Questions about the application of chemistry to interrogate and modify biological systems and processes.

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1answer
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Chemical Biology - synthesizing/designing siRNA [on hold]

I was reading an article on siRNA, and from what I read it sounded like we can edit genes using siRNA. First, did I even interpret this correctly? Second, I read that siRNA was being used to create ...
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0answers
14 views

Is the weakening of O-H bond due to -I effect of sugar groups?

In DNA molecule after formation of phosphodiester bond with two nucleosides the O-H bond of phosphate group becomes highly weak and the H+ is lost. This makes the DNA acidic but what causes the ...
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0answers
8 views

What are some of the more easily manipulated residues on an enzyme?

I am trying to attach a cross-linker to an enzyme and I am looking for candidates for reaction sites. I have several amino acids that are present on the surface of the enzyme (hydrophilic) but I am ...
1
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0answers
19 views

What chemical treatment would grass need to be edible (ingestible)? [duplicate]

From my understanding herbivores have special stomachs designed to digest grass and leaves. I was wondering if there's a chemical treatment that would make grass edible. I'm not planning to eat grass, ...
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0answers
15 views

Effect of a double mutation on the stability of a folded protein?

the question is shown as follows: My reasoning is that the mutation leads to stabilisation of the protein as Tyr121 is a better H-donor than Ser53 therefore stronger H-bonds formed. Also there seems ...
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0answers
12 views

Alpha helix vs alpha-subunit

In my text book it talks about alpha helix and alpha subunit. Are these two synonymous? For instance, hemoglobin has an alpha and beta subunit, are these the same thing as alpha helix and beta pleated ...
0
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1answer
13 views

Does mechanotransduction of cells play a role in the biocompatibility of titanium?

What exactly is mechanotransduction? The definition seems to vary from source to source. Some indicate that mechanotransduction is the underlying principle where cells pull on the surface they grow on ...
1
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0answers
19 views

Lookup for transporter locations in human organisms [closed]

I am scared that this question is a bit naive and probably even wrongly placed here... However, I'll give it a try and hope for the best :) I am interested in several transporters and cotransporters (...
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0answers
31 views

What is base-stacking interaction in DNA helix?

How is attractive non covalent force generated between aromatic rings despite the presence of pi-bonded electron clouds? Can someone explain in simple words the concept of base stacking.
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27 views

Biosynthesis of Xanthoxylin

Anyone can find a source for or explain the biosynthetic pathway for Xanthoxylin? It's the last practice problem I have for an exam, and I just can't seem to find info on it. Thanks!
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0answers
47 views

Can one component of a mixture penetrate the skin if the whole mixture cannot?

There's a general rule that says that compounds under 500 dalton are able to penetrate the skin without any special vehicle (such as ethanol). I've started using castor oil, which contains different ...
4
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1answer
47 views

Olfactory Receptors Bonding with Organic Material

How strong is the bond between the olfactory receptors and an organic material, like a perfume? Is there a chemical that is safe for inhalation that would weaken this bond and prepare the olfactory ...
6
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1answer
259 views

Chemicals that Can Sterilize Males

Is there any known substance that can sterilize a male? Less specifically what about one time chemical castrations (ignoring a perfect sterilization)? I heard about them before once but wasn't sure ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Thermal stability of charged and uncharged alpha helices

I just learned that charged alpha helices are less thermally stable than uncharged ones. The only difference I see between them would be a larger dipole moment in the charged helix, but how would this ...
1
vote
1answer
228 views

How does repeatedly freezing and thawing antibiotics decrease their antimicrobial effectiveness?

