A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Does the ammonium ion hydrogen bond with water?

What about oxonium ions, such as hydronium ion? Do these hydrogen bond with water? If we see hydrogen bonding as a purely electrostatic phenomenon, then why not? Ammonium ion still has nitrogen ...
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The difference between peptide bonds and the bonds between polypeptides?

I was doing some tests for the multiple-choice final we've got ahead. And it was on me to count the peptide bonds in an Insulin hormone with 51 aminoacids arranged in two polypeptides with 30 and 21 ...
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Delocalization of pi electrons in nitrate ion

In my textbook, as examples of delocalization of pi electrons, benzene and nitrate ion have been considered. Benzene, due to symmetry of its resonating structures is simple enough. We assume that ...
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Why is Graphene So Strong?

There has been a lot of news about Graphene since its discovery in 2004. And as we are all told it is a revolutionary material which is very strong, conductive and transparent. But what is it about ...
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Halogen bond definition

I was looking for an accurate definition of halogen bonding. I was able to find quite a few good ones, but none of them would explain if a X---H intermolecular interaction would count as a form of ...
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185 views

Why do noble gases bond with themselves but not other elements?

Noble gases have full electron shells, which virtually blocks any other element from bonding with it. Though for some reason, noble gases can bond with the same element. For example: Helium bonds in ...
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Why is covalent bonding stronger than electrostatic attraction?

I guess if we look at this problem from a "conjugate" perspective then the conjugate of a covalent bond is two elements with electrons lying around. On the other hand, with two electrostatically ...
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Why is hydrogen bonding generally defined to include only three period two elements?

Traditionally, hydrogen bonding has been defined only include interactions between a positively polarized hydrogen and three period two elements: nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Why, however, was ...
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Which Lewis Structure for BeCl2 is more commonly seen?

One is more stable according to its charge. The other one does not satisfy as much as the first does the formal charge rule but has a complete octet.
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Why does coordinate covalent bond form?

Coordinate covalent bonds are bonds on which both electrons from one atom. But why does this happen? Some may think it is because one of the bonding atoms have strong electronegativity. But ...
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Why does N2 react with O2 to Form NO at high temperatures?

This also raises questions that I have about the Haber Process which produces ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) from molecular nitrogen ($\ce{N2}$) and hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$). I have heard multiple times that bond ...
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why there is charge on the elements,in the dative bonding?

according to the definition of dative bonding electrons are shared which are given by one of the atoms , so if the electrons are shared so how come there is charge on the elements in the dative ...
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284 views

Is a C-F bond stronger than a C-Cl bond?

In hydrolysis/nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes, the bond enthalpy indicates the rate of hydrolysis (e.g. the $\ce {C-I}$ bond is weaker than the $\ce {C-Cl}$ bond so in hydrolysis the alkane ...
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Where does the extra electron come from in the Lewis Dot Electron structure of say for example nitrate ion?

As most of you know, this is the diagram for nitrate ion: To draw this, i have to make all bonds with electrons from nitrogen, nitrogen only has five valence electron so ONE of the bonds consists of ...
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Lewis structure of Carbon Suboxide [closed]

What is the proper Lewis structure for Carbon Suboxide ($C_{3}O_{2}$).
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716 views

Why isn't water an ionic compound?

If two alkali metal atoms join with an oxygen atom, an ionic bond forms. Since hydrogen has the same number of valence electrons as alkali metals, why can't water be ionic? This is what I'm ...
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Bond Potential Energy Lowering

"Bonds will form only if the potential energy will be lower when the atoms are bonded than when they are separate." Is this statement true? If so, how do endothermic reactions exist? Can't you add ...
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Why is water transparent?

Some substances like Copper Sulfate for example have vivid colors. But why is water transparent? Does it not emit any visual light from the electromagnetic spectrum?
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C-H vs C-C: which is stronger?

I've read that nonpolar bonds are stronger than polar ones. If it is true, why C-H bond entalpy (413) is bigger than C-C (348)? I'm very confused at the moment. Thanks a lot
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What is the bonding picture in Peroxomonosulfate?

In $\ce{SO5^{2-}}$, can somebody tell me which orbitals are used to form the pi bonds in this anion. Please tell the hybridization. And the lewis structure. Well I tried and the answers I got was sp3 ...
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What's the meaning of the $-\equiv-$-like bond symbol?

In the following image, $\mathrm{CH}_2$ is connected to benzene rings with a $-\equiv-$ like symbol. What's the meaning of this symbol?
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Best representation of hydrogen bond in solid HF?

I'm unable to figure out why the answer for question number 95 is C. Any help would be appreciated. :)
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28 views

Determine the bond angle in a compound [closed]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
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70 views

Why do double bonds break

So today we performed an experiment, where we mixed cyclohexene with Bromine water. The equation was which seems to make sense. The Bromine water we were using was decoloured as evidence that this ...
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What is lowest energy state, how does an atom gain it and what does it have to do with hybridization?

I understand that hybridisation occurs due to the atom wanting to exist in the most stable state possible, and the most stable state has the lowest energy. What I don't understand, however, is say, in ...
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Molecular Orbital Theory and No. of bonds

The order of filling of molecular orbitals $\ce{O2}$ by MOT is this : But from it, how can I deduce that there is one sigma and one pi bond in an oxygen molecule ?
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What happens if the electronegativity difference is exactly 2.1?

