A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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O-N-O bond angles in oxides of nitrogen

If we look at the bond angles of O-N-O in figure (c), (D) and (F), there not too much change in bond angle. Even though they are notable. So my question is, Why do we observe very small change in ...
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Why and when are bonds broken

I am new to chemistry (I have only done a GCSE in it) so forgive me if I am missing something obvious. But I am trying to very roughly simulate some chemical reactions. My background is in Artificial ...
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why CFCs such as CF2Cl2 are being replaced by flurohydrocarbons such C2H2F4? [on hold]

Given that the strength of the $\ce{C-F}$-bond is $\mathrm{467~kJ~mol^{-1}}$ and the strength of the $\ce{C-Cl}$-bond is $\mathrm{340~kJ~mol^{-1}}$, why CFCs such as $\ce{CF2Cl2}$ are being replaced ...
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Covalent bonds other then 2-center, 2-electron bonds

I've heard of single bonds, double bonds, triple bonds, and quadruple bonds between two atoms, but in each of those bonds the two atoms contribute the same number of electrons from each of their ...
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1answer
34 views

The pentagonal pyramidal structure of XeOF5- [closed]

Why does the $\ce{XeF6}$ molecule have an octahedral structure while $\ce{XeOF5-}$ has a pentagonal pyramidal structure, despite both molecules having 7 electron pairs?
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60 views

Why the bond angle of NH3 is lesser that that of NF3?

We can explain why the bond angle of $\ce{NF3}$ (102°29') is lesser than $\ce{NH3}$ (107°48') by the VSEPR theory, since lone pair lone pair repulsion is greater than lone pair bond pair repulsion. ...
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33 views

What are the intermolecular and intramolecular forces between Hg molecules/ atoms in liquid mercury?

Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature. I know that metallic bonding exists between metal atoms but my knowledge is limited to metallic bonding found in solids. Will there ...
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68 views

Types of bonds in a molecule [duplicate]

For example in dinitrogen pentoxide, $\ce{N2O5}$, covalent as well as coordinate bonds (type of covalent bonds) are present, but it appears that it contains only covalent bond. What is a proper ...
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106 views

Why does SO2 have a larger bond angle than H2O, H2S, and NH3

So we have to find which of the follwing compounds has the smallest bond angle: $\ce{H2O}$, $\ce{H2S}$, $\ce{NH3}$, $\ce{SO2}$. So L $\propto \frac{1}{BA}$ where $L$ is the number of lone pairs and ...
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1answer
39 views

Small doubt regarding bulkier molecule having more probabilty of reaction [closed]

I have heard a theory from someone and just wanted to confirm if its true or not. Is it true that more bulkier an organic compound is, more likely it is to react? So does this mean that higher the ...
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1answer
132 views

Can carbon have quadruple bonds? [duplicate]

Carbon has 4 valence electrons, so it means that it can have a total of four (covalent) bonds, correct? If that's the case, why can't carbon share four bonds, such as with another carbon atom (to ...
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Can we determine the amplitude of vibration of O-H bonds in water?

This is going to be a long shot, and I might be wrong in any and all of my assumptions, be warned (... and please correct me). I might also be trivially right, I have no idea. At equilibrium, each ...
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76 views

Why is BCl3 a monomer whereas AlCl3 exists as a dimer?

What makes dimerization possible in $\ce{AlCl3}$? Are there 3c-2e bonds in $\ce{AlCl3}$ as in $\ce{BH3}$?
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2answers
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In an O-H bond, will polarity increase/decrease if some of the electron density on the oxygen atom is reduced?

Like when an e- withdrawing group (sp2 carbon) is attached to oxygen of the OH bond, it attracts the electrons. So will the polarity of the OH bond increase or decrease?
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Is there a definition of rotatable bond?

