A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Identifying coordinate bonds

How can we know whether a compound has a coordinate bond or not? I know that I have to draw the Lewis Structure for the compound. But what to do after that? Is there anything to do with formal ...
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Is there an adhesive with an on-and-off switch?

Is there a strong adhesive (can carry about 2 kg in the air) that can be switched on or off, for example with electricity or changing the acidity of the surrounding medium, though I prefer electricity ...
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Why are covalent bonds directional?

It is said that covalent bonds are directional, while ionic bonds are not. Why? Is it because of the orientation/directional properties of the overlapping orbitals?
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What bond\crystal has the most regular pattern (i.e. least irregularities)?

Salt is a famous regularly repeating cubic crystal, but there are always natural deformities and flaws present. I have heard that graphene is an extremely uniform substance. With these in mind, what ...
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Why do certain metals have a negative effect on bacteria? [on hold]

Is it because the metals bond to their delicate membranes, effectively suffocating them? Or are they just poisonous to them as a result of their intrinsic properties?
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61 views

Why does attraction always cause release of energy making the system more stable?

Suppose $\ce{Na^+}$ and $\ce{Cl^-}$ form an ionic bond. In doing so they will come closer by attraction. Now as they come closer their speed will increase and hence the kinetic energy increases. So ...
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what kind of energy is released when a chemical bond breaks [duplicate]

Basically the energy stored in a chemical bond is potential energy of the electrons. So basically we have two rotating negatively charged spheres (electrons) that are naturally repulsive between them, ...
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119 views

Stability of beryllium carbonate

Beryllium carbonate is reported to be unstable under normal conditions and should only be kept in a atmosphere of $\ce{CO2}$. Why and how this stability is maintained? Why does this compound decompose ...
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Covalent Bonding in odd electron sharing molecules

Why in odd electron sharing molecules (like NO ) the bond containing 3 electrons is considired to be half covalent bond?
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Correctness of writing H3C as opposed to CH3 in a carbon chain

I have been studying alkanes, alkenes & alkenes for a while, and I see in the examples that all the basic structural formulas start with CH3 then CH2 and the last carbon atom is CH3 but the one ...
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Can Electrolysis be used to produce -OH

Water that is broken apart with electrolysis, will produce: Two atoms of hydrogen, which bond together to make di-hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$) or ($\ce{H-H}$) 1 atom of oxygen, or monatomic oxygen ...
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163 views

Contact explosion of nitrogen triiodide

Nitrogen triiodide, on slightest physical contact, explodes to evolve dense purple fumes of iodine. Why does this phenomenon occur? video link - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KlAf936E90
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Formation of nitride and azide by group 1 elements

What property of lithium makes them forms the nitride, lithium nitride $\ce{Li3N}$ whereas the other group 1 elements forms the azide, like sodium azide and potassium azide - $\ce{NaN3}$ and ...
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Carbides of different elements

What property of the elements makes them forms different types of carbides like: $\ce{Be}$ and $\ce{Al}$ - $\ce{Be2C}$ and $\ce{Al4C3}$ (Methanides) contains $\ce{C^4-}$ ion $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Ca}$ ...
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70 views

Maximum number of double bonds a carbon atom can make

What is the maximum number of double bonds a carbon atom can make? Well, carbon has $4$ valence electrons so... it needs $4$ more to fulfill the octet rule right? If a double bond yields $4$ ...
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The enthalpy of water molecule (distilled water)

Is the enthalpy of water less than that for individual hydrogen and oxygen molecules? And is the bond energy of distilled water sufficient enough to be used as a fuel in vehicles if the bonds are ...
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36 views

Why can oxygen have a coordination number of 3 in a complex between silver and SiO2?

I am running a MD simulation of Silver with $\ce{SiO2}$. Initially my silver atom is neutral and Oxygen has a coordination of 2 with Silicon having coordination of 4. After deposition of silver ...
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184 views

How to show/represent an ionic bond visually?

How to represent/ show an ionic bond visually? For example in NaCl
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60 views

Can d-orbitals participate in bonding?

My textbook says: It is appropriate to remark that the trick of rationalizing apparent violations of the octet rule by invoking the participation of d-orbitals in the bonding scheme is a matter ...
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47 views

Bond angles for the hydrides

I noticed the fact that all the hydrides of the elements belonging to group IV has bond angle 109.5° while in group V it varies from 107.3° for $\ce{NH3}$ to 91.3° for $\ce{SbH3}$. Similarly we see in ...
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Are bond orders always the same in isoelectronic diatomic species?

In my textbook of chemistry it is written that: In the Lewis description of covalent bond, the Bond order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms of a molecule. ... ...
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36 views

Why does cationic charge density affect metallic bonding?

Group II metals have a smaller cationic size but one more valence electron than Group I metals. Why would the higher charge density of a metal cation affect the strength of the bonding of it in its ...
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28 views

What do we mean when we say “atomic orbitals are directed towards more electronegative atom in a chemical bond” [duplicate]

I am studying about Bent Rule.And there it says that atomic p character tends to be directed towards the more electronegative element and atomic s character towards more electropositive element.Why ...
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50 views

The proper explanation for the general formula of the DU? [duplicate]

I found a formula for the degree of unsaturation (DU) in Clayden’s Organic Chemistry. It explains, simply, the unsaturation with the difference in H atoms. Then I stumbled upon the general formula: ...
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A monocyclic 6 carbon ring with 6 double bonds

I would like to know if this molecule has ever been synthesized, if not why not, and what would its IUPAC name be? Thanks a lot!
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C-N bond lengths in 2-bromo-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene

Are all the $\ce{C-N}$ single bonds in 2-bromo-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene the same or different? I am of the view that the $\ce{C_1-N}$ and $\ce{C_3-N}$ bonds are of the same length and they are longer ...
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What is the bond energy [closed]

$\ce{Cl2}$ bond energy given is as 244. 1/2 $\ce{Cl2}$ will still be 244 or 244/2? My teacher said it is still 244.
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How is dissolving a physical change and not a chemical change?

