A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Why is snow white?

I know that this is a rather ambiguous question; but my question is, whenever we take water and freeze it in the freezer it tends to still stay clear. Since snow is just frozen water, why is it white? ...
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Why do no known atoms have electrons in the g or h subshells?

I'm learning about orbital quantum numbers. While checking several elements on the periodic table I noticed that there aren't any atoms that have electrons in the g or h sub-orbitals. Why is this?
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Is there a relationship between bond strength and polarity?

I believe that a more polar bond would be stronger, since it would be similar to an ionic bond. However, this seems to be wrong when applied to the study of acidity of some compounds.
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Clarification for metallic bond

Recently, I learn about bonding and my teacher only focus on ionic and covelant bond, not metallic bond. So, I go on google search but I have no idea of what is it? How electrons can suddenly appear ...
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What kind of interacion is there between a nanoparticle and its functionalizing coating?

The functionalization of nanoparticles (with coatings such as polymer ligands; see image) are very common (for example, DNA-functionalizied gold nanoparticles). What's the type of interaction between ...
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What are examples of group 14 elements forming dπ - pπ bonding?

While studying the Group 14 elements, I came across the anomalous behaviour of carbon. In that there was a point: Carbon forms only p$\pi$-p$\pi$ type bonding while other elements in the group ...
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Why is water considered ionic in fuel cells but otherwise covalent?

if water (H2O) is a Covalent compound formed by sharing of electrons, why is it said (in case of fuel cells) that formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is a redox reaction (transfer of ...
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Comparing the strength of metallic bonds

Why is the boiling point of iron higher than magnesium?
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Is there a clear distinction between the various intra- and intermolecular interactions?

Wikipedia lists dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals under intermolecular interactions, and hydrophobic, ionic and covalent under intramolecular interactions. Is there a clear ...
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How to calculate bond enthalpies from first principles?

Is it possible to calculate bond enthalpies using the periodic table and the molecule's geometric structure? I am interested in a way of calculating this without getting the answer from measurements ...
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HO vs OH Atomic Structure

Can the $\ce{HO}$ bond be written as $\ce{OH}$ and still be correct?
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Why is the inductive effect of σ-electrons only along saturated carbon chains?

In my book the following is written: When an electron withdrawing atom such as a halogen is attached to the end of a carbon chain, the $\sigma$-electrons of the $\ce{C-X}$ bond are attached to or ...
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How to rationalise the difference in halogen bonding?

Can anyone explain the difference in halogen bonding to me. I understand the explanation in (c). It appears to me, that accepting that would contradict the answers to parts (a), (b), and (c). Is the ...
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What's the type of bonding in La@C60?

Endohedral fullerene is the name given to a brand new chemical species with the following attributes: A metal, usually a transition metal, is "trapped" inside the fullerene, like $\ce{C60}$ and ...
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Effect of radioactivity on bonding [duplicate]

What effect does $\alpha$ or $\beta$ decay have on the bonding in molecules? In particular the example I was thinking of was if you have a radioactive metal at the centre of a complex ion. I had a ...
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H bond comparison

How do you compare the strength of H bonds when it's the same atom on both sides of the H? Like $\ce{N-H\bond{...}N}$ vs $\ce{F-H\bond{...}F}$? Is one still stronger than the other, or are they both ...
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Is a hydrogen bond considered to be a van der Waals force?

Is a hydrogen bond considered to be a Van der Waals force?
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How many delocalised electrons in gold?

How can we determine how many delocalised electrons every atom of gold contributes to the 'sea of delocalised electrons'? More generally, how can we determine the number of electrons any metal ...
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Why does symmetry have to be maintained in molecular orbitals?

Using the example of $\ce{XeF4}$: What is the physical explanation enforcing the symmetry of the $\ce{1b_{1g}}$ orbital on the fluorine atoms? Why isn't the symmetry of a nonbonding orbital ...
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Cohesive forces in solid solutions

I have searched through printed books and the Internet, but I cannot find a definitive answer on an issue that fascinates me: what forces keep the various compounds belonging to a solid solution ...
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Bonds within complex anions

Many groups of bound atoms complexively bearing a (negative) charge are called complex anions. Examples are $\text{NO}_3^{-}$, $\text{CO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{BO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{CrO}_4^{2-}$, ...
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Can we really see the bonds?

I was thinking is there really bond present at microscopic level or atoms/molecules are just nearby and are connected with force which is not visible(like gravitational force between earth and sun) ...
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s-s, s-p, p-p, and hybrid bonds

Please clarify: 1) Are hydrogen atoms the only s-s bonded molecule? 2) Are diatomic halogen atoms the only p-p bonded molecules? 3) Are the bonds in ammonia s-p bonds? 4) Is oxygen difluoride a ...
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If hydrogen bonding in water was weaker, what happens to H+ ion concentration?

Water ionization becomes much less evident if the hydrogen bonds are just a few percent stronger but pure water contains considerably more $\ce{H+}$ ions if they are few percent weaker. I found ...
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Why do molecular orbitals in solids merge to bands?

Why do molecular orbitals in solids merge to bands? For example: In silicon every atom is sp3 hybridised, but when I merge two of these orbitals then it yields a bonding and an antibonding MO. When a ...
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A different structure of Ozone?

