The branch of chemistry that deals with the study of redox reactions and how they can be applied to generate electricity (in electrochemical cells) and to carry out non-spontaneous reactions using electricity (electrolysis).

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Lithium-ion battery powered devices, bad to keep plugged in?

There are many folk stories regarding what should be done with lithium-ion powered devices such as phones and laptops. Should a mainstream brand phone (I say this to suggest a battery of average ...
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14 views

Standardizing a Residual Chlorine Ion selective electrode/ (Reposted)

I tried to see how big the difference was between the readings obtained with a meter standardized with one standard solution and a meter standardized with three standard solutions. I tried to measure ...
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2answers
18 views

protecting contact between aluminium and copper wires

The quarters in which I live has both aluminum and copper household wiring. This results in corrosion of the contacts and can lead to sparking, overheating, and even fire. Is there any way to ...
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1answer
29 views

Dry Hydrogen Production

I am building a set-up to produce a controlled flow of dry hydrogen. I'm aiming for around 99.5 percent purity. Am I right in thinking a PEM cell and Deterite drying tube should be fine for this? Or ...
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1answer
76 views

Why soak filter paper in K2SO4?

From a description of my experiment: Potassium iodide crystals are place in the middle of filter paper soaked with potassium sulphate and phenolphthalein. Two electrodes are placed on the filter ...
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9 views

Which type of ion is selectively discharged in dilute copper(II) sulphate solution?

The selective discharge of ions depends on 3 factors: Position of ion in the electrochemical series. Concentration of ion in the electrolyte. Type of electrode used in electrolysis. So, what my ...
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1answer
35 views

How are the chemical reactions of the table of standard reduction potentials experimentally determined?

My background: I've read several books and articles on electrochemistry and even do photoelectrochemical research in a lab, so I'm somewhat familiar with the concepts and techniques. In texts on ...
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10 views

Does Chlorate in most Electroplating solution eventually evolve to Perchlorate?

I've just decided that making perchlorates without using platinum-coated anodes is not feasible. But I've made enough chlorates and poured them in my copper electroplating solution (and eventually ...
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42 views

Separating nickel coin into copper and nickel components

I'm trying to create a high school level lab in which we separate the metals in an alloy. The objective is to understand and apply standard reduction potentials, and also to do some extra redox ...
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12 views

Why is lithium plating irreversible in li-ion cells?

Several sources (1, 2) suggest that charging Li-ion batteries in low temperature conditions result in Lithium plating. This seems pretty logical since low temperature reduces ion mobility, and ...
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35 views

Determining number of electrons transferred

When determining the number of electrons transferred in a redox reaction is it the total in both half equations? For example: $$\ce{2I- + Zn^2+ -> I2 + Zn}$$ First we split it up into the two ...
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1answer
153 views

Photoconductivity of Selenium

Selenium is a good conductor of electricity in presence of light. This phenomenon is called photoconductivity. How does this phenomenon occur? Are there any other elements or compounds in which this ...
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1answer
24 views

Electrode Potential Half Reactions

Does flipping a reaction as written change the sign of the value of E or is it a completely different value? For example if I have the value for the half reaction $\ce{Cl2 + 2e- -> 2Cl-}$ but ...
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48 views

Bulging Li-ion battery – is it an immediate danger? What’s the likelihood of explosion?

I have a macbook battery that shows as completely dead (doesn’t hold the laptop on even for a second). It now started bulging, and in last week it inflated to about 50 % extra thickness, like this – I ...
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25 views

Can Electrolysis be used to produce -OH

Water that is broken apart with electrolysis, will produce: Two atoms of hydrogen, which bond together to make di-hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$) or ($\ce{H-H}$) 1 atom of oxygen, or monatomic oxygen ...
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18 views

Does Fluoroborate gets used up in Electroplating

I've been working on Tin electroplating on the side for a while now. I've formulated a mix from my usual electroplating formula template. The mix stubbornly keeps on having the Tin ions form Tin ...
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20 views

Thickness of oxide coating through anodising - voltage dependence?

In titanium anodising, solid titanium reacts with the oxygen formed at it's surface (to form titanium (IV) oxide or $\ce{TiO2}$) through the electrolysis of water. Experimentation and research has ...
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1answer
35 views

Will oxidation/reduction of copper still occur in an electrochemical cell if it is not in an aqueous enviroment?