When salt dissolves in water it dissociates and it is no longer in a lattice structure. The electrostatic forces are no longer there and are replaced by water-ion interactions. To me that sounds like ...
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What are the prerequisites in hydrogen bonding?

I know when a hydrogen bond is, but - can hydrogen bonds only occur between two molecules containing hydrogen? Or, only one of the molecules should contain hydrogen and the other one may not contain ...
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229 views

Chemistry of cereal in milk

In a nearly finished bowl of oat cereal, why do the pieces of cereal stick together? I figure that since they are composed of starches it could be hydrogen bonding. Is this true or is there some other ...
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What's the bonding in the diborane(6)- hydrogen chloride dimer?

I was researching and Googling and researching again, about this very interesting molecule: Diborane. Then I faced a very interesting structure, something that I have never seen before. Something ...
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Which elements can be diatomic?

Which elements can be diatomic and why? Motivation I shall discount the noble gases as they do not usually form bonds anyway. Looking at the non-metals. See below. Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and ...
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52 views

Use bond enthalpies to estimate ΔH of reaction: [closed]

Use bond enthalpies to estimate $\Delta H$ of reaction: $\ce{HCl(g) + F2(g) -> HF(g) + ClF(g)}$ $\begin{alignat}{2} &\ce{HCl}\ &&431\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}\\ &\ce{F2}\ &&158\ ...
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Identifying Alkyl Ligands as Pi Donors or Pi Acceptors in Transition Metal Complexes

Just wondering if there was a systematic way to identify an alkyl ligand as a $\pi$ acceptor or $\pi$ donor in a transition metal complex? Although various sources indicate that weak field ligands ...
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Bending of water and methanol towards a charged objects

I just had a question about why does water, methanol or any other polar substances tend to bend towards the charged object. I think it is because of a slight dipole dipole movement between the ...
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Why are pi bonds only formed when sigma bonds are formed?

While studying about bonding there was one statement that "pi bonds can only be formed only with sigma bonds" as we know that in double bond there is 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond but then one question ...
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Why is an ionic bond a chemical and not a physical bond?

Ionic bonds seem to be intermolecular but are classified as chemical bonds. "Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions." - ...
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How can I change the bond type (single, double) of an existing bond in Avogadro?

I have a molecule extracted from the PDB. When I load it into Avogadro, it has some misplaced bond types. I want to correct this, by setting the bond type (single, double) for these bonds. How can I ...
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Different solder composition affects the connection strength?

I was wondering if the tin/lead/other metals bond with the metal parts that are low-temperature soldered. I know that the flux in the solder is used to remove the oxide layer, leaving a clean metal ...
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Why can there not be more than one sigma bond in a set of bonds?

A question on an exam asked why there is exactly one sigma bond in double and triple covalent bonds. I looked in my text and online after the exam, but couldn't find an anawer to the question. Why ...
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how does the “sea of electrons” hold metal atom together

how does the delocalized electron hold metal atom together? What is the forces of attraction between the atom and electron called ?
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Bond Length and Acidity?

How can shorter bonds between $\ce{C-H}$ be easier to break than longer ones? For example, consider the length of the $\ce{C-H}$ bonds in ethane, ethene and ethyne, and the corresponding acidities. ...
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Can 100% covalent bonds exist?

Every covalent bond has some ionic character and every ionic bond some covalent character. I can understand why a completely ionic bond is an ideal situation. But completely covalent bonds can ...
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Electron transfer in reaction between Ammonia and Hydrochloric acid

$$\ce{NH_3 + HCl -> NH_4Cl}$$ The ammonia is bonded so that the nitrogen has an outer shell with a lone pair of electrons. When they react, the hydrogen from the $\ce{HCl}$ moves to the ammonia, ...
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Which one of the following has less probability to create multiple bonds : N, P, C, S, Al, Ba? [closed]

Which one of the following has less probability to create multiple bonds? Phosphorus , Nitrogen, Aluminum, Sulfur, Carbon, Barium How can I know that from the Periodic Table? is there a certain ...
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In what sense is the Inductive effect a permanent effect?

Almost everywhere I checked, the Inductive effect is described as a permanent effect with almost no mention of what that actually means. What exactly is permanent about the effect? If the effect is ...
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Are the bonding orbitals in methane equivalent - photoelectron spectrum

The low energy portion (the part dealing with the $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ electrons) of the photoelectron (PE) spectrum of methane is reproduced below. (image source) The reaction being examined ...
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Bond length in ICl2- and ICl2+

Why is the $\ce{I-Cl}$ bond length in $\ce{ICl2-}$ (charge of -1) is longer than in $\ce{ICl2+}$ (charge of +1) ? Here are a few explanations that I have in mind. Please critique. I in $\ce{ICl2-}$ ...
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What does it mean when it is said that an sp³ orbital has 25% s character?

My textbook frequently mentions: $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybrid orbital has 25% $\mathrm{s}$-character and 75% $\mathrm{p}$-character. What are these "characters"? And how do these characters influence ...
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Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

Is it possible for an atom to bond with 8 other elements (same or other type)? If yes, then please give some examples. If no, then what could be the possible reason for it? Update + Edit: My question ...