A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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How is hybridisation of a carbon atom determined by looking at the molecule's structure and observing the lone pair and/or sigma bond present? [duplicate]

How can I judge the hybridization of a carbon atom of any carbon containing compound just by looking at its structure? How can I say this by the help of lone pairs and sigma bonds present?
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Breaking bonds with energy

I'm learning about breaking molecular bonds currently and I'm wondering what are the methods to actually use the amount of bond energy to break the bond. What I'm saying is, knowing the bond energy, ...
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40 views

How much energy is there in 1 mol of diamond and how can you get it?

Diamond is made of carbon which is during maybe 3 billion years under pressure is formed in the earth. Imagine you found a big source of diamonds such as coal...how much is the energy of the diamond ...
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Is the water in hydrated salts held in place by a type of bond? [duplicate]

See title And if so, what type? If not, why does the water stay in the salt? (I wanted to add salt as a tag, but I need 300 reputation for that. Could someone higher up please add that tag? I think ...
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In equilibrium, if bonds are constantly being created and broken, where does the energy that does so come from?

I'm a student who recently learned about equilibrium and how it is not a state where nothing is made, but rather, a state where the product is decomposing at the same rate as the reactants are ...
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What is the total bond energy of CO2?

How can you calculate the total bond energy of CO2? I've searched for the bond energy of C=O and found it was 745, but sometimes 799. Which one is the right one to use? And do those numbers mean the ...
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Question regarding covalent bonds

I was reading about covalent bonding and got to know that in this type of bonding, the atoms of elements "share" electrons with each other to have an octet or duplet. But, I also have been taught that ...
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Why doesn't H-O-O-O-O-O-O-O-O-H exist? [duplicate]

The question has its roots in why only carbon mainly shows catenation. I don't see why such a compound cannot be formed. Why don't we have a whole branch dealing with such compounds other than organic ...
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DNA ligase activity [closed]

During DNA ligase activity, an AMP binds to 5'P by which bond and to which atom and how much energy is released during its hydrolysis? Is this energy equivalent to that of released by hydrolysis of 2 ...
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31 views

Is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds continuous or is there some non arbitrary point where one becomes the other?

Covalent bonds can be dipole. So is an ionic bond a very dipole covalent bond or is my understanding wrong?
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37 views

What do these lines mean? [duplicate]

I saw this picture on Wikipedia and I was wondering what the triangle and the dashed line meant. I know the line means a covalent bond. I have seen the dashed line used as a Hydrogen bond before.
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Estimate bond strength from bond energies

The standard enthalpy of formation for NO(g) is 90. kJ/mol. Use this and the values for the O=O and N≡N bond energies to estimate the bond strength in NO. Attempted work: 90= 2(NO) - (941+495) NO ...
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Relation between various bond angles of Nitrogen compounds

I was thinking what could be order of bond angles of NH3, NF3, N(CH3)3 and N(C2H5)3. Considering NF3 and NH3: Since there is backbonding between 2p-2p orbitals of N and F, there will be a partial ...
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1answer
67 views

What kind of bonds can form between benzene and transition metals in π-complexes?

I'm trying to draw the six π-orbitals (3 bonding, which are filled, and 3 anti-bonding) of a benzene ring when it complexes with metal d-orbitals and which metal orbitals have the correct symmetry ...
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54 views

How do covalent crystals melt?

A network solid, like diamond or silicon dioxide, has a lattice of covalent bonds that make up a giant structure. Normally when you melt a simple molecular substance, you are breaking the inter ...
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Using electron affinity to calculate lattice energy

I am trying to calculate the lattice energy of $\ce{CaBr2}$, I am uncertain of how to incorporate the electron affinity value provided for $\ce{Br2}$ into my calculation. Since electron affinity is ...
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54 views

Nitrogen molecule vs carbon-carbon triple bond stability

Why does the triple bond in the nitrogen molecule convey stability, whereas a triple bond between carbon atoms conveys instability?
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38 views

Strength of substituted Carbon Double Bonds and C-halo bonds

The question asks me to identify the compound which has a stronger double bond. I came up with two kinds of reasoning but they do not agree upon a common answer. 1: $sp^2$ carbons are more ...
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Does an atom want to give or take electrons when it has a shell half full?

Carbon for example has 4 electrons in the outer shell and so its half full, Does it want to give electrons in a bond or take electrons and if any atom has a half full electron shell does it want to ...
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Why do electrophillic addition reactions (between hydrogen halides and alkenes) happen?

I understand that the type of solvent (protic or aprotic) may impact the rate of the reaction, but why doesn't the hydrogen just stick with the halide in the first place? I'm not sure if the reason ...
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Boiling points on bond strength

It is common to find in Chemistry texts that certain groups of compounds have lesser boiling points. The main given reason is that the bonds formed btw the atoms are weaker. For eg: The relation btw ...
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34 views

Does the spin of an electron change when transferred from one atom to another?

Some atoms form bonds when they are given energy to create an excited state.From what I have learnt, every electron is assigned a specific spin quantum number. What I am curious to know,is that, is ...
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Can carbon and titanium bond?

Can carbon and titanium form an ionic bond, because the both have 4 valence electrons? Like so:
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Can only gases by diatomic? [duplicate]

I know that the elements H, N, F, O, I, Cl, and Br are found naturally as diatomic gases. But can any other elements be found as diatomic gases, or even solids or liquids. Why or why not?
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Why HF is said to be formed from H-1s and F-2pz overlap?

According to Wikipedia, HF is formed by the interaction between hydrogen's $1s$ orbital and fluoride’s $2p_z$ orbital: In hydrogen fluoride HF overlap between the H 1s and F 2s orbitals is ...
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How to deal with dative(coordination) bond when calculating formal charges?

