A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Hydration of Acids

I was told that when we add water to an acid it gets hydrated. When it gets hydrated oxygen part of water gets attracted towards the H+ ion of acid and the hydrogen part towards the anion in acid. So ...
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Nitrogen bonding and electron affinity

How does nitrogen bond with itself to form N2 if it has no affinity for electrons? If a nitrogen atom can't pull on the electrons of another nitrogen atom how can N2 have covalent bonds.
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Why are bonding interactions so much stronger than interactions of other types?

Why are bonding interactions so much stronger than all the other types of interactions like dipole-dipole, London dispersion, hydrogen bond etc. even though they are all of electromagnetic origin?
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27 views

Decomposing chemical compounds - Ease of Decomposition [on hold]

Someone asked me a question, that which of the following can be decomposed chemically: Ammonia Iron Neon Hydrogen Flourine My Analysis: At first attempt I answered Ammonia but changed it to 'I ...
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1answer
25 views

Is it possible to quantify alkane branching? [closed]

Is it possible to express the extent to which an alkane has branching (branch count)?
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19 views

Trying to work out the Mean Bond Energy for C-H Bond

The question is asking me to find a value for the mean bond energy of the C-H bonds in Ethene and Ethane. I am given the mean bond energies for the C=C, the H-H and the C-C bonds which are 612kj/mol, ...
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Extra-stability of half & fully-filled orbitals + release of exchange energy [closed]

I read that half-filled or fully-filled orbitals are extra-stable bcz exchange energy,due to symmetry of spin, is released . Thus, due to such release of energy of the system, shouldn't the atom ...
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31 views

Is Fajan's rule only applicable to ionic compounds?

Is Fajan's rule applicable to only ionic compounds? The rules only talk about anions and cations, but I have come across examples like $\ce{MnO4-}$ in which high oxidation state of $\ce{Mn}$ leads to ...
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1answer
31 views

Dipole and size of a thioether relative to hydrocarbon

I am an enzymologist and I would like to check whether the consensus of how enzymes tell thioethers from hydrocarbons on substrates is a fact or fiction. So are any of these wrong? S–π ...
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16 views

The cause of low melting point of covalent molecular bonding and why covalent molecular is relatively strong

I think I mix up two concepts. I am wondering the cause that covalent molecular bonding have low melting point. Whereas, covalent molecular bond is relatively strong. Thanks for your help.
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1answer
78 views

Why does Sulfur have 12 valence electrons in the Sulfate ion? [duplicate]

So I am completely and utterly confused about why sulfur has 12 valence electrons. I understand in it's configuration, it has 2 electrons for the 3s subshell, and 4 electrons from its 3p subshell, and ...
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1answer
53 views

AlCl3: ionic and covalent?

My textbook states that AlCl3 is both an ionic and a covalent compound .How is it so?
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11 views

Friedel craft alkylation of toluene [duplicate]

When toluene is reacted with CH3Cl , AlCl3 with heat . Then the product is m-xylene. But methyl group is o,p-director , so according to me o-xylene and p-xylene must be formed .
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87 views

Bonding in alkali metal complexes

How exactly is the bonding described in complexes involving alkali metals? In particular, how much of a covalent component is there? Take three examples: $\ce{[Na(H2O)6]+}$: This previous answer by ...
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1answer
40 views

From a Quantum Chemistry Point of View how can I break Bonds without Heating?

Is it possible to dissolve/break bonds using strong alternating magnetic fields at high frequency? (Perhaps from tesla coils?) Could you use resonance to cause the bond to weaken over time? If so how ...
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33 views

Intermolecular Forces in Teflon vs Polyethylene

From Wikipedia, polyethylene has a melting point of around $400K$, while Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) has a melting point of $600 K$, which is much higher. Besides the increased London Dispersion ...
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1answer
52 views

Sulfurous acid tautomerisation

In the structure of $\ce{H2SO3}$ there is a lone pair on sulfur. Why can't sulfur make a bond with one of the hydrogen atoms and a double bond with oxygen to avoid lone pair?like given below ...
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1answer
21 views

Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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29 views

What should I use as the starting structure for stacking interaction energy calculation using Gaussian?