Notation of the reduction and oxidation of copper typically includes the aqueous state. Illustrated below: $$\ce{Cu(s) -> Cu^2+(aq) + 2e-}$$ This event usually occurs at 0.34 V. What if the copper ...
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45 views

I performed electrolysis with aluminum, copper, and saturated salt water what is the left over murky liquid?

Okay, I'm a elementary student and I respect online answers, science is pretty much my strong point but I stumbled a bit when I connected the aluminum to the positive terminal, copper to the negative ...
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1answer
3k views

Could milk rust a steel teaspoon?

Recently, while cleaning a neighbour's fridge (turned off for a few weeks), I came across a cup (closed with a lid). Inside the cup was, to my olfactory horror, congealed milk, with a steel (iron) ...
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43 views

Calculating Fluoride in toothpaste

I need help calculating the concentration of fluoride in toothpaste. Thanks in advance. A linear regression line was obtained; $$\log(\ce{[NaF]})~(\mathrm{mol~L^{-1}})~ \mathrm{vs~EMF}: y = 59.8x ...
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1answer
30 views

Electroplating metal inside polymer foam with acetone

In my research we have a method of making polymer open-cell foams with high tortuosity and pore sizes on the order of 50–200 nanometers. I can make thicknesses of 100 µm to 2 mm thick (and up to 5 ...
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1answer
30 views

Reactions involved in Titanium Anodisation

I am writing up a lab report investigating titanium anodisation and producing oxide layers. After some searching, all I can find is the reaction $\ce{Ti + O2 \to TiO2}$, which I am having no trouble ...
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34 views

What is the standard potential of carbon?

What's the value of standard potential of carbon? The hydrogen and Carbon are in the electrochemical series despite being non metals hydrogen has zero potential difference what about carbon?
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1answer
24 views

How to write the last cell reaction for the following cell?

Consider the following electrochemical cell: $$\ce{Zn|Zn^{2+}}(0.1~\mathrm{M})||\ce{Zn^{2+}}(0.01~\mathrm{M})\ce{|Zn}$$ How should I write the overall cell reaction for this cell? I can identify the ...
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1answer
54 views

Electrochromic Materials, electrode setup

I've read a lot about electrochromism. This article on electrochromic materials has also been additionally helpful. I was wondering, for these electrochromic materials, can you simply attach a small ...
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1answer
66 views

Magnesium air-fuel cell or battery?

I'm a bit confused. I've got this "toy" ... with the help of this site I was abled to find out that the reaction stops with a lack of air. Link to the old question. The battery/fuel cell or however ...
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2answers
82 views

How do I setup the electrodes for cyclic voltammetry on a capacitor made on dry copper sheets?

I'm trying to measure capacitance of a cell I'm creating. It's composed of two copper-sheets with nano-material coated on one side, sandwiched with a membrane and wetted with $\ce{KOH}$. All of the ...
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1answer
47 views

Does phosphoric acid remove stainless steel electropolished layer?

Electropolished stainless steel has a high corrosion resistance due to the oxide film that is created during electropolishing. The film mainly consist of chromium(III) oxide. Phosphoric acid is ...
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1answer
66 views

How to identify which of two given electrodes with corresponding solutions is reducing more?

For the sake of the question, let’s assume that you are provided with two labelled rods of the pure metals $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ and two unlabelled bottles containing $1.0\ \mathrm{mol\ dm^{-3}}$ ...
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1answer
287 views

Is this product description wrong and a simple battery and not a fuel cell?

I won this "toy" at a science fair... Now I have to make a short presentation about it in school. On the package description they describe its energy source as "fuel cell"... It consists out of a ...
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2answers
122 views

Can the thermodynamic predictions of redox reactions based on E and dG contradict each other?

I am referring to the following three reactions. Two of these reactions are imaginary ($\ce{M}$ and $\ce{X}$ are imaginary). $$\begin{alignat}{3} \ce{X- + 2e- \;&<=> X^3-} \qquad ...
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1answer
41 views

Why isn't Mg deposited on the cathode after electrolysis?

Well here's a question from my book: A solution containing one mole per liter of each $\ce{Cu(NO3)2}$, $\ce{AgNO3}$, $\ce{Hg2(NO3)2}$ and $\ce{Mg(NO3)2}$ is being electrolysed by using inert ...
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79 views

How to separate a 5 atom thick layer of Cu from Au

I've become very curious about (electrochemical) atomic layer deposition (ALD) via surface limited redox replacement. Since the technique allows for deposition of metals in atom thick layers it's ...
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29 views

Reduction of vanadyl ion

I want to reduce vanadyl to vanadium (III), can somebody please suggest some appropriate methods for it? I am trying to make a redox flow battery for a project but I have only vanadyl sulfate.
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1answer
41 views

How does the MG811 sensor work?

