In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Why does the electronic distribution of Calcium is 2,8,8,2 when 3rd shell(M shell) can hold 18 electrons?

I know by the formula 2n^2, the total no. of electrons in K, L, M, N shells are 2, 8, 18, 32 respectively. But here electronic configuration of Calcium is not correct if we go solely by this formula. ...
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Orbitals and Pauli Exclusion Principle without Slater determinants

I'm trying to understand how to apply the pauli exclusion principle to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of molecular structure. Let me preface this by saying I'm not a chemist nor physicist. I'm a ...
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20 views

Anomalous Electronic Configuration of Thorium

The electronic configuration of thorium ($Z=90$) is $5\mathrm f^0 6\mathrm d^2 7\mathrm s^2$. But, according to the aufbau principle, the electrons should first enter the $\mathrm f$ subshell and not ...
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Tungsten 4+ ion magnetism?

I just had a quiz and struggled on a particular question: Tungsten forms a $+4$ ion. It is observed to be diamagnetic. The electron configuration for this ion may not be what you would expect. ...
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Comparing two oxidizing agents using electron configuration

I'm being given the task to choose which oxidizing agent from the pair $K_2IrCl_6/K_2PtCl_6$ is the strongest and explain my answer using their electron configurations. We write the electron ...
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25 views

Why does ionization increase from Li to Be? [duplicate]

If ionization energy decreases from $\ce{N}$ to $\ce{O}$ due to the pairing of electrons (causing electric repulsion and greater potential energy) in the $\mathrm{2p}$ orbital in the $\ce{O}$ atom, ...
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96 views

How many bonds can Hydrogen make?

Recently I saw a video which told me that Hydrogen has a valency of 1, i.e, Hydrogen can only bond with 1 other atom. But since hydrogen wants a complete shell, it can have 2 covalent bonds with 2 ...
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49 views

Chemical reactions and filled orbitals [closed]

If the outermost shell of an atom is fully filled, is it necessary that it will not participate in a chemical reaction? A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of ...
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50 views

Filling orbitals with electrons

Excuse me if this is a duplicate of some question I failed to find. Imagine there is an electron-stripped nucleus with Z protons, in high vacuum and isolated. Then you add electrons, one by one, and ...
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71 views

Which statement is correct about electron orbitals and energy levels?

Which statement is correct about electron orbitals and energy levels? A. Yttrium, $\ce{Y}$ ($Z = 39$) is the first element in the periodic table with an electron in a f sub-level. B. The ...
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87 views

Why ionic radii of Cu2+ is less than Zn2+?

Fully filled orbital has more effective nuclear charge than incompletely filled orbital. So atomic or ionic radii of elements or ions having fully filled orbitals should be less than that of elements ...
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54 views

Calcium reactivity vs electronic configuration

Calcium is an alkaline earth metal, so it is reactive. But, it has two valence electrons. Don't those two electrons fill up the first energy level? Isn't an atom with a full energy level considered ...
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Free radicals vs Hund's rule contradiction?

How do we reconcile these two statements? Formation of electron pairs is energetically favorable. Therefore, free radicals are particularly reactive Hund's rule - it takes energy to pair electrons, ...
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36 views

How are electronic configurations including hybrid orbitals notated?

I know the general scheme for notating electronic configurations is (with s and p orbitals) [noble gas core]nsel.$n$pel. etc., where $n$ is the principal quantum number and el. is the number of ...
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112 views

how to find valency of calcium using spdf electronic configuration [closed]

Electronic configuration of calcium is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2}$. The orbitals are fully filled with electrons so would its valency be two or zero?
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60 views

Pauli's Exclusion Principle

While reading Pauli's Exclusion principal from here, they said that The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that, in an atom or molecule, no two electrons can have the same four electronic quantum ...
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How does the electron configuration of platinum relate to its stability?