The structure of ozone is shown as having a resonating form. However, what I am wondering is instead of using such an idea to explain the structure why can't we show the structure of ozone like ...
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How was the diatomic nature of many common gaseous elements originally determined?

How did scientists find out that $\ce{Cl2, H2, O2}$ atoms have a two-atomic molecular structure ?
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How does Resonance stabilize a molecule?

How does resonance lower the potential energy of the molecule? Take $\ce{O3}$ as an example.
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C-H Bond Dissociation Energy varies with substitution

What is the reason behind it? "Among sp3 hybridized systems, methane has the strongest C-H bond. C-H bonds on primary carbons are stronger than those on secondary carbons, which are stronger than ...
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What is it with resonance structures?

This is a concept I have never really understood. I mean to say is how can we include such a thing in a theory? How can we use them if we know that they don't actually exist? Are they some sort of ...
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How are reactivity and dipole moment related?

Recently, I came across a question: which of the two compounds has a greater reactivity; $\ce{NH_{3}}$ or $\ce{NF_{3}}$? It is known that despite the same structure the dipole moment of ...
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First ionization energy of hydrogen molecule

If we have the dissociation's energies of hydrogen molecule $H_{2}$($D_{0}$) and the corresponding molecule ion $H_{2}^{+}$ ($D_{1}$) together with the first energy of ionization of hydrogen atom ...
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Where does the energy of formation of covalent bonds come from?

Consider two $\ce{H}$ atoms. Since the proton in one attracts the electron in another, they attract each other, and form a covalent bond ($\ce{H}-\ce{H}$). Bond forming requires energy (436 kJ/mol for ...
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Using MO theory, give an explanation for the C-C bond length in cyanogen

1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 2. The attempt at a solution I know that the MO diagram for CN- is this: I am unsure how to draw the MO diagram for cyanogen. I know ...
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How does a carbocation have a positive charge?

When an alkene bonds with an H+ ion, the electron pair from the pi bond goes towards a new dative covalent bond with the hydrogen ion, leaving, on one side of the old double bond, a carbon bonded to ...
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What physical properties are manifested when an electron leaves Na and moves to Cl to form an ionic bond?

When an ionic bond is formed between Na and Cl, the lone electron in Sodium's outer shell leaves, and completes Chlorines outer shell. Are there any physical characteristics that I can use as an ...
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How many electrons are there in the pi-system of cyanogen?

I know that there are 18 electrons available for bonding in the entire molecule, and that 6 of these are used for sigma bonds. That leaves 12 left over. Which molecular orbitals best describe the ...
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Ethane and ethene: which is easier to burn? Which one burns hotter? Why?

Anything that burns "easy", has a low activation energy for the burning process. Anything that burns hotter, will have a lesser enthalpy and thus, will have a more aggressive exothermic reaction. ...
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Does the ammonium ion hydrogen bond with water?

What about oxonium ions, such as hydronium ion? Do these hydrogen bond with water? If we see hydrogen bonding as a purely electrostatic phenomenon, then why not? Ammonium ion still has nitrogen ...
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The difference between peptide bonds and the bonds between polypeptides?

I was doing some tests for the multiple-choice final we've got ahead. And it was on me to count the peptide bonds in an Insulin hormone with 51 aminoacids arranged in two polypeptides with 30 and 21 ...
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Delocalization of pi electrons in nitrate ion

In my textbook, as examples of delocalization of pi electrons, benzene and nitrate ion have been considered. Benzene, due to symmetry of its resonating structures is simple enough. We assume that ...
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Why is Graphene So Strong?

There has been a lot of news about Graphene since its discovery in 2004. And as we are all told it is a revolutionary material which is very strong, conductive and transparent; even in some cases it ...
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Halogen bond definition

I was looking for an accurate definition of halogen bonding. I was able to find quite a few good ones, but none of them would explain if a X---H intermolecular interaction would count as a form of ...
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Why do noble gases bond with themselves but not other elements?

Noble gases have full electron shells, which virtually blocks any other element from bonding with it. Though for some reason, noble gases can bond with the same element. For example: Helium bonds in ...
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Why is covalent bonding stronger than electrostatic attraction?

I guess if we look at this problem from a "conjugate" perspective then the conjugate of a covalent bond is two elements with electrons lying around. On the other hand, with two electrostatically ...
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Why is hydrogen bonding generally defined to include only three period two elements?

Traditionally, hydrogen bonding has been defined only include interactions between a positively polarized hydrogen and three period two elements: nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Why, however, was ...
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Which Lewis Structure for BeCl2 is more commonly seen?

One is more stable according to its charge. The other one does not satisfy as much as the first does the formal charge rule but has a complete octet.
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Why does coordinate covalent bond form?

Coordinate covalent bonds are bonds on which both electrons from one atom. But why does this happen? Some may think it is because one of the bonding atoms have strong electronegativity. But ...
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Why does N₂ react with O₂ to Form NO at high temperatures?

This also raises questions that I have about the Haber Process which produces ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) from molecular nitrogen ($\ce{N2}$) and hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$). I have heard multiple times that bond ...
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why there is charge on the elements,in the dative bonding?

according to the definition of dative bonding electrons are shared which are given by one of the atoms , so if the electrons are shared so how come there is charge on the elements in the dative ...