A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Determine the bond angle in a compound [on hold]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
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Why do double bonds break

So today we performed an experiment, where we mixed cyclohexene with Bromine water. The equation was which seems to make sense. The Bromine water we were using was decoloured as evidence that this ...
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What is lowest energy state, how does an atom gain it and what does it have to do with hybridization?

I understand that hybridisation occurs due to the atom wanting to exist in the most stable state possible, and the most stable state has the lowest energy. What I don't understand, however, is say, in ...
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Molecular Orbital Theory and No. of bonds

The order of filling of molecular orbitals $\ce{O2}$ by MOT is this : But from it, how can I deduce that there is one sigma and one pi bond in an oxygen molecule ?
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what happens if electronegeativity difference is exactly 2.1

I'm learning about electronegativity in atoms and how their difference affects the type of bond they make. I know that no difference makes a non-polar covalent bond, a difference less than 2.1 is a ...
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Histidine-Phosphate in Succinyl CoA synthetase and phosphoglycerate mutase enzyme

I would need to know the type of bond of histidine-phosphate in succinyl CoA synthetase enzyme. Can anyone help with this? Is it a Carboxy phosphate anhydride ? Is it the same type of bond of ...
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How can Iodine bond with 5 Fluorines in Iodine Pentafluoride?

According to this lewis diagram, Iodine has 12 valence electrons? How is the possible? Only thing I can think of is that I'm mistaken in counting the covalent bonds as two valence electrons each. Do ...
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Melting ice off of trucks fast

When a truck comes into the shop with extreme ice that is rock hard, is there a way to remove it fast?, any tricks of the trade?
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Why hybridization occurs in diatomic molecule

In diatomic nitrogen There are two electron configurations I'd like to compare: 1s2 2s2(lone pair) 2p3(the bonding electrons sigma,pi,pi) 1s2 2sp(lone pair) 2sp(sigma bonding) 2p2(pi,pi bonding) ...
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How does H2O2 bond

I am asking this question on behalf of my seven year old daughter, so if possible please take that into consideration in the answer! I am not a chemist, but I do try to teach my daughter the basics ...
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Why does Nitrogen form N2 (and not N4) while but Phosphorus forms P4 (and not P2)?

$\ce{N2}$ is a gas $\ce{P4}$ is a solid $\ce{N}$ and $\ce{P}$ are in the same group in the periodic table The bond enthalpies are: $\ce{N#N}$ triple bond is $949~ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$ $\ce{P#P}$ triple ...
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Are bond angles constant?

I'd imagine the answer to the question posed in the title is no - bond angles are not constant. Covalent bonds are not infinitely rigid; hence IR as a spectroscopic technique. If so, how can we ...
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Molecular bond angles

How do Bond angles vary in molecule with a lone pair and central atom of different electronegativity, but in the same period so that ecectronegativity matters more than orbital size? Assuming that the ...
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Bond Dissociation Temperatures for Hydrocarbons

I'd like to know the temperatures that various hydrocarbons such as methane, butane, and propane, etc. will dissociate into hydrogen and carbon. Is there a reference where I can look up these ...
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How do we experimentally know the strength of bonds?

How do we experimentally measure the strengths of covalent versus ionic bonds? Also, for a given molecule, how can we know if two pairs of atoms is covalently or ionically bound? Related question: ...
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What holds atoms together?

1.I know atoms are held together by Ionic and Covalent bonds and i understand the ionically bonded atoms are held together by electrostatic forces. What about covalent bonds? 2.How are molecules of ...
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Why can't carbon form an ionic bond?

My textbook says that a $\ce{C^{4+}}$ cation cannot be formed because it requires a lot of energy to remove 4 electrons. Formation of ionic bonds involve "removing" electrons and there seems to be ...
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Why do acids ionize in solution if they are covalently bonded?

Maybe I am wrong, but I thought acids were covalently bonded since hydrogen doesn't form ionic compounds. For example, wouldn't $\ce{HCl}$ look like: Since the electrons are shared, why does it ...
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Diatomic halogens - bond strength

Why is the F-F bond relatively weak? And why does bond strength decrease from Cl-Cl to I-I? Does this have anything to do with "lone-pair" repulsions on the rather small F-F molecule? I haven't ...
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The structure of $H_3$

According to wikipedia $\ce{H^+_3}$ and $\ce{H_3}$ are possible and have been synthesized. It says that $\ce{H^+_3}$ is stable too. Can anyone please tell me how is the bonding possible? Hydrogen ...
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Why is KF the most ionic compound?

I saw somewhere (can't recall where) that KF is the most ionic compound. I expected CsF. Does the greater polarizability of Cs allow it to more easily form covalent bonds compared to K? Does this ...
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Does hydrogen bonding only occur between water molecules?

Does hydrogen bonding only occur between water molecules? Is the dipole-dipole intermolecular interaction know as hydrogen bonding because it is between water molecules, or is called that because of ...
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What is the charge of Silicon dioxide?

What is the charge of Silicon dioxide ions? I can't find it anywhere. It seems to be 0? Also is there anywhere I can find these on my own?
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Show the vibrational frequency of F2- is much lower than that of F2

Basically I need to draw the molecular orbital for $\ce{F2}$ and then answer a bunch of questions about it. I have drawn it correctly, as far as I know, but I don't know how to use it to show that the ...
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Why do atoms “want” to have a full outer shell?

Okay, so I know that this is about filling the orbitals of the atom, and I understand that. What I don't understand is why? For example, an Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons spinning around ...
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Is the transformation of pi bonds to sigma bonds always energetically favorable?

Is the move from pi bonds to sigma bonds always favorable? My professor claims so, except in the case of conjugated pi bonds. I can see how pi bonds going to sigma bonds might be favorable; I know ...
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By what mechanisms can molecules with the same empirical formula be so different?