Does platinum's electron configuration, [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1, influence its reactivity and stability? Is the electron configuration the primary contributing factor to platinum's relative inertness? ...
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14 views

Why does some copper (I) compound show color? [duplicate]

As far as I know, if the d orbital of a d-block element is fulfilled, then there is no way for electrons to change the orbital and show color. But some of Copper (I) compounds do show color. How is ...
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Why are the 6d and 7s electronic shells are filled in actinium and thorium and not 5f shell?

According to me, lanthanides and actinides form the f-block elements because they have a f orbital. So, while writing the electronic configuration of lanthanides and actinides, electron should ...
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Why tungsten does not have stable configuration? [duplicate]

Whenever there are 4 unpaired electrons in d-orbital, elements try to attain stable electronic configuration. For example copper. Electronic configuration of copper should be [Ar]3d4 4s2, but it ...
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52 views

Transition of electron from HOMO to LUMO?

Molecules usually have certain number of (doubly) occupied molecular orbitals and an infinite number of unoccupied molecular orbitals but the probability of electron makes the orbitals shapes so, how ...
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1answer
111 views

Ionic reaction between lithium and chlorine

I got a weird question in my chemistry book. It says Li and Cl react to form LiCl an ionic compound. Cl has .... electrons in its outermost occupied shell and the answer of the book is 6 electrons . ...
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58 views

Strange valence numbers? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand why ChemReference sometimes lists the valence electrons as a number I don't expect. Take Oxygen, for instance. It should have six valence electrons, however the site lists ...
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Are sp-, sp²- and sp3-hybridizations for carbon compounds rather the rule or rather the exceptions? [closed]

Please give some examples for carbon compounds without hybridizations.
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What elements exhibit electron configurations contrary to what aufbau implies?

I searched online for a list of elements whose electron configurations differ from the configurations that aufbau implies that they exhibit. I found partial lists, but I couldn't find a complete one. ...
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What is the electron configuration for Uuo with a charge of 2-?

I was writing a cool program that determines the electron configuration of elements for me, and I wondered what would happen if you went over 118 — the "limit" of my program. So, what is the ...
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49 views

How it was observed, that elements in columns 6 and 11 assume abnormal electron configuration?

Reading this question about why do elements in columns 6 and 11 assume abnormal electron configurations I wondering, how this was observed.
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How are related the electrons magnetic dipole moments in atomic orbitals?

I wondering, has somebody ever try to take in account the electrons magnetic dipole moment for the shapes of the probability distribution in atom? Does this magnetic dipole moment play any role in the ...
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Multiple values for the magnetic quantum number and the spin projection quantum number?

The valence electron configuration of boron is $2\mathrm{p}^1$. So, $n=2$, and $l=1$. $m_l$ ranges from $-l$ to $l$. Can I say $m_l$ (for the specified electron) may be (-1 or 0 or +1) or should I ...
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86 views

Are the Phosphate and Sulfate ion diagrams with double bonds an invalid picture?

Whenever you see an image of phosphate, it's always shown having 5 bonds. 3 single bonds to anionic oxygen atoms and a double bond to an extra neutral oxygen. Not only that, but they're shown being ...
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864 views

How many valence electrons do elements in the d block have?

I just noticed that on the periodic table it doesn't say how many valence electrons there are for each column in the d block. How do I find out how many valence electrons elements in the d block ...
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2answers
71 views

What do the molecular orbitals of a single water molecule look like?

Some time ago, (a few years back) I heard that the orbitals of a single water molecule were solved analytically (or was it just numerically). What do they look like? I am interested in the shape ...
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2answers
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Filling up of orbitals

As we know that the orbitals in a sub shell are degenerate, so is it necessary to fill up the electrons starting from x then to y and then z (if in p-subshell) or they can be filled like shown in the ...
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Filling up of electrons [duplicate]

Is it necessary that filling up orbitals start from spin-up orientation only? And also, is it mandatory to fill the electrons with one kind of spin or they can be filled with spin up and spin down(as ...
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61 views

How to tell which atoms are sp3 hybridized given the structure of a molecule? Confused specifically about given diagram

So this problem has me completely stumped. I get the general concept of hybridization but I have no clue how to apply it to this diagram. What are the atoms in the unlabelled areas such as f and ...
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117 views

How does valency change in a reaction?