When we calculate the formal charge of an atom in a molecule we consider the non-bonding pair as 2 electrons and any covalent bond as 1 electron. Ok then what about dative bonds,how many electrons do ...
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in hybridization, can bond angles be different

Is there a concept of mixed hybridization where bond angles in a hybridized molecule are different angles?
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How can borane exist?

Disclaimer: Sorry if this is a noob question, I am a high school chem student. So I was reading my textbook in preparation for the midterm, and it talked about exceptions to the octet rule. I ...
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covalent bonds and attraction [duplicate]

How do covalent bonds form if the atoms are the same charge and repel. How do the atoms come together and share electrons. Like if Bromine needs one electron and Chlorine needs one electron, they are ...
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How the species carrying lone pair of electrons can be neutral?

I was studying the nucleophiles.. It is written as the nucleophiles are either negatively charged or neutral species with a pair of electrons So how the species carrying lone pairs are supposed to be ...
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How many bonds can Hydrogen make?

Recently I saw a video which told me that Hydrogen has a valency of 1, i.e, Hydrogen can only bond with 1 other atom. But since hydrogen wants a complete shell, it can have 2 covalent bonds with 2 ...
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25 views

Valence electrons in compounds with more than four bonds [duplicate]

Say you have $\ce{SF6}$, if the $\ce{S}$ goes in the center of a Lewis Structure Diagram, it would automatically have at least 12 electrons as it would have to form bonds with all of them... how does ...
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The meaning of the sulfite anion attached to the benzene ring

I needed to work with PEDOT:PSS solution, so I also looked up it's chemical composition and the wikipedia page threw up this pic. I need to understand how the sulfite anion is connected to the ...
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How do valence shell configurations affect attraction and repulsion forces between atoms? [closed]

It seems clear that the electrons of one atom are attracted to the protons of another and that this is the source of attractive forces between atoms. However, it is not clear why an atom with a full ...
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Al2Cl6 - Different length of bonds

How can we justify the longer length of the dative bond by bridge Cl with Al? Is it because to prevent steric hindrance or repulsions the Cl atom is farther away from other Al as compared to normal ...
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Does intramolecular hydrogen bonding occur with carbonic acid and geminal diols?

Is an intramolecular hydrogen bond possible in such compounds? What are the requisites to have intramolecular hydrogen bonding?
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Would hydrogen bond form in these scenarios?

My notes say that hydrogen bonding occurs between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom (N, O, or F) and the lone pair of a highly electronegative atom of another ...
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When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization?

When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization? Do all structures have hybridization or only some specific structures have it and why?
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How can three p orbitals per atom bond in tin (II) sulfide?

Tin (II) sulfide, a mainly covalent compound, bonds using its p orbitals only (the 5s orbitals are considered to be part of the core in divalent tin). Its structure is made up of Sn–S–Sn–S chains, ...
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Shouldn't all of group 16 form double bonds? [duplicate]

I notice that out of all of group 16 oxygen is the only element that can form a double bond. Why is that because shouldn't all of group 16 be able to form a double bond and be diatomic because they ...
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Why is the thioester bond weaker than a regular ester bond? [duplicate]

What are the contributing factors to the fact that thioesters are less stable than their oxygen counterparts?
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Why do some diagrams of some molecules show the bonds of only some of their submolecules?

In the diagram of ATP below this paragraph there are no lines between the atoms in the $\ce{NH2}$ molecule or in the $\ce{OH}$ molecules; however, there are lines between all the other atoms. Does the ...
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What type of bonding is present in lithium tetrahydridoaluminate?

I can tell that the negative ion has one bond which is a co-ordinate/dative covalent bond. However, overall, would you say that lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (lithium aluminium hydride) is ionic? If ...
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how to distinguish between carbon-carbon double bond lengths

Which of the following should have the longest c=c? $$\begin{align} \text{a)}\ \ \ \ &\ce{CH2=C=CH2}\\ \\ \text{b)}\ \ \ \ &\ce{CH3 -CH=CH2}\\ \\ \text{c)} \ \ \ \ &\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ...
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How to calculate chain length of acrylonitrile? [closed]

What the approximate stretched-out chain length of one of the chains of acrylonitrile, $\ce{H2C=CH-C#N}$, taking the $\ce{C-C}$ bond length to be $1.54$ ${\buildrel _{\circ} \over {\mathrm{A}}}$ I ...
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Does light absorption result in a momentarily weaker bond?

I may have just misunderstood the topic, but light absorption by a molecule is a result of a promotion of an electron into an empty antibonding orbital; hence, does that mean that the strength of the ...
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Bond strength by Similar size or Overlap? [duplicate]

Which of the sp³-sp³ or sp³-sp² forms a more stronger bond.. As we know that former one will make weaker bond as both are larger orbitals but in latter one.. One is bigger and other smaller.. So ...
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Strength of bond

I wanted to ask, which of them would be a stronger bond, sp3-sp3 or sp3-sp2 In my class, i was confused what would the result by hybridisation come, in the case of reactivity of allyl bromide and ...
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Polarity of the phosphate ion?

I understand that phosphate is bonded covalently, however, it is characterized as a polyatomic ion. This is making me confused on whether it's polar or non-polar.
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Use bond dissociation energies to calculate reaction enthalpy

Find $\Delta_\mathrm{r}H$ for the reaction $\ce{2CH4 -> C2H6 + H2}$, given the following bond dissociation energies: $\ce{C-H}$: $410~\mathrm{kJ~mol^{-1}}$ $\ce{C-C}$: ...