A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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From a Quantum Chemistry Point of View how can I break Bonds without Heating?

Is it possible to dissolve/break bonds using strong alternating magnetic fields at high frequency? (Perhaps from tesla coils?) Could you use resonance to cause the bond to weaken over time? If so how ...
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Intermolecular Forces in Teflon vs Polyethylene

From Wikipedia, polyethylene has a melting point of around $400K$, while Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) has a melting point of $600 K$, which is much higher. Besides the increased London Dispersion ...
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46 views

Sulfurous acid tautomerisation

In the structure of $\ce{H2SO3}$ there is a lone pair on sulfur. Why can't sulfur make a bond with one of the hydrogen atoms and a double bond with oxygen to avoid lone pair?like given below ...
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bond structure of [CO3]^2- ,[SO4]^2-and Na2SO4 [on hold]

I have tried to make the bond but failed to do so please tell me how can I make it and also give some ideas to make other structures
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Reactivity of halogens [closed]

How does the bond strength of H-Halogen effect the reactivity of halogens with hydrogen? The H-Halogen bond strength decreases down the group. But how is this affecting anything? I mean I know the ...
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Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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29 views

What should I use as the starting structure for stacking interaction energy calculation using Gaussian?

I have a crystal structure (single crystal, organic molecule- pyranone carboxamide derivative) that shows pi-pi stacking, and I want to do theoretical calculations. I am using Dispersion-correcting ...
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57 views

Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
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Mechanism for the Cleavage of Diborane?

The cleavage of diborane was presented in a recent lecture, and it was said that the borane could be cleaved unsymmetrically if sterics allowed, or symmetrically if they did not, as shown in the image ...
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39 views

How is Al2Cl6 covalent and Al2O3 ionic?

I encountered a question where the type of bonding for various oxides are prompted. Two of which are $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ and $\ce{Al2O3}$. I thought that chlorine atoms are more electronegative than oxygen ...
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Screening effect

The sequence of shielding capacity by the electrons in different sub shell is given as s > p > d > f Along with it, if all sub shells are completely filled with electrons, the order of screening will ...
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Comparing bond strengths between O and S [duplicate]

The order of increasing bond strengths for O and S bonds is O-O < S-S < S=S < O=O. O is smaller and should therefore form stronger bonds with itself. Why, then, is the S-S single bond ...
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Why is this structure impossible

I'm asked the following: Explain why the structure $\ce{H - C = C - H}$ doesn't make sense chemically. Not only am I just looking for a check up of my answer, but am I making any sense in what ...
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Why Does Coordination of Metal Ions Happen Anyways?

I've been studying coordination chemistry, but I still have a fundamental question about the area: why do transition metals even form coordination compounds, while main group metals do not? Why can't ...
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Partial charges in a covalent bond

My professor stated the following statement: In a covalent bond, there is a presence of a partial charge in the atoms that combine to form a compound. For example in $\ce{H2O}$, since $\ce{O}$ is ...
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41 views

Why triiodide ion does not form ionic bond with cation having +2 charge?

In general, I found that triiodide ion generally forms ionic bond with cations having +1 charge like $\ce{NH4+I3-}$, $\ce{K+I3-}$, $\ce{Tl+I3-}$. But, I have never seen triiodide ion forming ionic ...
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Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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Trends in Single Bond Enthalpy of All Nonmetal Groups

Here I have a list of single bond enthalpies, $\ce{X-X}$, in kJ/mol, for the nonmetals arranged by group: Group 7: F: 155 Cl: 242 Br: 193 I: 151 Group 6: O: 146 S: 266 Se: 172 Te: 126 ...
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29 views

How to find the bond order of molecules like BF3,SO3,NO2+

I know that the formula for bond order is 1/2*(Nb-Na).But is there a quite simpler way than to use this formula?As the use of this formula requires the writing down electronic config according to ...
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N-O bonds in Nitric acid

The wikipedia article on nitric acid mentions the following structure of $\ce{HNO3}$ in which the two $\ce{N-O}$ bonds (other than that of $\ce{N-OH}$) are of different length i.e., ...
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48 views

If ionic compounds are strongly bonded, why are acids with a more polar central atom the stronger types of acids?

If the central atom is more polar, it pulls electron density away from the H+, making it more detachable. But why, then, are ionic compounds (which are even MORE polar than acidic covalent compounds) ...
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Are there bonds that boron tri-fluoride can form that elemental boron cannot?

Boron, which starts out with just three electrons in its outer shell, forms a maximum of three bonds with fluorine. After that, the boron still has an electron deficient outer shell and is a component ...
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Bond angle order of SF2, OF2, HOF

Arrange the following componds in the increasing order of bond angle. $$\ce{HOF,~OF2,~SF2}$$ I know that bond angle of $\ce{SF2}$ will be less than the bond angle of $\ce{OF2}$ because of ...
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Bond Type of Lead: Metallic or Network Covalent?

I know that lead is classified as a metal, from its appearance, nonexistent band gap, and its position on the periodic table... etc. However, all of the elements above it (carbon, silicon, germanium, ...
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Comparing strengths of Hydrogen Bonds

What kind of a bond is the Hydrogen bond? Is it electrostatic forces of attraction or more like a partial coordinate bond? What pair of atoms would provide us the strongest Hydrogen bond? If we ...
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Is HF permanently separable?

