A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Why does greater orbital overlap mean a stronger bond?

According to valence bond theory, orbital overlap produces a bond. However, I don’t understand why having greater orbital overlap renders a bond stronger. It’s intuitive, I suppose, but I haven’t been ...
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Hybridization sp3 [on hold]

What will be the ground state of P15 (phosphorus) electronic configuration which contains (2/3) px py & pz. What will be the hybridized state of Phosphine PH3 with diagram
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34 views

Dissociation of HCl in aqueous solution

My question is regarding $\ce{HCl}$. In my book it states that: $$\ce{HCl (aq) -> H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)}$$ I understand that when added to water the $\ce{H}$ leaves its electron to the $\ce{Cl}$ ...
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2answers
32 views

How to determine whether a given compound is paramagnetic or diamagnetic? [on hold]

Well i am very confused whether we can determine the magnetic property of compounds.. If it us asked for elements we can say by looking at electronic configuration... For ex- how is N2O diamagnetic?...
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26 views

What is the hybridisation of hydrogen in methane?

I am trying to understand hybridisation. In methane carbon has $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, but what is the hybridisation of hydrogen? Is it $\mathrm{sp^3}$? If yes then why?
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58 views

Molecular orbital theory and the conservation of molecular orbitals

I am not clear with the molecular orbital theory. I have read: If the atomic orbitals are combined with the same phase they interfere constructively and a bonding orbital is formed. If the ...
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2answers
17 views

Difference between black and brown eumelanin / red and pink pheomelanin

Wikipedia says the following: There are two types of eumelanin—brown eumelanin and black eumelanin—which chemically differ from each other in their pattern of polymeric bonds. What are those ...
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23 views

Bond Energy of Ions of Molecular Oxygen

Three of the bond energies of $\ce{O2,\ O2^{-},\ O2^{2-},\ O2^+}$ have the values approximately $200, 490$ and $625\ \mathrm{kJ\ mol^{-1}}$. The value for one of the species is uncertain and, ...
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63 views

Molecular orbital theory configuration question

Recently while studying my high school chemistry textbook I came to know that according to molecular orbital theory, the energy of $\sigma 2p_z$ is actually greater than the energy of $\pi 2p_x$ and $\...
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31 views

Why does having a lone pair makes an atom more electronegative?

I was reading the dipole moment and came across the structures of NH3 and NF3. I understood that the net dipole moment of NF3 is lesser, but could not understand the fact that why would a lone pair ...
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45 views

Nature of Bond in Methylammonium lead Halide

I want to know about the nature of bond in Methylammonium Lead halide(CH3NH3PbX3),a perovskite compound.I went through wikipedia and many other sites and through certain research papers but I didn't ...
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19 views

Combine Fluoride with gum base

I am trying to figure out whether it's possible to bond fluoride NaF or SnF2 to the gum base of chewing gum. Gum base is typically includes the following: elastomers: styrene-butadiene rubber, butyl ...
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25 views

Can electrostatic interaction affect nucleophilic attack by thiolate anion

Suppose a protein side chain has a $\ce{-SH}$ group which is partially deprotonated to thiolate anion $\ce{-S -}$. This thiolate can perform a nucleophilic attack on a certain substrate. Will the ...
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26 views

How phenyl shift is possible in Benzil-benzilic rearrangement?

We know C-C bond is much stronger than C-OH bond (because similar sized atoms have maximum overlap)as in case of phenyl-cabonyl carbon bond. Also due to resonance there is double bond character in ...
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27 views

Finding Oxidation numbers

Can someone tell me the concept for finding oxidation numbers? For example, NF3 nitrogen trifluoride how would one find the oxidation numbers for nitrogen and fluoride in that molecule ? I know it ...
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17 views

How do ion–dipole bonds manage to break apart an ionic lattice?

I was reading this answer and its reasoning behind the dissolution of NaCl seems to lie in entropic favorability. However, as it states, many, if not most, dissolution reactions are favored by ...
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46 views

What is the solution to Kauzmann's paradox?

Kauzmann's paradox is the paradox of what happens when a liquid is supercooled below the temperature at which the difference in entropy is zero.
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1answer
14 views

Ionic charge factors [closed]

New to chemistry so forgive the fundamental question. What exactly determines the element's charge? Oxygen has 2- and hydrogen has 1+. Oxygen wants to receive 2 electrons to complete a shell when ...
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1answer
58 views

Delocalization and Stability

Why does delocalization of electrons make more stable compounds? Is there any proper explanation involving quantum-mechanics?
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29 views

Does nucleus moved with electron clouds make the chemical bonds cleavage or electron clouds moved with nucleus?

I know the chemicals bond is the overlapping of electron clouds. There is no real bond in molecules. But the electron clouds surround nucleus. Which one "move" first and lead the other to make two ...
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Hydration of Acids

I was told that when we add water to an acid it gets hydrated. When it gets hydrated oxygen part of water gets attracted towards the H+ ion of acid and the hydrogen part towards the anion in acid. So ...
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2answers
46 views

Nitrogen bonding and electron affinity

How does nitrogen bond with itself to form N2 if it has no affinity for electrons? If a nitrogen atom can't pull on the electrons of another nitrogen atom how can N2 have covalent bonds.
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23 views

Why are bonding interactions so much stronger than interactions of other types?

