A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Bond angles in PDB

people I've been trying to adjust the bond angles in a protein data bank (PDB) file, but I'm a novice when it comes to computing so I would like to ask your assistance. I have a file for metamizole, ...
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Bond angle of Nitrous Acid

Why are there two possible bond angles for the nitrous acid molecule? After perusing Wikipedia I found that there are both cis and trans forms of the nitrous acid molecule. I also note that the cis ...
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How to determine mineral properties based on chemical formula?

I need to learn a bunch of minerals and their properties. What I want is some sort of rule which helps me deduce color, crystal system, luster etc. I know that different kind of ions give specific ...
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Covalent character and ionic dissociation enthalpy?

I am a bit confused does covalent characteristic within a bond increase or decrease its strength as i have found two counter examples: firstly covelent character increases the enthalpy of dissociation ...
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63 views

Why don't molecules of ionic compounds exist?

My book says: "As single ions of a metal are not associated in the solid with single ions of a non metal, separate units of ionic compounds do not exist. It is, therefore, wrong to talk of a ...
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Lone Pair 'more repulsion' VSPR Theory

I've always been told in chemistry lessons that lone pairs repel more due to a greater charge density than bonding pairs. And that makes sense when steric effects are involved when bond orbitals ...
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Bond Length of CO+ is expected to be more than CO but it is found to be less. Why is this so?

According to Molecular Orbital Theory(MOT), the bond order of CO is 3. When CO+ is formed, bond order decreases to 2.5 and thus bond length should increase. However, the bond length of CO+ is found to ...
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2answers
50 views

Can a hydrocarbon organic compound contain an ionic bond? [closed]

Can hydrocarbon organic compounds have a type of bonds other than covalent bonds?
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Why is HF considered a covalently bonded compound?

Why is the bond between H and F in HF considered polar covalent whereas HCl, HI, and so on are all ionic? The electronegativity difference between them suggests that it too should be ionic, yet all ...
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194 views

Gold's atomic structure and bonding in relation to the separation techniques used

How is Gold's atomic structure and bonding related to the separation techniques used to distinguish it from other substances? I'm just confused on what I'm actually searching for, I have read so ...
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96 views

Is pyrite (FeS2) an ionic or a covalent compound?

I have searched all over the web and found a lot of diverse explanations, but none of them are concluding exactly whether $\ce{FeS2}$ (solid - pyrite) is a covalent or an ionic compound. From ...
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115 views

Why does HCl ionize in water?

Why does the Hydrogen proton "prefer" to join the $\ce{H2O}$ molecule instead of remaining bonded to the chlorine atom?
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68 views

How is an aqueous Ag+ the same as [Ag(H2O)2]+?

$\ce{Ag^{+}_{(aq)}}$ can be written as $\ce{[Ag(H2O)2]+}$ but how would you know that it bonds with 2 water molecules? I don't get when ligands randomly form 6, 4, 2 bonds.
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47 views

How do ligands and coordination complexes work in this case with copper (II) chloride?

What happens when Ammonia is added to an (aq) solution of copper II chloride? $\ce{CuCl2 + NH3 ->\; ?}$ I know that ligands bond with metals to form ion but I'm not sure about how they work in a ...
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62 views

Are all organic molecules with odd-numbered electron count radicals?

This question was triggered by another question on this site, about molecules with a total number of 13 electrons. I couldn't think of any (except the boring answer of $\ce{Al}$), and the answers to ...
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72 views

Predicting bond-strength of metal carbonyls

The metal carbonyls (and similar organometallic compounds) involve a combination of sigma bond, a pi bond and backbonding. The bond strengths under consideration are the metal-carbon bond and the ...
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2answers
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Chemical Bonding

A Covalent bond involves overlapping of orbitals while an Ionic bond involves charge separation. Why is overlapping of orbitals less stronger than charge separation,i.e., why is an Ionic bond stronger ...
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Where does the 9th electron go in a $\ce{N=O}$ bond?

In the first resonating structure you can see 5 unpaired electrons and 4 shared electrons on nitrogen, then isn't this a extended octet? If it is so, then in which orbital that 9th electron is ...
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Why do some dentists claim mercury “leaks out” of amalgam fillings?

From a chemistry point of view, if dental amalgam is a compound of mercury and other metals, and compounds are elements which are chemically bonded, how would it be possible for mercury to "leak out" ...
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106 views

Sigma bond strengths S-S, S-P, P-P [closed]

I want to know how the following sigma bond strength values are calculated. Like S-S = 1.0, S-P=1.71 And P-P=3.0. How these 1.0, 1.71, 3.0 came?
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Quantum Valence Theory Reference

At least to me, the contents of chapters 5 & 6 given here are representative of discussions on chemical bonding given in nearly all intro general & organic chem books, the statements in those ...
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Does the hybridization model gives us any further insight on Molecular Geometry?

It doesn't seem as though the hybridization model adds anything useful to the discussion of molecular geometry as predicted by the VSEPR model. It's just another way of labeling linear, trigonal ...
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Is the Hybridization model for bonding based on underlying principles or the observable phenomena? [duplicate]

Consider the $CH_4$ molecule. It is observed that all of the bond lengths are identical, which contradicts the theory about $s$ and $p$ orbitals. Clearly, the theory needs to be modified to take this ...
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Bond enthalpy vs. enthalpy of atomization confusion

H-H bond enthalpy is 436 kJ/mol. To break apart a mole of H2 into H atoms, I apparently need to heat it by 436 kJ. Does this only apply at the standard temperature of 298 kelvin? What about H2 gas ...
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Ionic or covalent bond

Which bond is stronger, ionic or covalent? I have a lot of confusion about this.
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Covalent bond deformation

When do covalent bonds of a molecule $M$ extend or compress while no bonds in $M$ are broken? I can conceive of some possibilities but I don't know how common they are: Temperature changes ...
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103 views

How can it be certain that some bonds are 180 degrees?