$\ce{HF}$ is one of the strongest covalent compounds. My lecturer once said that it cannot be separated under any conditions, and though it can be separated by electrolysis, a fraction of it will ...
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Order of Bonding in Nonaqeuous Hydrated Salts [duplicate]

In the chemical formula of a hydrated salt, such as $\ce{CuSO_4.5H_2O}$, is it implied from the format of the name that the the Copper (II) ion is ionically bonded to the sulfate, with water molecules ...
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Why are hybrid orbitals more efficient at overlapping?

What is the reason for considering that hybrid orbitals provide more effective overlapping resulting in formation of stronger bonds? Will this reasoning be correct that the hybrid orbitals have ...
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Could we bond H to the edges of Covalent Network structures like Diamond?

I know that Diamond is just Carbon atoms structured in a way that differs it to Graphite and Charcoal etc. But the carbon atoms on the edges do not have full valence shells. Would it be possible to ...
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Number of dative covalent bonding

How can I calculate the number of co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds in a molecule? For example, how many co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds are there in $\ce{NO^2+}$ ?
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Chemical bonding and atomic structure [duplicate]

In an atom, electrons keep revolving around the nucleus. So when two atoms are bonded, the bonded electrons are equally attracted by each other and I think that the bonded electron stops revolution ...
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Can ionic and covalent bond be explained in terms of orbitals?

Covalent bonding is stated as overlap of atomic orbitals .In ionic bonding the composite ions are held together by their electrostatic charges that result from the transfer of electrons from one atom ...
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H2 Triplet State

How does $\ce{H2}$ triplet state exist if there are electrons in both bonding and antibonding ($1\sigma$ and $1\sigma^*$) orbitals? Or am I being taught the hypothetical triplet states of the ...
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How to estimate the number of hydrogen bridges in a bouncing ball?

We want to make a bouncing ball: the reaction is between with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) of wood glue and borax. It makes bridges between the molecules like DNA and hydrogen bonds. We would like to ...
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68 views

Can't you form a ring from almost any number of sides from carbon?

Recently, we have been learning Chemistry in my physics class at school. We learned that Carbon is one of the elements that has the most variety in the compounds it can formed, being able to form four ...
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Finding the energy given out when 2 moles of reactants are mixed and ignited from a balanced equation

The question I am trying to answer is this: I only know about Hess' law, bond enthalpies and enthalpies of combustion and have tried to use all concepts in order to somehow get an answer but none of ...
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Why is there no Pi-backbonding in BeCl2?

The $\ce{Cl}$ atoms in $\ce{BeCl2}$ donate a lone pair to the $\ce{Be}$ atom of another molecule so that Beryllium can complete its octet. What I don't understand is why don't the $\ce{Cl}$ atoms ...
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21 views

The diference between covalent molecule lattice and covalent network lattice

Can you tell me the difference between covalent molecular lattice and covalent network lattice? Thanks for your help.
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What is the hybridisation state of the sulphur atom in S4N4F4?

The molecule is shown in the textbook as: I can rationalise that the N is sp2 hybridised with a single electron in the p-orbital perpendicular to the plane of the S/N ring. (The sp2 lone pair is ...
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92 views

Reactivity of Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes

In my textbook, it says that alkanes are generally the least reactive of the three, alkenes are slightly more reactive, and alkynes are even more reactive. However, alkanes have single bonds, alkenes ...
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67 views

Logical way to compare dipole moment

I have to find the decreasing order of dipole moment of $\ce{CHCl3}$, $\ce{CH3Cl}$, $\ce{CH2Cl2}$, and $\ce{CCl4}$. Now I know that in $\ce{CCl4}$ there will be no dipole moment. Now to compare the ...
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Energetics of Bond formation

Back to chemistry after 2 months and got stuck in the beginning! That's why I don't like it. Anyways, come to the question please. Following are the words from my textbook (Don't ask the name ;-) ...
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Carbon monoxide valencies [duplicate]

Carbon has a valency 4 and oxygen 2 but then how is the formula CO derived? But is the valencies of carbon and oxygen same in both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide?
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Are there ion combinations which can't be separated using the ion exchange resin method?

I am currently investigating the uses of ion exchange resins (both cation and anion resins). I have not come across any ion combinations that cannot be separated using this method, are there any ...
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behavior of pi-conjugated chromophores in the presence of light

In the presence of light, I have read that, structures comprising pi conjugated systems like retinol, straighten out from their curled positions, what phenomenon drives this behavior and why does this ...
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Which of the following pair of molecules have identical bond dissociation energies (approx)?

Which of the following pair of molecules have identical bond dissociation energies (approx)? $\ce{H2}$, $\ce{F2}$ $\ce{F2}$, $\ce{I2}$ $\ce{N2}$, $\ce{CO}$ $\ce{HF}$, $\ce{O2}$ I think it's either ...
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why do we call lone *pairs*?

According to VSEPR theory molecules adjust their shape to minimize the effect of repulsion. suppose i take the structure of $ClF_3$ i has 3 bond pairs and two lone pairs. So to minimize the repulsion ...
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Why is a S-S bond stronger than an O-O bond?

I'm wondering why exactly the single bond between two sulfur atoms is stronger than that of two oxygen atoms. According to this page, an $\ce{O-O}$ bond has an enthalpy of $142 \rm~\frac{kJ}{mol}$, ...
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Which has more ionic character, LiF or K2O?

After drawing the structures of both and considering dipole moment, doesn't it seems that all K2O should have more ionic character than LiF? My textbook says its LiF.
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What is the exact meaning of ionic and covalent character? [duplicate]

In my textbook, it is written that 'Even in case of covalent bond between two Hydrogen atoms there is some ionic character.' Didn't get that.