons move around in atomic orbitals

Are they thought to continuously pop in and out of existence at various points inside the orbital defined by probabilities or do they follow definite paths that are made fuzzy by the Heisenberg ...
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2answers
56 views

Explanation for the reactions in a saltwater battery with zinc and copper electrodes

I am a physicist, not a chemist. I'm trying to get a basic understanding of the reactions taking place in a battery using a saltwater electrolyte with copper and zinc terminals. I'm writing a general ...
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1answer
39 views

Since aqueous acids release Hydrogen cations into the solution, will an electric current create Hydrogen gas?

I was wondering that since acids dissociate in water to make a lot of $\ce{H+}$ cations. Is it possible that introducing a supply of electrons via an electric current, would create $\ce{H2}$ gas?
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44 views

Reduce sizing of molecule - Oxygen

Can the size of molecule oxygen reduce smaller? If yes, how is that possible? Is it related to proton and electron surrounding the nucleus?
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1answer
32 views

Behavior of NaCl in water with electrodes

If I had some NaCl dissolved in water, it is conductive, so if I were to put two electrodes in the container (powered), what is causing the flow of electrons? Do the NaCl ionic bonds break and the ...
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38 views

MacGyvered chlorine gas protection

I was watching Periodic Video's chlorine video, which discusses Chlorine's ferocity in stripping electrons whenever possible, and the professors mentioned its consequent use in WWII as a chemical ...
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1answer
167 views

Why does the Schroedinger equation for hydrogen atom look like this?

Here is how I saw the Hamiltonian being written in one Quantum Mechanics book: Well, That's all very nice and complicated, but looking at the last term, and seeing the use of $r$ in there, ...
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47 views

How are electrons in conjugated molecules excited? [duplicate]

I have recently started reading about colour in organic molecules and come across conjugation of pi bonds. My question is pretty short... In transition metal ions I understand colour is caused by ...
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2answers
112 views

Why weren't the electrons attracted to doubly charged Helium particles in the Rutherford experiment?

I have a chapter and in it there was a topic on the Rutherford experiment. It is written that doubly charged helium particles or alpha particles were thrown towards a very thin gold foil and some of ...
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78 views

18 electron rule question

Fe(η5-C5H5)2 does not react with hydrogen, but its nickel analogue, Ni(η5-C5H5)2 is readily hydrogenated to give Ni(η5-C5H5)(η3-C5H7). Use the 18 electron rule to explain this behaviour. My answer so ...
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65 views

Could someone please explain the difference between m/z and m/e in mass spectroscopy

The definition: The abbreviation m/z is used to denote the dimensionless quantity formed by dividing the mass number of an ion by its charge number. It has long been called the mass-to-charge ratio ...
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110 views

UV-Visible Spectroscopy in the analysis of sodium chloride in potato chips

Here is the question and answer out of an exam paper: Firstly, I thought UV-Visible can also use radiation in the visible spectrum. Also when analyzing sodium chloride (a molecule), then UV-Visible ...
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61 views
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88 views

Is the valence band neutral?

While studying about band theory of semiconductors, I observed that when the electrons were excited from the valence band to the conduction band, they left behind holes in the valence band. From my ...
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1answer
95 views

Is it possible to compress an atom to infinite density?

I know, by nature, normally atoms are stable. But I wonder, if it is possible to compress an atom, say the Hydrogen atom, to infinite density by applying external force? After all, electrons and ...
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134 views

Lone Pair 'more repulsion' VSPR Theory

I've always been told in chemistry lessons that lone pairs repel more due to a greater charge density than bonding pairs. And that makes sense when steric effects are involved when bond orbitals ...
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837 views

Why only two atoms share an electron and not three?

In a covalent bond between two atoms, an electron from one of the either atom is shared by overlapping of their orbitals. So, Why can't three atoms share an electron and overlap their orbitals?
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Why is the orbital angular momentum of a pi electron along the axis of two atoms' molecule one?

I'm reading quantum chemistry. The book says that the orbital angular momentum of a $\pi$ electron along the symmetry axis of a molecule made up of two atoms is $\pm 1$. I think this is a primary ...
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55 views

Ground state electron configuration of chromium

What is the ground state electron configuration of chromium? Is it [Ar]4s23d4 or Is it [Ar]4s13d5
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Electrons and their affect on the atomic radius [closed]

What happens to the atomic radius when an magnesium atom loses an electron? What happens to the atomic radius when a sodium atom loses an electron?
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1answer
985 views

Why is fluorine the most electronegative atom?

It seems related to the atomic size but hydrogen has a smaller atomic size than fluorine. Why is fluorine the most electronegative atom?
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59 views

Why does helium seem to exhibit an ionization energy affected by the shielding of electrons?

According to Wikipedia, the shielding effect only happen in atoms which have more than 1 electron shells. The core electrons repel the electron in the valence shell. However, I have heard some ...
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50 views

Photoelectric effect and electron loss

I've read that when a certain amount of UV light is shone on a metal surface, electrons are ejected (the photoelectric effect). Are these electrons from the metal atoms themselves? and in case they ...
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1answer
98 views

Why does glass shatter when heat is applied to it?

