In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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How to find the possible valence states of elements in the lower end of the d block and the f block?

For silver, why don't the electrons in the 4d orbital move to the 5p orbital? Is it possible for any elements to move their electrons between $n$d and $(n+1)$p orbitals? When the f orbital is ...
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which of the following electron configurations is most likely to result in an element that is relatively reactive [on hold]

a. An energy level that is one electron away from being filled b. A full filled energy level c. Have only one electron in the outermost subshell d. Both b and c
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Why don't electrons pair up in an oxygen radical?

In an oxygen radical (produced by the break down of O3 for instance), there are 2 unpaired electrons in the outermost subshell which make the molecule unstable. Why don't these electrons pair up which ...
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Some abnormalities in the Periodic Table

I observe some elements like $\ce{Cr}$ and $\ce{Cu}$. Some of them have strange oxidation numbers that don't really fit the purpose of making the element as stable as possible. Just Chromium, for ...
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What is a good (small) model system for ligand metal charge transfer practises?

I am looking for an easy to calculate model system in which I could see a ligand metal charge transfer. Basically I am looking for a model complex, that might have the metal/ligand in different ...
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How does the flame experiment work?

I saw different colors of fire burning different metals. But how does this work? The Balmer series requires electrons to drop back down to n = 2. But, not all alkali metals have empty space in their ...
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30 views

Form the oxides of the element Z=39

Its electronic configuration is $4d^15s^2$ so in normal state it has valence=1 and in energetic state, valence=2 (because our teacher said we count only the electrons in the outer shell firstly) and ...
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What determines how favorable (exothermic) is the electron affinity of a certain element?

(Favorable means how exothermic a reaction is, more favorable= more exothermic) There are some abnormalities in the trends of how favorable the electron affinity is. From Al to Cl, the ...
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Electron shell, how do they know it?

I started to learn Chemistry with something like Hidro have 1 electron in the first shell, Oxigen have 2 electron in the first shell and 6 electron in the second shell... But I don't really understand ...
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32 views

Find the valences of Z=26

I've tried this: But its hows that the valence of Fe in normal state is 4, when in the periodic table it isn't. Why does this happen? Can you show me the answer with configuration formula in the ...
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25 views

A way to calculate orbital energy of an electron

Maybe this is just not included in my course, but I still wonder how to calculate the binding energy of an electron .at a certain electron orbital. Intuitively,The ionization energy of an element ...
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Which electrons will be taken when oxidations take place and how does the resulting orbital diagram look like?

In detail, what I really mean is which electron in which orbital is being taken when a oxidation happen? Let me give a example: chromate ion(II) Two electrons are taken but from which orbital:
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Properties of f-orbitals

I am not a Chemist, but I took enough undergraduate Chemistry classes to understand the basic properties of s, p and d orbitals and how the behaviour of electrons contributes to different kinds of ...
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33 views

how many electrons are in the second subshell of this element?

first of all sorry if I have some mistakes in my "chemistry words", I'm Iranian and I know the Persian terms but only some of the English ones. So suppose we have an element (x) with the atomic ...
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81 views

Why is there an exponent 4 after the brackets in sp3?

My professor wrote an electron configuration for carbon as: 1s2 (sp3)4 I thought it was just 1s2 sp3 where did the 4 come from?
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How does the radial distribution function of Vanadium differ from that of Calcium and how does this affect the ionic electron configurations?

When Vanadium is ionised it loses the 4s electron first, meaning that it's 3+ ion has a different electron configuration to Calcium despite it being isoelectronic. Can it be explained in terms of ...
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What's the electronic configuration of Nickel and Oxygen in RNiO3 (R=Rare-Earth)?

Nickel's electronic ground state is $\mathrm{3d^8 4s^2}$ (there's a dispute on this, but let's not worry about it for now). Oxygen's is $\mathrm{2s^2 2p^4}$. In a Rare-Earth based Nickelate with ...
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Doesn't the fact that the lone pair on the nitrogen in amides occupy a p orbital contradict Hund's rules?

