A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Why Aren't Chlorides Of The Noble Gases As Prevalent As Their Fluorides?

I can't find the answer to this question on this SE website, and I apologize for the repetition if it has been answered before. It is my understanding that compound formation has only been observed ...
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What is the proper Lewis structure for HCOOH?

I tried to draw the Lewis structure of $\ce{HCOOH}$ but I didn't get the correct representation. As you can see in the picture below, at no. 1, I put $\ce{C}$ as the central atom because it has less ...
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The definition of formal Charge

Ok, most people including me know that formal charge is just a book-keeping tool. I know how to calculate it, apply it to Lewis structures etc etc. But I am confused in its very basic definition which ...
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Identical bond angles

Is it possible to incorrectly predict that two bond angles are different from van der Waals repulsions alone? I'm thinking that because bond lengths differ when different atoms are involved that we ...
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How can a chemical structure be stored in a matrix?

How do I represent a chemical structure in a matrix format in Matlab? Can I input a chemical structure into Matlab using the S.M.I.L.E.S notation? I have to specify the connectivity of different ...
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What is the difference between a bond, force, and interaction?

I am trying to explain why some solids are more soluble in water than others: So the energy released from the formation of bonds between the solid solute molecules and water molecules compensate the ...
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What affects bond angles?

I have three factors in mind: 1) vdW repulsions 2) Bond length 3) Electron-electron repulsions. I know that vdW repulsions between ligand atoms push the atoms apart. And bond length obviously ...
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Determining covalent bond strengths without hybridisation

Assuming pure $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ orbitals of carbon are used in forming $\ce{CH4}$ molecule, which of the following statements is false? (single choice question) Three $\ce{C-H}$ bonds ...
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How does the pyramidalization effect the bonding angles in a distorted octahedral environment?

This is a follow up on "Generally Octahedral - Meaning?". Since Dissenter asked in the comments to my answer: I'm not sure why the $\ce{F_{eq}-S-F'_{eq}}$ bond angles would be compressed, even if ...
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Chemical bonding - lattice energy

Question: Why is ionic lattice energy inversely proportional to the radius of the atom? Most heterogeneous covalent molecules are polar to some extent. The degree of polarity, or the dipole moment, ...
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Why is the bond angle H-P-H smaller than H-N-H?

$\ce{N}$ & $\ce{P}$ are along the same group. $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{PH3}$ have one lone pair and both the central atoms are $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized. But inspite of that, the former's bond angle is ...
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Difference between backbonding and hyperconjugation and conjugation [closed]

What is the difference between backbonding and hyperconjugation and conjugation? I mean the basic differences as all are concerned with donation of electrons. What is the most striking effect of each ...
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Why is Aluminium Chloride a Lewis Acid if it's an ionic compound?

In my textbook it says in the reaction $\ce{AlCl3 + Cl- -> AlCl4-}$, Aluminium Chloride ($\ce{AlCl3}$) has six valence electrons and accepts a lone pair from $\ce{Cl-}$, but wouldn't that mean the ...
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Polymer Crystallinity

See the following question: I think the answer is A because of the hydrogen bond in the side group, thus the degree of secondary bonding between parallel chain segments is higher. Is my thinking ...
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Can there be a reaction in which nuclear fission or fusion takes place along with atomic recombination?

I can't make out myself whether a nuclear reaction reaction can occur along with a chemical reaction involving bond formation? Can any one suggest an example of this, please?
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How can sulphur and phosphorus expand their octet

There are many compounds, in which the stability of a molecule is not governed by the presence of octet configuration in central atom. In most of the cases the central atom is generally sulphur or ...
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Can I perform electrolysis without electrolyte? (with distilled water)

When performing electrolysis at home, I usually used salt water as electrolyte. The problem is, that this method also produces chlorine and chlorine is aggressive to both humans and electrical ...
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How is the charge of covalently bonded atoms determined?

My question is about what it is - at the subatomic level - that determines the charge on atoms which participate in covalent bonding in reality. I understand that formal charge is just that - it's a ...
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Orbital Overlap Factors

I have discerned these factors affecting orbital overlap: 1) Symmetry 2) Type of orbital 3) Nodes along the internuclear axis 4) n quantum number of the atomic orbitals - the number of shells of ...
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Why is hydrogen sulfate put together as it is?

I recently looked up hydrogen sulphate ($\ce{HSO4-}$) to see how it's put together, and found this image of methyl hydrogen sulphate: I'd assume that hydrogen sulphate looks the same, but without ...
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Why is H2S more polar than HCl?

From EN alone we might expect HCl to be more polar but a book says that the bent structure of H2S gives rise to its polarity - which is also apparently more than HCl. Why? Does this have to do with ...
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Bonding in the phosphate ion

I'm looking for an explanation of the bonding in the phosphate (PO43−) ion: (Image courtesy of Wikipedia) Phosphorus (15P) - being the fifteenth element - has fifteen electrons, five valence ...
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Can Entropy Increase During Bond Formation?

Recently the question was asked, "Is Bond Formation “Strictly” Exothermic?" As a corollary to that question, what is the relationship between entropy and bond formation? Does the entropy of the bond ...
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Why does calcium carbonate decompose into calcium oxide?