When I poured hot tea into a cup, the cup shattered after about three seconds. The cup was made of glass. It was pretty thin. How did the glass and the tea react in terms of chemicals. This is a bit ...
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maximum number of electrons each shell

In my textbook it says that the maximum number of electrons that can fit in any given shell, is given by 2n². Which would mean 2 electrons could fit in the first shell , 8 could fit in the 2 shell , ...
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65 views

What's the voltage of a battery?

The definition of voltage I'm familiar with is the amount of electric potential energy per unit charge at a location. My prof defined the voltage of a battery to be the amount of potential energy ...
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138 views

Why do free electrons exist?

Consider the following question: Why are there free electrons in a metal? The answer suggests that conductors have free electrons because the atoms have a weak attraction on the electrons in the ...
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1answer
157 views

How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is ...
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774 views

Is there an easy way to find number of “valence electrons”?

I want an high-school level answer.What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement?(eg. $3$ in an atom with electronic arrangement $2,8,3$) ...
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48 views

Intuition for electrode potential

If I connect a zinc half cell (Left hand side) and a copper half cell (right hand side), I get an E cell value of 1.1V taken from the voltmeter. If I replace the voltmeter with a light bulb, I will ...
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201 views

Electrochemical cell-SRP value

On what basis can the SRP value of different elements in the periodic table be explained? For example why does Cu have a greater tendency to accept an electron and Zn have a tendency to lose electrons ...
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67 views

Doubt in Thomson's atomic model

Why did Thomson assume that electrons are embedded in a positively charged sphere? Why did he not assume that they are positively charged particles embedded in a negatively charged sphere?
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60 views

Why not protons and electrons neutralize in discharge tube experiment?

Here is a question in my science book, I am very curious. Cathode and Anode rays are negatively and positevely charged particles respectively. They travel in a direction opposite to each other. ...
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48 views

Where do the electrons not in the S1 orbital get this “extra energy” from?

In this video, Sal Khan says that an electron reaches a higher energy state if the electron possesses more energy. So I assume that, say in the case of carbon, the electrons not in the S1 orbital have ...
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65 views

Chemical bond-covalent-valence electrons OH-

I would like to ask how many valence electrons took part in creating chemical bond in OH-? Is the minus related to O or to H? Are there any spare valence electrons which didnt take part in creating ...
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93 views

In nuclear chemistry, how does a neutron split to form a proton and an electron?

I'm studying radioisotopes at the moment and balancing nuclear reactions isn't making sense in that more matter is coming out of the equation in negative β decay equations : ...
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49 views

X-ray fluorescence: where do expelled electrons go?

I'm studying the XRF method cause I'm about to use a WDXRF spectrometer at college so I'm getting all the information about the physics and chemistry behind it. I'm just curious about one thing, as ...
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210 views

Are orbitals always filled in from closest to nucleus to farthest away?

On a review sheet for a quiz I have tomorrow, I have a question like this: "In which orbital, 4f or 6s, would an electron have a greater likelihood of being near the nucleus". I figured that the 6s ...
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706 views

Is ionic bond just formed by “electrostatic” interaction between two oppositely charged ions?

According to the definition of ionic bond: An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. If we consider the above ...
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Energy required to remove an electron from He

The energy required to remove both electrons from the helium atom in its ground state is $79.0\;\mathrm{eV}$. The energy required to ionize helium (i.e. to remove one electron) is - (A) ...
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179 views

Prediction of ionic reduction?

Here are some standard electrode potentials:- $$SO_4^{2-} + 4H^+ +2e^-\rightarrow SO_2 +2H_2O\\E^o=0.17V\\ NO_3^-+4H^++3e^-\rightarrow NO+2H_2O\\E^o=0.97V\\ NO_3^-+2H^++e^-\rightarrow ...
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556 views

Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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611 views

How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold?

I was taking a chemistry test and I encountered the following question: How many electrons can an orbital of type f hold? A. 6 B. 10 C. 2 D. 14 E. 1 Since there can be [-ℓ, ℓ] ...
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74 views

Electrode potentials at interfaces?

My questions relates to the fundamental concept of electrochemistry, more specifically the electrode potentials. 1) First, why is there a potential difference at the interface of two phases? ...
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79 views

Is the electronegativity value ever used in calculations, or is it just a number assigned to each element?

Does the electronegativity only qualitatively describe bond polarity, or does it have any quantitative use? Is it possible to describe electronegativity in terms of other periodic properties, like ...
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21k views

Why is it important to use a salt bridge in a voltaic cell? can a wire be used?

I was learning about voltaic cells and came across salt bridges. If the purpose of salt bridge is only to move electrons from electrolyte solution to the other, then why can I not use a wire? Also, ...
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Valence electrons in Helium?

I am having trouble understanding how valence electrons are counted in Helium. My references are: Here where it appears that Helium has 0 valence electrons because the shells are finished Here ...