There is a reaction given in my book: $\ce{2FeSO_4 +Heat -> Fe_2O_3 + SO_2 + SO_3}$ I just noticed that on the left $\ce{Fe}$ has valency $2$, while it has $3$ on the right. How can it change ...
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67 views

Change in spin angular momentum during transition in one-electron atoms

I have a really basic qustion about spin and electronic transitions. In one-electron systems (like H or $\ce{He+}$), will the electron change its spin during an electronic transition? Let's say the ...
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44 views

Saturated and unsaturated elements?

I was reading about Group 15 and came upon the following: The penultimate shell in N contains 2 electrons (saturated), in P contains 8 (saturated), in Arsenic 18 (saturated) while antimony and ...
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Will adding up protons and electrons (without neutrons) create a new element?

If protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge, can we add up several protons and electrons together to create a new element, without adding neutrons to hold the nuclei ...
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What is the highest known bond order?

In science we learn about single, double, and sometimes triple bonds. From a quick search I have found up to sextuple bonds. Is there a maximum bond order? If yes/no, what causes this?
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75 views

Why Fe 3+ is more common than Fe 2+

I heard that $\ce{Fe}(\mathrm{III})$ is more common than $\ce{Fe}(\mathrm{II})$ but I've not heard a very clear explanation. Could someone please explain this incorporating electron configurations in ...
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296 views

Water molecule bent shape and electron configuration

Water molecules are $\ce{H2O}$, and the lone electron pairs repulse the hydrogen atoms to an angle of 104.5 degrees, so my question is, why can't water molecules have hydrogen atoms bonding on ...
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Electron configuration of Platinum 2− ion?

My intuition tells me that the the configuration should be $[\ce{Xe}]6s^24f^{14}5d^{10}$. However, my assignment implies that are three possible answers (one being the best based on shielding). Can ...
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Experimental Validation of Schrodinger's Electron Cloud theory

I am currently doing a report for school on the electron cloud atomic structure theory. One of the major points on my report is the experiments performed by the scientists (Schrodinger and Heisenberg) ...
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Why do iron(II) ions and chromium have different electronic configurations?

What I know: (1) Empty 3d orbitals are higher in energy than empty 4s orbitals (2) Aufbau Principle (electrons always go into an empty orbital with the lowest energy) (3) Partially/half/fully ...
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196 views

Anomalous configuration for Palladium?

The p block elements generally have the general valence she'll configuration as $$n\mathrm{p}^{1-6}\,n\mathrm{s}^{1-2}.$$ Expected electronic configuration for palladium is $$\ce{^46Pd} = ...
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Exceptions to the Madelung rule for electronic configurations

The electronic configuration of Platinum is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1. and not [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s0 or [Xe] 4f14 5d8 6s2. I see this question has already been answered, but here is what wikipedia says: ...
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How does the electronic configuration for this acid oxide correspond to its structure?

The following electronic configuration and drawing of the structure are given: $\mathrm{(1s)^2 (2s)^2 (2p)^6 (3s)^2 (3p)^6 (3d)^{10} (4s)^2 (4p)^4}$ How does this image correspond with the ...
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Fermi Level of an alloy

How could one calculate the Fermi level of a copper-nickel alloy? They are both structurally face-centered cubic, however how would this structure affect the Fermi level of the individual atom or the ...
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Molecular orbital (MO) diagram for N2 and N2^-

I have been taught that the MO diagram is different for molecules with 14 or less electrons than the one used for molecules with 15 or more electrons. For $\ce{N2}$ the orbitals are: $(\sigma 1s)( ...