Why does calcium carbonate, when heated strongly, decompose into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide? What is the mechanism? Can someone illustrate the means by which this happens? What ...
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Endothermicity of Reaction

Regarding this question, how can one solve this without access to thermodynamic data? I suppose we should keep the following information in mind: 1) Double bonds are not double the strength of ...
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Existence of Hyponitrite Molecule

Does the hyponitrite molecule exist? I know the hyponitrite ion exists (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyponitrite) but what about the molecule? I have found no reference to the molecular form on ...
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Is Bond Formation “Strictly” Exothermic?

Is bond formation "strictly" exothermic? The IUPAC definition of exothermic doesn't make any reference to bond formation. However, I have seen the aforementioned statement before - that bond formation ...
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Why are radicals unstable?

Why are unpaired electrons especially reactive? Does pairing electrons decrease the reactivity of the electrons? But then doesn't forcing two electrons into the same orbital cost energy?
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C-Br - A Polar Bond

Why is a C-Br bond considered polar? From electronegativity considerations, both carbon and bromine have very similar electronegativities - 2.5 and 2.8 - respectively. Nonetheless, I am told that ...
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Is the bond enthalpy of S-O stronger in SO₃ or SO₃²⁻?

Can you please explain the difference between the bond enthalpies in sulfurtrioxide $\ce{SO3}$ and the sulfite anion $\ce{SO3^{2-}}$?
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From liquid to solid by beating

I understand how liquids can become solids by decreasing temperature. To my understanding this is because the molecules slow down and are able to form bonds. However, I'm having problems ...
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Is the amount of phenolic in phenol-water solution related to amount of hydrogen bonding between phenol and water in that solution?

Is the amount of phenolic in phenol-water solution related to the amount of hydrogen bonding between phenol and water in that solution? Does phenolic in phenol-water solution/ hydrogen bonded ...
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Why is silicon oxide giant covalent structure?

Why is silicon oxide giant covalent structure? Why it doesn't bond like carbon dioxide? Thank you
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Hybridization in Light of Resonance

According to this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns4Py96Bkn8&NR=1 1) Is this true? (You might recall I asked a similar question about $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization implying $\ce{sp^2}$ ...
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How do i find out the number of bonds an atom must link to?

I've always been told that carbon links with four hydrogens and nitrogen with three hydrogens like in methane and ammonia. What's the name of this bonding and how do you come up with the number? Sorry ...
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Coordination Bond Strength

With respect to the above question, what should I be looking for in evaluating metal-ligand pi-bonding strength? Oxidation states? Charge - overall or just charge density?
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Will heating diatomic oxygen enough break the O=O bonds?

The bond enthalpy associated with a O=O double bond is equal to 495kJ/mol. Does that mean that adding enough kinetic energy in the form of heat will eventually cause the bonds to break and create ...
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Are metallic/ionic bonds weaker than covalent bonds? I was taught the opposite. Now I'm confused

In mineralogy class, I was taught that metallic and ionic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds and that's why quartz and diamond have such a high hardness value. However, in organic chemistry class, I ...
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How does activated carbon bind the adsorbate?

I read some articles and journals about activated carbon and found a problem about how the adsorbate could bind to the activated carbon. Some said it is because of intramolecular forces (van der ...
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Sulfuric Acid - Bond Lengths and Charge Separation

So I know that the best Lewis Structure representation of sulfuric acid is one with only single bonds - i.e. sulfur isn't hypervalent. However, why are the $\ce{S-O}$ and $\ce{S-OH}$ bonds not ...
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Fractional Bond Order - How to Visualize?

Consider nitric oxide, which has a real bond order of 2.5, contrary to what this UC Davis rendering might imply: What's the best way to visualize a molecule with a fractional bond order? What ...
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Why $\ce{MgSO4.\color\red{7}H2O}$?

I was wondering why specific number of water molecules are attached to salts like $\ce{CuSO4.5H2O}$? Searching gave me a satisfying picture : I think $\ce{FeSO4.7H2O}$ should have a similar ...
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Proper Resonance Structures

Would this be proper resonance structures? I know there's a lone pair on the top carbon. Having a carboanion isn't favorable as opposed to a negative formal charge on the more electronegative carbon ...
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Bond Angles of Hypofluorous Acid - Gas and Solid Phases

This is the gas-phase structure of hypofluorous acid: The solid-phase structure however has a bond angle of 101 degrees. Why is there a difference in the solid and gas phase bond angles? Is this ...
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Bond Character and Angles

Somewhere along the line of researching why the Cl-C-H bond angle in methyl chloride is less than what is predicted (109.5 degrees), I ran into a book which said that the electron withdrawing effects ...
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Fractional Bond Orders < 1

Are molecules with bond orders < 1 stable? My professor commented that they were "barely alive" but what does he mean, scientifically? I know that molecules with fractional bond orders greater ...
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Effect of temperature on Hydrogen Bonding?

We had this question in a test and I am not sure of the answer Q. Temperature changes don't effect the extent of inter and intra molecular hydrogen bonding. State true or false. I think that ...
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BF3 Valence Electrons

From ChemWiki by UC Davis: "As a side note, it is important to note that BF3 frequently bonds with a F- ion in order to form BF4- rather than staying as BF3. This structure completes boron's octet ...
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Hyperlithiated Carbon Species

Below is replicated Question 1 from the Final Qualifying Exam of the Australian Chemistry Olympiad, 2004B, here. Question: The theory of promotion-hybridization is quite successful at explaining why ...
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UV radiation on IBr (Radical Substitution)

I came across a radical substitution which Methane reacts with $\ce{IBr}$ to form iodomethane and hydrogen bromide and many more products. I understand the whole process but I don't quite see how the ...