Some intramolecular bonds are rotatable in the sense that the torsion angle around this bond is flexible (for example, $\psi$ and $\phi$ angles in a protein backbone). Others are essentially fixed ...
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Few basic questions about ionic bonding and batteries (lead)

I've got a few very very basic questions about ionic bonds and their role in batteries. My assumptions (correct me if I'm wrong): Ionic bonds occur between a metal and a non-metal (the non-metal ...
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1answer
41 views

Do electrons in covalent bonds always obey the octet rule? [duplicate]

Do electrons in covalent bonds always necessarily obey the octet rule? Always?
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1answer
59 views

Identifying coordinate bonds

How can we know whether a compound has a coordinate bond or not? I know that I have to draw the Lewis Structure for the compound. But what to do after that? Is there anything to do with formal ...
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Is there an adhesive with an on-and-off switch?

Is there a strong adhesive (can carry about 2 kg in the air) that can be switched on or off, for example with electricity or changing the acidity of the surrounding medium, though I prefer electricity ...
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625 views

Why are covalent bonds directional?

It is said that covalent bonds are directional, while ionic bonds are not. Why? Is it because of the orientation/directional properties of the overlapping orbitals?
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1answer
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What bond\crystal has the most regular pattern (i.e. least irregularities)?

Salt is a famous regularly repeating cubic crystal, but there are always natural deformities and flaws present. I have heard that graphene is an extremely uniform substance. With these in mind, what ...
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1answer
80 views

Why does attraction always cause release of energy making the system more stable?

Suppose $\ce{Na^+}$ and $\ce{Cl^-}$ form an ionic bond. In doing so they will come closer by attraction. Now as they come closer their speed will increase and hence the kinetic energy increases. So ...
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124 views

Stability of beryllium carbonate

Beryllium carbonate is reported to be unstable under normal conditions and should only be kept in a atmosphere of $\ce{CO2}$. Why and how this stability is maintained? Why does this compound decompose ...
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1answer
49 views

Covalent Bonding in odd electron sharing molecules

Why in odd electron sharing molecules (like NO ) the bond containing 3 electrons is considired to be half covalent bond?
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Correctness of writing H3C as opposed to CH3 in a carbon chain

I have been studying alkanes, alkenes & alkenes for a while, and I see in the examples that all the basic structural formulas start with $\ce{CH3}$ then $\ce{CH2}$ and the last carbon atom is ...
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Can Electrolysis be used to produce -OH

Water that is broken apart with electrolysis, will produce: Two atoms of hydrogen, which bond together to make di-hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$) or ($\ce{H-H}$) 1 atom of oxygen, or monatomic oxygen ...
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179 views

Contact explosion of nitrogen triiodide

Nitrogen triiodide, on slightest physical contact, explodes to evolve dense purple fumes of iodine. Why does this phenomenon occur? video link - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KlAf936E90
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Formation of nitride and azide by group 1 elements

What property of lithium makes them forms the nitride, lithium nitride $\ce{Li3N}$ whereas the other group 1 elements forms the azide, like sodium azide and potassium azide - $\ce{NaN3}$ and ...
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Carbides of different elements

What property of the elements makes them forms different types of carbides like: $\ce{Be}$ and $\ce{Al}$ - $\ce{Be2C}$ and $\ce{Al4C3}$ (Methanides) contains $\ce{C^4-}$ ion $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Ca}$ ...
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86 views

Maximum number of double bonds a carbon atom can make

What is the maximum number of double bonds a carbon atom can make? Well, carbon has $4$ valence electrons so... it needs $4$ more to fulfill the octet rule right? If a double bond yields $4$ ...
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42 views

Why can oxygen have a coordination number of 3 in a complex between silver and SiO2?

I am running a MD simulation of Silver with $\ce{SiO2}$. Initially my silver atom is neutral and Oxygen has a coordination of 2 with Silicon having coordination of 4. After deposition of silver ...
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196 views

How to show/represent an ionic bond visually?

How to represent/ show an ionic bond visually? For example in NaCl
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Can d-orbitals participate in bonding?

