The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.

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What physical properties are manifested when an electron leaves Na and moves to Cl to form an ionic bond?

When an ionic bond is formed between Na and Cl, the lone electron in Sodium's outer shell leaves, and completes Chlorines outer shell. Are there any physical characteristics that I can use as an ...
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Periodic trends: why is effect of protons greater than electrons?

Why is it that adding protons has a greater effect than electron-electron repulsion on periodic trends like atomic radius and ionization energy (assuming # of shells constant)? It seems that if ...
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58 views

Calculating energy level from wavelength

The transition of an electron from a higher level to a lower level results in the emission of a photon of wavelength 350.0 nm. If the energy of the higher level is -3.24 x 10-19 J, calculate the ...
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114 views

Can protons be swapped in a chemical reaction?

Can the protons of two elements be swapped in a chemical reaction?
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Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?

I know that for atoms with big values of Z, relativistic effects have to be applied. Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?
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72 views

What should the Rehm-Weller equation look like?

The Rehm-Weller equation, which defines the energy change for photoinduced electron transfer according to Lakowicz "Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy" should look like: $\Delta ...
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Isoelectronic Species - F2 and HCl

Why isn't F2 and HCl not isoelectronic? H - 1 Cl - 17 F - 9 F2 = 2 * 9 = 18 HCl = 1 + 17 = 18 Thanks
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53 views

Doubt on Photoelectric effect

In the experiment to conduct photoelectric effect a clean metal was irradiated by monochromatic light of proper frequency, electrons are emitted. Why was monochromatic light used in the experiment? ...
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36 views

How are cathode rays produced?

Why cathode rays are produced if pressure of the gas discharge tube is lowered to about $10^{-4}$ atm? How bombardment of glass of gas discharge tube from cathode ray result in a faint glow?
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45 views

Electron affinity

Concerning the liberation of energy when an atom that is close to the configuration of a noble gas: Where does the energy dissipated from an atom upon receiving an electron come from?
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Orbital angular momentum

For hydrogen atom, L^2 and Lz can be obtained as eigenvalues for a particular wave function. But that does not completely specify the angular momentum vector. How to get about this problem? Also, in ...
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Difference between shells, subshells and orbitals

What are the definitions of these three things and how are they related? I've tried looking online but there is no concrete answer online for this question.
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54 views

How does bombarding a molecule with electrons cause ionization?

I am a chemistry student and am currently studying Mass spectrometry. In the ionization process atoms are bombarded with electrons to ionize them, but how does this work? I assume the electrons ...
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50 views

Electron interference

Assuming that electrons behave as both waves and particles, and that waves(like in double slit experiment) can interfere with themselves: Do electrons actually move in any direction, or do they just ...
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37 views

Can the electron configuration of Te be written that way?

Normally, the electron configuration of Te is known as: $$\begin{aligned} {[Kr]} 5s^2 \ce{4d^10} 5p^4 \end{aligned}$$ Then, one day I was asked in a exam if this can be written also as: ...
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Is my analysis of quantum numbers describing the ground state of At correct?

Which series of quantum numbers describes the highest (energy) occupied orbital in a ground state of At atom? a) n = 6, l = 0 b) n = 6, l = 2 c) n = 5, l = 2 d) n = 4, l = 3 e) n = 6, l = 1 ...
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406 views

Which atom goes in the middle of a lewis dot structure?

I've read online in multiple sites that the least electronegative atom goes in the middle with the exception of H, which always goes on the outside. However, in the molecule NaCN, C is in the middle. ...
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Is Sodium metal more reactive towards an alkyl halide or an alcohol in a protic polar solvent?

Will Sodium metal donate its electrons to bromine in 1,3-dibromopropane or to the hydroxyl group in ethanol in a polar protic solvent? This question comes from a problem: 'What is the major product ...
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103 views

How do electrons travel through nodes

I understand this is a basic question, but I'm having such a hard time wrapping my head around it. I'm trying to avoid thinking about it as an actual "particle" but as a wave, but that confuses me ...
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77 views

How much energy does it cost to have electron configurations that are not in accordance with Hund's rules?

What is a ballpark figure for the difference in energy for an atom that follows Hund's rule vs one that has two electrons with opposite spins? I'd be interested to know carbon and nitrogen. Is there ...
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Do electrons only fill 'spin up' first? Or could it start filling 'down spins' first?

Due to Hund's rule, electrons start filling up the orbitals without pairing up. When this is happening, do the electrons all fill up the 'up' spin? Could they fill in the 'down' spin? Why do they ...
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133 views

Are there any negatively charged electrophiles, or simply neutral and positive?

When reading up on electrophilic aromatic substitution, most resources refer to electrophiles as positively-charged species, "in general" or "mostly". What are non-positively charged electrophiles? ...
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Can electrons switch orbitals within a shell?

I know that electrons can move from say 2s orbital to an unoccupied 2p orbital, as in Carbon atom which can form 4 bonds this way. But I want to know is it possible for an electron say in orbital 2p ...
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119 views

Reduce chlorine gas

I have a simple electrolysis setup which uses aqueous sodium chloride as electrolyte. The problem is that, the setup makes tons of chlorine gas along with hydrogen (I only want hydrogen). I didn't ...
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Why is chloride oxidised instead of water in copper chloride electrolysis?

For the Electrolysis of Copper Chloride: Cathode: $\ce{Cu^{2+} + 2e- <=> Cu}$ Anode: $\ce{2Cl <=> Cl2 + 2e- }$ I am confused about the reaction taking place at the anode. Wouldn't ...
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How can two electrons lie together in an orbital?