Why are bonding interactions so much stronger than all the other types of interactions like dipole-dipole, London dispersion, hydrogen bond etc. even though they are all of electromagnetic origin?
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33 views

Decomposing chemical compounds - Ease of Decomposition [closed]

Someone asked me a question, that which of the following can be decomposed chemically: Ammonia Iron Neon Hydrogen Flourine My Analysis: At first attempt I answered Ammonia but changed it to 'I ...
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26 views

Is it possible to quantify alkane branching? [closed]

Is it possible to express the extent to which an alkane has branching (branch count)?
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21 views

Trying to work out the Mean Bond Energy for C-H Bond

The question is asking me to find a value for the mean bond energy of the C-H bonds in Ethene and Ethane. I am given the mean bond energies for the C=C, the H-H and the C-C bonds which are 612kj/mol, ...
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39 views

Is Fajan's rule only applicable to ionic compounds?

Is Fajan's rule applicable to only ionic compounds? The rules only talk about anions and cations, but I have come across examples like $\ce{MnO4-}$ in which high oxidation state of $\ce{Mn}$ leads to ...
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1answer
43 views

Dipole and size of a thioether relative to hydrocarbon

I am an enzymologist and I would like to check whether the consensus of how enzymes tell thioethers from hydrocarbons on substrates is a fact or fiction. So are any of these wrong? S–π ...
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1answer
144 views

Why does Sulfur have 12 valence electrons in the Sulfate ion? [duplicate]

So I am completely and utterly confused about why sulfur has 12 valence electrons. I understand in it's configuration, it has 2 electrons for the 3s subshell, and 4 electrons from its 3p subshell, and ...
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1answer
97 views

AlCl3: ionic and covalent?

My textbook states that AlCl3 is both an ionic and a covalent compound .How is it so?
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Friedel craft alkylation of toluene [duplicate]

When toluene is reacted with CH3Cl , AlCl3 with heat . Then the product is m-xylene. But methyl group is o,p-director , so according to me o-xylene and p-xylene must be formed .
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Bonding in alkali metal complexes

How exactly is the bonding described in complexes involving alkali metals? In particular, how much of a covalent component is there? Take three examples: $\ce{[Na(H2O)6]+}$: This previous answer by @...
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1answer
41 views

From a Quantum Chemistry Point of View how can I break Bonds without Heating?

Is it possible to dissolve/break bonds using strong alternating magnetic fields at high frequency? (Perhaps from tesla coils?) Could you use resonance to cause the bond to weaken over time? If so how ...
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40 views

Intermolecular Forces in Teflon vs Polyethylene

From Wikipedia, polyethylene has a melting point of around $400K$, while Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) has a melting point of $600 K$, which is much higher. Besides the increased London Dispersion ...
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53 views

Sulfurous acid tautomerisation

In the structure of $\ce{H2SO3}$ there is a lone pair on sulfur. Why can't sulfur make a bond with one of the hydrogen atoms and a double bond with oxygen to avoid lone pair?like given below ...
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22 views

Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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31 views

What should I use as the starting structure for stacking interaction energy calculation using Gaussian?

I have a crystal structure (single crystal, organic molecule- pyranone carboxamide derivative) that shows pi-pi stacking, and I want to do theoretical calculations. I am using Dispersion-correcting ...
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1answer
66 views

Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
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52 views

Mechanism for the Cleavage of Diborane?

The cleavage of diborane was presented in a recent lecture, and it was said that the borane could be cleaved unsymmetrically if sterics allowed, or symmetrically if they did not, as shown in the image ...
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285 views

How is Al2Cl6 covalent and Al2O3 ionic?

I encountered a question where the type of bonding for various oxides are prompted. Two of which are $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ and $\ce{Al2O3}$. I thought that chlorine atoms are more electronegative than oxygen ...
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23 views

Basic Screening effect concept

The sequence of shielding capacity by the electrons in different sub shell is given as s > p > d > f Along with it, if all sub shells are completely filled with electrons, the order of screening will ...
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Comparing bond strengths between O and S [duplicate]

The order of increasing bond strengths for O and S bonds is O-O < S-S < S=S < O=O. O is smaller and should therefore form stronger bonds with itself. Why, then, is the S-S single bond ...
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Why is this structure impossible

I'm asked the following: Explain why the structure $\ce{H - C = C - H}$ doesn't make sense chemically. Not only am I just looking for a check up of my answer, but am I making any sense in what ...
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1answer
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Why Does Coordination of Metal Ions Happen Anyways?

I've been studying coordination chemistry, but I still have a fundamental question about the area: why do transition metals even form coordination compounds, while main group metals do not? Why can't ...
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2answers
77 views

Partial charges in a covalent bond

My professor stated the following statement: In a covalent bond, there is a presence of a partial charge in the atoms that combine to form a compound. For example in $\ce{H2O}$, since $\ce{O}$ is ...
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1answer
57 views

Why triiodide ion does not form ionic bond with cation having +2 charge?

In general, I found that triiodide ion generally forms ionic bond with cations having +1 charge like $\ce{NH4+I3-}$, $\ce{K+I3-}$, $\ce{Tl+I3-}$. But, I have never seen triiodide ion forming ionic ...
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48 views

Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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Trends in Single Bond Enthalpy of All Nonmetal Groups

Here I have a list of single bond enthalpies, $\ce{X-X}$, in kJ/mol, for the nonmetals arranged by group: Group 7: F: 155 Cl: 242 Br: 193 I: 151 Group 6: O: 146 S: 266 Se: 172 Te: 126 ...
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How to find the bond order of molecules like BF3,SO3,NO2+

I know that the formula for bond order is 1/2*(Nb-Na).But is there a quite simpler way than to use this formula?As the use of this formula requires the writing down electronic config according to ...
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1answer
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N-O bonds in Nitric acid

The wikipedia article on nitric acid mentions the following structure of $\ce{HNO3}$ in which the two $\ce{N-O}$ bonds (other than that of $\ce{N-OH}$) are of different length i.e., $119.9\,\mathrm{...