My textbook says: It is appropriate to remark that the trick of rationalizing apparent violations of the octet rule by invoking the participation of d-orbitals in the bonding scheme is a matter ...
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59 views

Bond angles for the hydrides

I noticed the fact that all the hydrides of the elements belonging to group IV has bond angle 109.5° while in group V it varies from 107.3° for $\ce{NH3}$ to 91.3° for $\ce{SbH3}$. Similarly we see in ...
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Are bond orders always the same in isoelectronic diatomic species?

In my textbook of chemistry it is written that: In the Lewis description of covalent bond, the Bond order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms of a molecule. ... ...
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1answer
58 views

Why does cationic charge density affect metallic bonding?

Group II metals have a smaller cationic size but one more valence electron than Group I metals. Why would the higher charge density of a metal cation affect the strength of the bonding of it in its ...
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What do we mean when we say “atomic orbitals are directed towards more electronegative atom in a chemical bond” [duplicate]

I am studying about Bent Rule.And there it says that atomic p character tends to be directed towards the more electronegative element and atomic s character towards more electropositive element.Why ...
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1answer
56 views

The proper explanation for the general formula of the DU? [duplicate]

I found a formula for the degree of unsaturation (DU) in Clayden’s Organic Chemistry. It explains, simply, the unsaturation with the difference in H atoms. Then I stumbled upon the general formula: ...
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351 views

A monocyclic 6 carbon ring with 6 double bonds

I would like to know if this molecule has ever been synthesized, if not why not, and what would its IUPAC name be? Thanks a lot!
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153 views

C-N bond lengths in 2-bromo-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene

Are all the $\ce{C-N}$ single bonds in 2-bromo-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene the same or different? I am of the view that the $\ce{C_1-N}$ and $\ce{C_3-N}$ bonds are of the same length and they are longer ...
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38 views

What is the bond energy [closed]

$\ce{Cl2}$ bond energy given is as 244. 1/2 $\ce{Cl2}$ will still be 244 or 244/2? My teacher said it is still 244.
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How is dissolving a physical change and not a chemical change?

When salt dissolves in water it dissociates and it is no longer in a lattice structure. The electrostatic forces are no longer there and are replaced by water-ion interactions. To me that sounds like ...
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1answer
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What are the prerequisites in hydrogen bonding?

I know when a hydrogen bond is, but - can hydrogen bonds only occur between two molecules containing hydrogen? Or, only one of the molecules should contain hydrogen and the other one may not contain ...
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1answer
233 views

Chemistry of cereal in milk

In a nearly finished bowl of oat cereal, why do the pieces of cereal stick together? I figure that since they are composed of starches it could be hydrogen bonding. Is this true or is there some other ...
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84 views

What's the bonding in the diborane(6)- hydrogen chloride dimer?

I was researching and Googling and researching again, about this very interesting molecule: Diborane. Then I faced a very interesting structure, something that I have never seen before. Something ...
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Which elements can be diatomic?

Which elements can be diatomic and why? Motivation I shall discount the noble gases as they do not usually form bonds anyway. Looking at the non-metals. See below. Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and ...
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Use bond enthalpies to estimate ΔH of reaction: [closed]

Use bond enthalpies to estimate $\Delta H$ of reaction: $\ce{HCl(g) + F2(g) -> HF(g) + ClF(g)}$ $\begin{alignat}{2} &\ce{HCl}\ &&431\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}\\ &\ce{F2}\ &&158\ ...
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Identifying Alkyl Ligands as Pi Donors or Pi Acceptors in Transition Metal Complexes

Just wondering if there was a systematic way to identify an alkyl ligand as a $\pi$ acceptor or $\pi$ donor in a transition metal complex? Although various sources indicate that weak field ligands ...
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Bending of water and methanol towards a charged objects

I just had a question about why does water, methanol or any other polar substances tend to bend towards the charged object. I think it is because of a slight dipole dipole movement between the ...
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Why are pi bonds only formed when sigma bonds are formed?

While studying about bonding there was one statement that "pi bonds can only be formed only with sigma bonds" as we know that in double bond there is 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond but then one question ...