The MG811 is an electrochemical sensor that measures $\ce{CO2}$. I think is something like a redox reaction but i don't understant how it produces $\ce{e-}$ so i can read them and get the $\ce{CO2}$ ...
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1answer
31 views

Respect to other chemicals in reduction/oxidation potentials

From what I understand, the standard reduction/oxidation potential table is based on the hydrogen half reaction which makes a reduction and oxidation potential of 0 respectfully. In a research ...
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1answer
53 views

Corrosion of a galvanic couple made with silver and gold

If a bangle is made out of gold and silver, connected with each-other would there be corrosion happening? If so, can it be explained using the galvanic series? Also do those metals undergo oxidation ...
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1answer
127 views

Why is HNO3 a stronger oxidising agent than H3PO4?

Why is $\ce{HNO3}$ a stronger oxidising agent than $\ce{H3PO4}$? $\ce{N}$ and $\ce{P}$ have the same oxidation number. Is it the electronegativity difference between $\ce{N}$ and $\ce{P}$?
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39 views

Faraday's law problem

Electricity has been through electrolizers with saturated solutions of sodium chloride, aluminum sulphate and cobalt chloride (II). In each of the electrolyzers, two of the electrodes were from ...
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1answer
45 views

If given a half reaction, how do you determine if an element can exist in a acidic conditions?

I was given the formulas, $$\begin{alignat}{2} \ce{MnO4^2- \;&<=> MnO4- + e-}\quad &&E^\circ = -0.56\ \mathrm{V}\\ \ce{MnO2 + 2H2O \;&<=> MnO4^2- + 4H+ + 2e-}\quad ...
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1answer
38 views

Electroless Plating of Zinc onto Copper in NaOH Solution

I’m researching how the classic “alchemy” demonstration works in which zinc is plated onto a copper penny in a solution of sodium hydroxide. Most online resources refer to the electroplating of copper ...
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1answer
41 views

Balancing reduction equations for galvanic cell

Problem: Compute the potential of the following galvanic cell: $$(\ce{Mg (s)} \mid \ce{Mg^2+ (aq)}\ (0.30\ \mathrm{M}) \mid \mid \ce{Sn(OH)4^2- (aq)}\ (0.10\ \mathrm{M}); \mathrm{pH} = 9 \mid \ce{Sn ...
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1answer
51 views

AgI and AgCl reduction potentials

The reduction potential for $\ce{AgI}$ is $-0.15\ \mathrm{V}$ and for $\ce{AgCl}$ it’s $0.22\ \mathrm{V}$. As $nFE =-\Delta{G} = T\Delta{S} - \Delta{H}$ this must imply that $\ce{AgI}$ is a stronger ...
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73 views

tricky galvanic cell problem

A galvanic cell consists of a standard hydrogen electrode and a copper electrode. Suppose that the copper electrode is immersed in a solution that is $0.100\ \mathrm{M}$ in $\ce{NaOH}$ and ...
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1answer
25 views

The property F in an equation for chemical potential

While studying the lamba sensor that works on yttria-strabilised-zirconium (YSZ) I came across the following equation: $$p_{O_2}^{gas}=p_{O_2}^{ref} \cdot \exp\left(\frac{4FV_{ref}}{RT}\right)$$ ...
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80 views

Electrochemistry galvanic cell problem

A galvanic cell consists of a standard hydrogen electrode and a copper electrode. $$\begin{alignat}{2} \ce{2 H+ (aq) \;&<=> H2 (g)}\quad &&E^\circ = 0.00\ \mathrm{V}\\ \ce{Cu^2+ ...
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43 views

What is the Difference between difference between Standard Electrode Potentials and Standard Reduction Potentials?

As the question suggests I am wondering the difference between standard electrode potentials and standard reduction potentials. I know that they are both a measure of the Voltage from certain ...
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1answer
55 views

Electrode equations problem

Question Suppose you have a cell set up between a copper metal/copper(II) ion electrode and a reference electrode. Under standard conditions, the emf of this cell was −0.07 V. The standard electrode ...
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58 views

Calculation of optimal current density

I'm trying to figure out what my optimal current density would be in respect to the limiting current density. How do you calculate concentration polarization and limiting current density in an ...