I'm learning about electronegativity in atoms and how their difference affects the type of bond they make. I know that no difference makes a non-polar covalent bond, a difference less than 2.1 is a ...
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Histidine-Phosphate in Succinyl CoA synthetase and phosphoglycerate mutase enzyme

I would need to know the type of bond of histidine-phosphate in succinyl CoA synthetase enzyme. Can anyone help with this? Is it a Carboxy phosphate anhydride ? Is it the same type of bond of ...
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How can Iodine bond with 5 Fluorines in Iodine Pentafluoride?

According to this lewis diagram, Iodine has 12 valence electrons? How is the possible? Only thing I can think of is that I'm mistaken in counting the covalent bonds as two valence electrons each. Do ...
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Melting ice off of trucks fast

When a truck comes into the shop with extreme ice that is rock hard, is there a way to remove it fast?, any tricks of the trade?
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Why hybridization occurs in diatomic molecule

In diatomic nitrogen There are two electron configurations I'd like to compare: 1s2 2s2(lone pair) 2p3(the bonding electrons sigma,pi,pi) 1s2 2sp(lone pair) 2sp(sigma bonding) 2p2(pi,pi bonding) ...
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How does H2O2 bond

I am asking this question on behalf of my seven year old daughter, so if possible please take that into consideration in the answer! I am not a chemist, but I do try to teach my daughter the basics ...
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Why does Nitrogen form N2 (and not N4) while but Phosphorus forms P4 (and not P2)?

$\ce{N2}$ is a gas $\ce{P4}$ is a solid $\ce{N}$ and $\ce{P}$ are in the same group in the periodic table The bond enthalpies are: $\ce{N#N}$ triple bond is $949~ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$ $\ce{P#P}$ triple ...
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42 views

Are bond angles constant?

I'd imagine the answer to the question posed in the title is no - bond angles are not constant. Covalent bonds are not infinitely rigid; hence IR as a spectroscopic technique. If so, how can we ...
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Molecular bond angles

How do Bond angles vary in molecule with a lone pair and central atom of different electronegativity, but in the same period so that ecectronegativity matters more than orbital size? Assuming that the ...
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Bond Dissociation Temperatures for Hydrocarbons

I'd like to know the temperatures that various hydrocarbons such as methane, butane, and propane, etc. will dissociate into hydrogen and carbon. Is there a reference where I can look up these ...
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How do we experimentally know the strength of bonds?

How do we experimentally measure the strengths of covalent versus ionic bonds? Also, for a given molecule, how can we know if two pairs of atoms is covalently or ionically bound? Related question: ...
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631 views

What holds atoms together?

1.I know atoms are held together by Ionic and Covalent bonds and i understand the ionically bonded atoms are held together by electrostatic forces. What about covalent bonds? 2.How are molecules of ...
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Why can't carbon form an ionic bond?

My textbook says that a $\ce{C^{4+}}$ cation cannot be formed because it requires a lot of energy to remove 4 electrons. Formation of ionic bonds involve "removing" electrons and there seems to be ...
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Why do acids ionize in solution if they are covalently bonded?

Maybe I am wrong, but I thought acids were covalently bonded since hydrogen doesn't form ionic compounds. For example, wouldn't $\ce{HCl}$ look like: Since the electrons are shared, why does it ...
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Diatomic halogens - bond strength

Why is the F-F bond relatively weak? And why does bond strength decrease from Cl-Cl to I-I? Does this have anything to do with "lone-pair" repulsions on the rather small F-F molecule? I haven't ...
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The structure of $H_3$

According to wikipedia $\ce{H^+_3}$ and $\ce{H_3}$ are possible and have been synthesized. It says that $\ce{H^+_3}$ is stable too. Can anyone please tell me how is the bonding possible? Hydrogen ...
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Why is KF the most ionic compound?

I saw somewhere (can't recall where) that KF is the most ionic compound. I expected CsF. Does the greater polarizability of Cs allow it to more easily form covalent bonds compared to K? Does this ...
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Does hydrogen bonding only occur between water molecules?

Does hydrogen bonding only occur between water molecules? Is the dipole-dipole intermolecular interaction know as hydrogen bonding because it is between water molecules, or is called that because of ...
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What is the charge of Silicon dioxide?

What is the charge of Silicon dioxide ions? I can't find it anywhere. It seems to be 0? Also is there anywhere I can find these on my own?
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Show the vibrational frequency of F2- is much lower than that of F2

Basically I need to draw the molecular orbital for $\ce{F2}$ and then answer a bunch of questions about it. I have drawn it correctly, as far as I know, but I don't know how to use it to show that the ...
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Why do atoms “want” to have a full outer shell?

Okay, so I know that this is about filling the orbitals of the atom, and I understand that. What I don't understand is why? For example, an Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons spinning around ...
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Is the transformation of pi bonds to sigma bonds always energetically favorable?

Is the move from pi bonds to sigma bonds always favorable? My professor claims so, except in the case of conjugated pi bonds. I can see how pi bonds going to sigma bonds might be favorable; I know ...
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By what mechanisms can molecules with the same empirical formula be so different?

I understand the difference between empirical and chemical formula. But I always thought that compounds and molecules took their specific shape because it's the lowest energy configuration. How then, ...
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Which atoms in a given amino acid are able to form hydrogen bonds with water?

Can anyone help me with this question I have tried everything. I know hydrogen bonding is with F,O, or N but every time I select those is says it's wrong. Any help is appreciated