Since the $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized orbitals are lower in energy than the p orbital shouldn't the $\ce{sp^2}$ orbitals fill first? Why is this not the case - two electrons fill the p orbitals while all ...
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Difference between shells, subshells and orbitals

What are the definitions of these three things and how are they related? I've tried looking online but there is no concrete answer online for this question.
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Electron interference

Assuming that electrons behave as both waves and particles, and that waves(like in double slit experiment) can interfere with themselves: Do electrons actually move in any direction, or do they just ...
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Can the electron configuration of Te be written that way?

Normally, the electron configuration of Te is known as: $$\begin{aligned} {[Kr]} 5s^2 \ce{4d^10} 5p^4 \end{aligned}$$ Then, one day I was asked in a exam if this can be written also as: ...
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Is my analysis of quantum numbers describing the ground state of At correct?

Which series of quantum numbers describes the highest (energy) occupied orbital in a ground state of At atom? a) n = 6, l = 0 b) n = 6, l = 2 c) n = 5, l = 2 d) n = 4, l = 3 e) n = 6, l = 1 ...
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An atom of silicon in its ground state has how many electrons with quantum number l = 1?

I was solving practice problems for electron configuration and periodic table, and I got stuck through a question: An atom of silicon in its ground state has how many electrons with quantum number l ...
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Why does K+ have 0 valence electrons?

If we take a K atom and take away an electron why does it now have 0 valence electrons as it states in my General Chemistry textbook? I would think that if we do this, it would have the same exact ...
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Is there a general method for working out electron configurations?

For up to period 3, elements' electron configurations are relatively easy to work out until the transition metals begin. Then some elements may have $\ce{4s}$ orbitals which are preferred by electrons ...
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Why does gallium nitride allow an AESA radar to be more powerful than a radar with elements made of gallium arsenide?

AESA (Actively Electronically Scanned Array) radars use thousands of individual transmit/receive elements to create a radar. All in service AESAs use gallium arsenide as the material in the t/r ...
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Why do different impurities create different colors in diamonds?

Traces of nitrogen make diamonds yellow while traces of boron make them blue. What accounts for the differences in color for a given element?
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How can I tell what colour an element will be? [duplicate]

Previously in my Chemistry education, it was required of us to memorise the colour changes some elements, especially transition metals, go through. Currently we learning about electron configuration ...
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How much energy does it cost to have electron configurations that are not in accordance with Hund's rules?

What is a ballpark figure for the difference in energy for an atom that follows Hund's rule vs one that has two electrons with opposite spins? I'd be interested to know carbon and nitrogen. Is there ...
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What would the Electronic Configuration of Ru²⁺ be?

I'm doing homework for Inorganic Chemistry, and I am a little confused. The Question is: What is the electronic configuration of $\ce{Ru^{2+}}$? If I were to remove from the highest energy ...
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Why do Group 10 transition metals (and Cu) lose an S electron to fill the D shell? [duplicate]

I don't understand why it varies between Group 10 metals (as with Palladium, Platinum and Darmstadtium) and Copper (Group 11). If each of Palladium, Platinum and Darmstadtium entirely filled the ...
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Determining anomolous electron configuration [duplicate]

There are 21 anomalous elements in the periodic table: $Cr,\, Cu ,\, Nb,\, Mo,\, Ru,\, Rh,\, Pd,\, Ag,\, La,\, Ce,\, Gd,\, Pt,\, Au,\, Ac,\, Th,\, Pa,\, U,\, Np,\, Cm,\, Ds \,and\, Rg.$ I understand ...
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Photoelectric Effect in Semiconductors

Is the photoelectric effect possible for semiconductors? I imagine that this might be, if possible, a two-photon process: excitation of an electron from a filled to conductance band, and then on to ...
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193 views

What is meant by complete outer shell? Why do the noble gases have zero valency?