This is something I have read on forums repeatedly, but I don't understand the mechanism behind how antibiotics lose their effectiveness. I understand how repeatedly thawing and freezing cells would ...
4
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1answer
69 views

Preservation and bleaching of sliced mushrooms with hydrogen peroxide

According to the article Extending the Shelf Life of Fresh Sliced Mushrooms, it states that 5% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide is an effective means for the preservation of sliced mushrooms. In regards to ...
4
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0answers
1k views

How long would it take to dissolve someone using fluoroantimonic acid? [closed]

After writing an answer on worldbuilding.SE, I came here to ask a question. How long would it take to dissolve a human body using fluoroantimonic acid? I understand that since the human body isn't ...
1
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0answers
85 views

Chemical incompatibility between aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] and carbomer polymer [-CH2-CH] N-COOH]

I am currently adsorbing proteins to an aluminum hydroxide gel. By adding a carbomer (polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with allyl sucrose), I achieve a somewhat synergistic formulation. Shortly ...
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3answers
10k views

Why does carbon monoxide have a greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen?

Hemoglobin is an iron-containing oxygen transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of most mammals. Simply put, it's a carrier protein. Interestingly it doesn't carry carbon dioxide in the same ...
2
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2answers
158 views

Confusion about PCR

I seem to be getting two different answers from my book and my teacher about PCR. Does PCR require a double stranded piece of DNA that you are tryig to replicate, or does it require a circular piece ...
4
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1answer
82 views

Why does solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) always proceed from the C to the N terminus?

Is it just for historical reasons? Because the first person who did it decided to attach the C-terminus to the solid support? Or are there chemical reasons why it would be impossible to proceed in ...
5
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1answer
351 views

Benzaldehyde and Cyanide - if you can smell one can you smell the other?

Cyanide and benzaldehyde both have an almond-like smell. Some people cannot smell cyanide (specifically, HCN). Can they also not smell benzaldehyde? In other words, do they both trigger the same ...
3
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1answer
462 views

Advantages of thioesters over esters in fatty acid catabolism

In several metabolic pathways, Nature (live systems) chooses to make esterification using thioesters (CoA) and not esters. I would like to know what is the main aim of the Nature with this choice: ...
2
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1answer
169 views

pH effect in the hydrophobic interactions between two polypeptide chains

The rise in pH can change the protein conformation by changing the ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds between two polypeptide chains. This is a fact that I understand very well because the change ...
5
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1answer
999 views

Has a non-carbon-based form of life been discovered since 2010?

In 2010 NASA announced the discovery of microorganisms that, after being treated in laboratory, could keep growing only using arsenic, instead of the (though very small amount of) phosphate they also ...
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3answers
3k views

Why amino acids (Zwitterion) become either negative or positive at low and high pH solutions?

The amino acids are Zwitterions. In neutral pH, an Amino acid's amino group has a postive charge and Carboxyl group has negative charge. They cancel each others charge thanks to the $Hydrogen$ that's ...
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0answers
40 views

How is the chemistry of the genetic code located on DNA related to the macromolecules in your body? [closed]

How is the chemistry of the genetic code located on DNA related to the macromolecules in your body?
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2answers
1k views

When an enzyme is diluted with water, what is slowing down the rate of reaction?

I'm specifically talking about the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by bovine catalase. The number of catalase molecule obviously doesn't change, so there's the same number of catalase molecule ...
4
votes
1answer
132 views

How is it that fructose has a different metabolic pathway than glucose but yet glucose is converted to fructose?

Fructose is described to have a different metabolic pathway (a more fat-inducing one) than glucose (see: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/difference-between-sucrose-glucose-fructose-8704.html) as it ...
13
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3answers
233 views

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease?

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease without damaging other parts of the body? If so, would the liquefied plaque be eliminated as regular fluid is through ...
0
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0answers
48 views

Is carbohydrate alcohol inebriant?

First of all, though I think that my question is related to this society, if you think reverse, tell me to delete the question: I would like to know if carbohydrate alcohol is inebriant; Can anyone ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

The meaning of different parts in the naming of glucose

There are two main types of glucose, $\alpha$-D-(+)-glucose and $\beta$-D-(+)-glucose. Can anyone please explain what is $\alpha$,D or (+)? So (maybe by permutation and combination), how many types ...
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3answers
73 views

Biochem Book age and suggestions [closed]

I'm taking chem classes, and am interested in learning a some biochem on the side, on my own. I've bee looking for a decent book, though I'm on a bit of a tight budget so not brand shiny new ones ...
2
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1answer
111 views

Maltose Nomenclature

Maltose has a 1,4 glycosidic linkage between two molecules of α-D-Glucopyranose. My textbook suggests the final name of maltose as 4-O-(α-D-Glucopyranosyl)-D-glucopyranose I wanted to know ...
0
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1answer
64 views

What is a triglyceride?