Two electron of opposite spin can lie in a single orbital.. But what about the electron-electron repulsion. Okay! I got that the nuclear charge rather the large Z-effective overcome this repulsion by ...
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Inventor of CRT?

Let's cut to the chase. I've been researching through numerous, reliable and unreliable, resources. According to the CRT official site and wiki, the first CRT( cathode ray tube) was invented by Carl ...
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In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge?

The problem is : In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge? SCl2 ,, HCl ,, BrCl ,, OCl2 ,, before I go through how I will solve this problem .. There is ...
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What is the difference between a coefficient and a subscript in a chemical equation?

Observe the following parts of an electron transfer equation: The first equation says Li with a small subscript 2, however the second one says Al with a coefficient 2 instead of $\ce{Al_2}$. Can ...
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Protons or electrons are responsible for chemistry of an atom?

Is the question in a correct form? I can't add anything as a comment. Thank you.
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166 views

Why do unbonded electrons exist in pairs?

Basically the term which we use to refer them is lone pair. In Lewis structure why we represent those unbonded electron in pairs. Like here (structure of SO2) Here if we assume both the unbonded ...
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Why is up spin in the px orbital and down spin in the py orbital considered an excited state?

Why is this form of p orbital occupation an excited state? I understand that there should be one up spin and one down spin in one orbital box by Pauli's exclusion rule. But in the p orbitals, it ...
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707 views

Why is B2 paramagnetic?

Why is B2 paramagnetic? It's just 2 borons with a triple bond between them. Aren't all the electrons paired?
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Bombarding atoms with electron gun?

Just to explain this question in a better way just think about the Rutherford's experiment(the alpha particle bombarded on Gold foil) be conducted using a electron gun in place of the Alpha one.. So ...
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82 views

In this Hess's Law Electrochemistry problem, what am I doing wrong?

It is my understanding that to apply Hess' Law to this equation the top equation sign would be reversed and the outcome would be +0.65 V. Often the system produces incorrect answers. I was looking ...
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119 views

How is the charge of covalently bonded atoms determined?

My question is about what it is - at the subatomic level - that determines the charge on atoms which participate in covalent bonding in reality. I understand that formal charge is just that - it's a ...
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92 views

Balancing redox equation

So I had these two reactions that confused me .. I tried the standard way of balancing it (Putting oxygen number everywhere, +1,+2,-2 etc.) and then go on with it but it didn't work So anyways here ...
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71 views

I am trying to picture how electrons move around in atomic orbitals

Are they thought to continuously pop in and out of existence at various points inside the orbital defined by probabilities or do they follow definite paths that are made fuzzy by the Heisenberg ...
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497 views

Explanation for the reactions in a saltwater battery with zinc and copper electrodes

I am a physicist, not a chemist. I'm trying to get a basic understanding of the reactions taking place in a battery using a saltwater electrolyte with copper and zinc terminals. I'm writing a general ...
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Since aqueous acids release Hydrogen cations into the solution, will an electric current create Hydrogen gas?

I was wondering that since acids dissociate in water to make a lot of $\ce{H+}$ cations. Is it possible that introducing a supply of electrons via an electric current, would create $\ce{H2}$ gas?
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Reduce sizing of molecule - Oxygen

Can the size of molecule oxygen reduce smaller? If yes, how is that possible? Is it related to proton and electron surrounding the nucleus?
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44 views

Behavior of NaCl in water with electrodes

If I had some NaCl dissolved in water, it is conductive, so if I were to put two electrodes in the container (powered), what is causing the flow of electrons? Do the NaCl ionic bonds break and the ...
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42 views

MacGyvered chlorine gas protection

I was watching Periodic Video's chlorine video, which discusses Chlorine's ferocity in stripping electrons whenever possible, and the professors mentioned its consequent use in WWII as a chemical ...
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194 views

Why does the Schroedinger equation for hydrogen atom look like this?

Here is how I saw the Hamiltonian being written in one Quantum Mechanics book: Well, That's all very nice and complicated, but looking at the last term, and seeing the use of $r$ in there, ...
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How are electrons in conjugated molecules excited? [duplicate]

I have recently started reading about colour in organic molecules and come across conjugation of pi bonds. My question is pretty short... In transition metal ions I understand colour is caused by ...
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249 views

Why weren't the electrons attracted to doubly charged Helium particles in the Rutherford experiment?

I have a chapter and in it there was a topic on the Rutherford experiment. It is written that doubly charged helium particles or alpha particles were thrown towards a very thin gold foil and some of ...
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How can the 18 electron rule be used to explain that Fe(η5-C5H5)2 doesn't react with hydrogen but Ni(η5-C5H5)2 does?

Fe(η5-C5H5)2 does not react with hydrogen, but its nickel analogue, Ni(η5-C5H5)2 is readily hydrogenated to give Ni(η5-C5H5)(η3-C5H7). Use the 18 electron rule to explain this behaviour. My answer so ...
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145 views

Could someone please explain the difference between m/z and m/e in mass spectroscopy

The definition: The abbreviation m/z is used to denote the dimensionless quantity formed by dividing the mass number of an ion by its charge number. It has long been called the mass-to-charge ratio ...
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633 views

UV-Visible Spectroscopy in the analysis of sodium chloride in potato chips

Here is the question and answer out of an exam paper: Firstly, I thought UV-Visible can also use radiation in the visible spectrum. Also when analyzing sodium chloride (a molecule), then UV-Visible ...
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