I understand the difference between empirical and chemical formula. But I always thought that compounds and molecules took their specific shape because it's the lowest energy configuration. How then, ...
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Which atoms in a given amino acid are able to form hydrogen bonds with water?

Can anyone help me with this question I have tried everything. I know hydrogen bonding is with F,O, or N but every time I select those is says it's wrong. Any help is appreciated
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Simple explanation of dative bonding [closed]

I need a simple explanation of dative bonding. I am a student that has learnt simple covalent bonding and ionic bonding, but I need help to learn dative bonding. This if for an urgent assignment, so ...
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Bent's rule for Sulfur trioxide and Sulfur dioxide

How is Bent's rule applied on $\ce{SO3}$ and $\ce{SO2}$? Bond length of $\ce{SO3}$ < $\ce{SO2}$. Is this a direct consequence of applying the Bent's rule?
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Chemical bond of adsorbed atoms

When oxygen is adsorbed on iron metallic surface, does it create Fe-O bonds like the one in iron oxide? Can it be considered as a monolayer of iron oxide on the ...
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ATP break down and energy release?

I have a very basic question. Energy is absorbed to break bonds. Bond-breaking is an endothermic process. Energy is released when new bonds form. Bond-making is an exothermic process. But ATP breaks ...
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Quick way to find magnetic nature of compounds or ions

According to the Molecular Orbital Theory, the method to check whether a given compound is paramagnetic or diamagnetic is to draw the molecular orbitals and then to see whether we have all the ...
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Metal Compounds that bond covalently

I would like to ask if anyone has a list or knows which covalent compounds have metals in them. For example, beryllium and aluminium are both metals but they bond covalently with chlorine to form ...
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How can two orbitals constructively and destructively interfere simultaneously?

The molecular orbital theory dictates that when two atomic orbitals form molecular orbitals, then two molecular orbitals must form (i.e number of atomic orbitals = number of molecular orbitals). For ...
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What are the correct resonance structures of bromoethene?

Can anyone explain why my textbook only gives the following resonance structures? I also put two resonance case where the double bond electrons are moved on the individual carbon atoms.
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Electron distribution in a C-S bond

My lecturer said that in a $\ce{C-S}$ bond, sulfur is slightly $\delta^{-}$ and the carbon slightly $\delta^{+}$, although they have (almost) the same electronegativity. What is the cause of this ...
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Why is the bond in HF ionic while it is covalent in HCl?

Why would a hydrogen atom "donate" to Fluorine in an ionic bond but not in $\ce{HCl}$? Why would $\ce{H}$ and Chlorine share instead of $\ce{Cl}$ just stripping it away like $\ce{F}$ does?
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Bond Angles and intermolecular interactions

It's fun to consider bond angles of molecules in isolation. For example, what is the number of different bond angles exhibited by the most polar form of $\ce{SIBrClF2}$? However, can bond angles ...
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Which d orbitals of sulphur take part in the pi bonds of SO3?

In $\ce{SO3}$ 2 $p\pi-d\pi$ bonds are present. But which 'd' orbitals of sulphur take part in these $\pi$ bonds ? The answer says $d_{xy}$ and $d_{yz}$, someone also told me that crystal field ...
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Is this the correct mechanism of the formation of the nitronium (NO2+) ion from sodium nitrate and sulfuric acid?

I am currently working on a mechanism for forming paracetamol (or N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanamide). The typical reaction to nitrate the phenol (starting product) is $\ce{NaNo3}$ with a catalyst of ...
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What is the bond angle of H2O?

I have been trying to find out the bond angle of H2O, but every site I visit has a different answer. So far, I have found the following angles listed: Site 1: 104.4º Site 2: 107.5º OR 104.5º, ...
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What is Bent's rule?

I'm all bent out of shape trying to figure out what Bent's rule means. I have several formulations of it, and the most common formulation is also the hardest to understand. Atomic s character ...
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Oxidation state of HOF

Here is a structure of $\ce{HOF}$ (known as Hypofluorous acid). So there is a fact about Hypofluorous acid that I've been wondering about so many times before that what should be the oxidation ...
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Why does nitrous acid exhibit (unexpectedly) different bond angles?

Data Point 1 - quantum chemical calculations http://nzc.iap.ac.cn/uploadpdf/Wang_et_al._CSB_2007a.pdf Key points in paper: There is some sort of interaction between the hydrogen and the terminal ...
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Sulfur Trioxide - Ionic Character

I am told that the sulfur trioxide molecule exhibits charge separation because of poor p-orbital overlap. Sulfur's 3p orbitals are much bigger than oxygen's 3p orbitals, and thus the $\ce{S=O}$ bond ...
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Peroxide Linkages

Why are peroxide linkages generally weak? Is it due to Coulombic repulsions? I can't see how placing two oxygens with high degrees of partial negative character next to each other is a good thing in ...
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Nitric Oxide Dimerization

This is the molecular orbital diagram for nitric oxide: Now, we know that nitric oxide can dimerize. However, why does nitric oxide dimerize as to form an $\ce{N-N}$ bond? Why not an $\ce{O-O}$ ...
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Nitrogen dioxide dimerization

$\ce{NO}$ can't dimerize and that is explained because the free electron is in an antibonding orbital. The same is true for $\ce{NO2}$, but it can dimerize, how?
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Why does HCO₂⁻ exhibit delocalized bonding while CO₂ does not?

$\ce{HCO_2^-}$ exhibits delocalized bonding and $\ce{CO2}$ does not? What I am confused about is, that both of them have resonance structures. Therefore, why doesn't $\ce{CO2}$ exhibit delocalized ...