Take acetylene, for example. It is defined that the two outer bonds are at 180 degrees. How is it possible to theoretically define all C-H bonds in acetylene as being 180 degrees?
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Chemical bond-covalent-valence electrons OH-

I would like to ask how many valence electrons took part in creating chemical bond in OH-? Is the minus related to O or to H? Are there any spare valence electrons which didnt take part in creating ...
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The Lewis structure of HNO3

So I was checking the structure of nitric acid in Wikipedia, however I couldn't quite fathom why it looked like that because it seemed to contradict the following statement: A Lewis structure with ...
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What is the edge of a diamond like?

The chemical structure of a diamond is defined as an endless lattice in which each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms situated at the four ends of a tetrahedron. But of ...
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56 views

What prompts sodium to give up an electron?

What triggers sodium to convert from elemental Na to Na+? I know that it wants to have a full valence shell and all that, but how does it just eject the electron out?
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32 views

Why do you not bond with objects when you come in contact with them?

When touch objects, why do you not bond with them? Is it because they are already stable, or is it because the repulsion of the electrons prevents you from doing so? Further, how come atoms are able ...
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179 views

Why is Charcoal such an excellent adsorbent?

Charcoal (also activated charcoal) is known to adsorb a huge variety of substances including a variety of paints, dyes and many different kinds of ions. Moreover, the amount of adsorption at normal ...
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99 views

Unified theory of chemical bonds

My question is related to the edge between Subatomic Physics and Chemistry, but I decided that here is the best place to discuss it. As we all know, Theoretical Physics is a well developed field of ...
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345 views

Bonds between metals and non-metals

My teacher in college says that bonds between metals and nonmetals are Ionic. $ \ce{Metal - Metal} $ $\Rightarrow$ Metalic bond $\ce{Non metal - Non metal}$ $\Rightarrow$ Covalent bond I have to ...
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Ions and Polyatomic Ions

Before a sodium atom and a chlorine atom combine together to form the ionic compound $NaCl$, they are just neutral atoms. However, when an electron is transferred from the outer energy level of the ...
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Is it possible to melt diamonds into a liquid?

Is it possible to melt diamonds into a liquid? I mean if you heat diamond at open air it will start to burn around 700 degree celsius, reacting with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide gas. In the ...
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119 views

Why do puffed rice stick to wet hands?

My mom gave puffed rice to eat, I had quite wet hands. I saw that, each puffed rice pieces started hanging to the hand, when I brought my hand in contact with them. I thought about electrostatics ...
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78 views

Can we prepare aryl halides by heating with halogen acids?

My book says, we can't prepare aryl halides ($RX$, where $R$ is aryl group and $X$ is any halogen) by treating phenol with halogen acids ($HX$, where $X$ is halogen). It is said to be, because of ...
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144 views

Why is alcohol boiled with HBr for preparing alkyl bromide?

Alkyl halides are best prepared from alcohols ($R-OH$, where $R$ is alkyl group), which are easily accessible. The hydroxyl group of an alcohol is replaced by halogen on reaction with concentrated ...
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208 views

How can the Bonding in IF7 be explained using LCAO method?

I know that the VSEPR theory explains $IF_7$ (iodine heptafluoride)'s structure as a pentagonal bipyramidal one.The valence bond theory can be used to say that it has $sp^3d^3$ hybridisation(i think ...
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675 views

Why do C-F bond has less dipole moment than C-Cl bond?

Larger the difference in electronegativities of bonded atoms, the larger the dipole moment. [this statement has been extracted from chemwiki-dipole moment] The electronegativity difference ...
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467 views

Is ionic bond just formed by “electrostatic” interaction between two oppositely charged ions?

According to the definition of ionic bond: An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. If we consider the above ...
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Torsion angle symbol

I'm reading up on molecular modelling and have come across some terms I should probably have learnt a long time ago but always scared me off a bit with the Greek letters. I guess I'm a big boy now so ...
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96 views

Which atoms form which elements?

Is there a diagram/flow chart available that shows which atoms fused together to make each of the elements? I can find examples for some elements, but nothing which shows all the combinations of ...
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Why are there free electrons in a metal?

Recently, we covered metallic bonding in chemistry, and frankly, I understood little. I understand that: Metals bond to each other via metallic bonding Electricity can flow via free or ...
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Are there positive ligands?

Are there positive ligands which can bind to the central metal atom to form co-ordination compounds? $My$ $thoughts:$I know that ligands are Lewis bases which donate a pair of electrons and the ...
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2answers
209 views

Why does ClO4- only have 3 double bonds?

It seems that most people draw $\ce{ClO4^{-}}$ with three double bonds and the negative charge on the oxygen: http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.109953.html However, it would seem that it ...
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References for learning about acid and bases in organic chemistry

I was wondering if someone could help me find references available that will help me solve the following problems. These are not homework problems, but are suggested problems that were given to me by ...
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How should elements be colored? And how many bonds does an atom have?

I'm working on my own 3D molecule viewer for my AP Chem class. So far everything's going together nicely. There's a couple of things I'm not sure about though... Is there a certain rule of thumb or ...