Does having 8 or 2 electron in the outmost shell mean its outmost shell is full and its valency is zero? I know that the 3rd and 4th shell can contain 18 and 32 electrons. Then how can Argon's ...
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Electronic configuration of Ace-Ala-Nme

Below is the structure of Ace-Ala-Nme. I have labelled just four of the carbon atoms (1-4 in blue). I need to identify (i) the hybridization state, and (ii) the number of electron withdrawing groups ...
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Explanation for increase in the number of oxidation states for transition elements from Sc to Mn of the 4th period

From Sc, to Mn, the number of oxidation states increases from one (Sc) to seven (Mn). The explanation for this is because the unpaired 3d electrons can be lost along with the 4s electrons during ...
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Why is carbon tetravalent?

How does the electron from the 2s orbital "jump" to the 2p, thus leaving 4 unpaired electrons to form four covalent bonds? Also, does the octet rule not apply to carbon? If it does, how can it bond ...
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copper is more stable in+2 rather than+1 [duplicate]

Despite the fact that its electronic configuration is 3d104s1, why is copper usually found on nature in+2. Instead of more intuitive+1? I know we can explain based on enthalpies but is there a better ...
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108 views

Shells, orbitals, subshells, and energy levels

I think i Know what these mean, each row on the periodic table has a new shell of electrons, a subshell is e.g. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, etc and energy levels are the same as shells whilst orbitals are the ...
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Valence Shell for Transition Metals

In transition metals, is the shell with the highest energy considered the valence shell? For example, in copper the electronic configuration is ${[Ar]\text{ } 3d^{10}\text{ } 4s^{1}}$. However, in ...
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Ground State Configuration

Studying for an exam tomorrow, I came across this question. Which two ions have the same electron configuration in the ground state? A) $\ce{Rb^+}$ and $\ce{Cs^+}$ B) $\ce{Ba^2+}$ and $\ce{I^-}$ ...
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Why can Cu have an oxidation number of +2?

The electronic configuration for $\ce{Cu}$, adjusted for Hund's rule, is: $[\ce{Ar}] 3d^{10} 4s^1$ So, shouldn't $\ce{Cu}$ have an oxidation number of $+1$? whereby it gives off its outermost 4s ...
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MacGyvered chlorine gas protection

I was watching Periodic Video's chlorine video, which discusses Chlorine's ferocity in stripping electrons whenever possible, and the professors mentioned its consequent use in WWII as a chemical ...
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How are electrons in conjugated molecules excited? [duplicate]

I have recently started reading about colour in organic molecules and come across conjugation of pi bonds. My question is pretty short... In transition metal ions I understand colour is caused by ...
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1answer
236 views

What is the appropriate procedure for determining the quantum numbers of an electron?

How do I find the set of quantum numbers for a specific electron in an element? For example, Calculate the set of quantum numbers for the 19th electron in chromium. The electronic configuration ...
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How can the 18 electron rule be used to explain that Fe(η5-C5H5)2 doesn't react with hydrogen but Ni(η5-C5H5)2 does?

Fe(η5-C5H5)2 does not react with hydrogen, but its nickel analogue, Ni(η5-C5H5)2 is readily hydrogenated to give Ni(η5-C5H5)(η3-C5H7). Use the 18 electron rule to explain this behaviour. My answer so ...
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Why is the 8-electron rule more important than the 2- or 18-electron rule

Why is the fulfilled electronic configuration of only $p$ orbital is stable. I mean why $II-B $ group with fulfilled $d$ orbital,$II-A$ group with fulfilled $s$ orbital...are not stable. Why makes ...
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Could someone please explain the difference between m/z and m/e in mass spectroscopy

The definition: The abbreviation m/z is used to denote the dimensionless quantity formed by dividing the mass number of an ion by its charge number. It has long been called the mass-to-charge ratio ...
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Bonding, multiplicity and quantum chemistry for FeP$_2$

I'm trying to do some quantum chemical calculations for the linear molecule FeP$_2$ in the gas phase as well as its crystal (orthorhombic symmetry like here). I am lead to believe that in both cases ...
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How to determine mineral properties based on chemical formula?

I need to learn a bunch of minerals and their properties. What I want is some sort of rule which helps me deduce color, crystal system, luster etc. I know that different kind of ions give specific ...