I'm confused on what a triglyceride is, from what my text book it says its a type of gylercide, then from a website it said Glycerides can be subdivided into two categories. The first group, the ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Is it possible to identify the source of a protein hydrolysate [closed]

I have a powder which only declares to be "Protein Hydrolysate" Meaning that the all the protein has been broken down. We've tried to identify the source of the powder with DNA research. But no ...
4
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1answer
467 views

What are the biochemical ramifications of ingesting of distilled water?

Are there any distinct biochemical reactions that are affected by the ingestion of distilled water? The water is "distilled" in its literal sense.
2
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1answer
325 views

Why and how does lycopene absorbance increase with heating?

Lycopene, which is a carotenoid and a phytochemical is the main reason for why tomatoes are radio-protective. Source 1 . Source 2 Let's cut to the chase: I was wondering if this claim of The ...
8
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1answer
147 views

Is Acrylamide carcinogenic? Why?

Recently concerned with health effects by common chemicals existent in food I've been rather busy reading article after article; and just an interesting one came around: Acrylamide (or acrylic ...
5
votes
1answer
662 views

CO poisoning - What I've been taught is a hoax?

In elementary school, I happened to ask my teacher: What is $\ce{CO}$ they talk about these days? I was then taught that Carbon monoxide "competes" with the oxygen in our blood (we were taught ...
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2answers
5k views

Are all amino acids except glycine chiral compounds?

Specifically, I was thinking of the case where the R group is a carboxylic acid functional group or an amine group. Then there would not be a chiral carbon atom. Is there a restriction on what can be ...
3
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1answer
232 views

what would happen if you got a full package of wet silica gel on your hand after it tore open? [closed]

I accidently opened a bag of silica gel and got it on my hand what will happen to my hand because now it kinda feels weird.
4
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3answers
336 views

Can a single monomer be a macromolecule? If so, when?

In our science class, we're learning about the four fundamental macromolecules in every living organism: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Our class definition of a macromolecule ...
2
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1answer
339 views

What compounds exist in the bitter peel of specific fruits?

Actually, my original question was: What makes a pith of pomegranate so bitter? Then I decided to be more generic. You'll hardly find someone that consumes pomegranate and doesn't nag about the bitter ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Aspartame poisoning: Can it modify aminoacids?

I just accidentally closed a webpage (and did not find it later) which described that somehow, Aspartame poisoning victims had faults in the vital proteins of their body due to the reaction of ...
22
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3answers
5k views

Why is methanol toxic?

There are two points of view for the answer of this question: The biological view, the only one that I faced during my research, states that since it can trigger perilous conditions like metabolic ...
0
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1answer
46 views

Mass of sucrose solutions

What is the mass of 150 ml of 40% sucrose, and what is the mass of 150 ml of 20% sucrose? I don't know exactly how to figure it out without using a device to tell me the mass. All I know is the mass ...
3
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2answers
264 views

Mixing of powders to make stock solutions

For a solution such as: Luria-Bertani (LB) Broth: 10 g tryptone 5 g yeast extract 10 g of NaCl ($M = 58.44\ \mathrm{g/mol}$) q.s. to 1 l, pH to 7.2, autoclave. I would like to make a bulk amount ...
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0answers
51 views

Enzyme Assay - pectinase

I am working on Enzyme Assay.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from $pH\ 1-12.5$ However,the enzyme has good activities starting from $pH\ 1-10.5$ Is that possible to have enzyme activity in ...
1
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1answer
89 views

If dark surfaces absorb/store more light/energy than light surfaces, then does dark skin, on average, store energy from light most efficiently?

If darker surfaces absorb/store more light/energy per square inch than light surfaces, then does dark skin, on average, store energy more efficiently than light skin? (edited).