I have a crystal structure (single crystal, organic molecule- pyranone carboxamide derivative) that shows pi-pi stacking, and I want to do theoretical calculations. I am using Dispersion-correcting ...
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63 views

Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
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50 views

Mechanism for the Cleavage of Diborane?

The cleavage of diborane was presented in a recent lecture, and it was said that the borane could be cleaved unsymmetrically if sterics allowed, or symmetrically if they did not, as shown in the image ...
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1answer
143 views

How is Al2Cl6 covalent and Al2O3 ionic?

I encountered a question where the type of bonding for various oxides are prompted. Two of which are $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ and $\ce{Al2O3}$. I thought that chlorine atoms are more electronegative than oxygen ...
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22 views

Basic Screening effect concept

The sequence of shielding capacity by the electrons in different sub shell is given as s > p > d > f Along with it, if all sub shells are completely filled with electrons, the order of screening will ...
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Comparing bond strengths between O and S [duplicate]

The order of increasing bond strengths for O and S bonds is O-O < S-S < S=S < O=O. O is smaller and should therefore form stronger bonds with itself. Why, then, is the S-S single bond ...
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64 views

Why is this structure impossible

I'm asked the following: Explain why the structure $\ce{H - C = C - H}$ doesn't make sense chemically. Not only am I just looking for a check up of my answer, but am I making any sense in what ...
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51 views

Why Does Coordination of Metal Ions Happen Anyways?

I've been studying coordination chemistry, but I still have a fundamental question about the area: why do transition metals even form coordination compounds, while main group metals do not? Why can't ...
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Partial charges in a covalent bond

My professor stated the following statement: In a covalent bond, there is a presence of a partial charge in the atoms that combine to form a compound. For example in $\ce{H2O}$, since $\ce{O}$ is ...
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48 views

Why triiodide ion does not form ionic bond with cation having +2 charge?

In general, I found that triiodide ion generally forms ionic bond with cations having +1 charge like $\ce{NH4+I3-}$, $\ce{K+I3-}$, $\ce{Tl+I3-}$. But, I have never seen triiodide ion forming ionic ...
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39 views

Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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9 views

Trends in Single Bond Enthalpy of All Nonmetal Groups

Here I have a list of single bond enthalpies, $\ce{X-X}$, in kJ/mol, for the nonmetals arranged by group: Group 7: F: 155 Cl: 242 Br: 193 I: 151 Group 6: O: 146 S: 266 Se: 172 Te: 126 ...
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61 views

How to find the bond order of molecules like BF3,SO3,NO2+

I know that the formula for bond order is 1/2*(Nb-Na).But is there a quite simpler way than to use this formula?As the use of this formula requires the writing down electronic config according to ...
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33 views

N-O bonds in Nitric acid

The wikipedia article on nitric acid mentions the following structure of $\ce{HNO3}$ in which the two $\ce{N-O}$ bonds (other than that of $\ce{N-OH}$) are of different length i.e., ...
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51 views

If ionic compounds are strongly bonded, why are acids with a more polar central atom the stronger types of acids?

If the central atom is more polar, it pulls electron density away from the H+, making it more detachable. But why, then, are ionic compounds (which are even MORE polar than acidic covalent compounds) ...
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Bond angle order of SF2, OF2, HOF

Arrange the following componds in the increasing order of bond angle. $$\ce{HOF,~OF2,~SF2}$$ I know that bond angle of $\ce{SF2}$ will be less than the bond angle of $\ce{OF2}$ because of ...
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1answer
78 views

Bond Type of Lead: Metallic or Network Covalent?

I know that lead is classified as a metal, from its appearance, nonexistent band gap, and its position on the periodic table... etc. However, all of the elements above it (carbon, silicon, germanium, ...
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Comparing strengths of Hydrogen Bonds

What kind of a bond is the Hydrogen bond? Is it electrostatic forces of attraction or more like a partial coordinate bond? What pair of atoms would provide us the strongest Hydrogen bond? If we ...
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16 views

Order of Bonding in Nonaqeuous Hydrated Salts [duplicate]

In the chemical formula of a hydrated salt, such as $\ce{CuSO_4.5H_2O}$, is it implied from the format of the name that the the Copper (II) ion is ionically bonded to the sulfate, with water molecules ...
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35 views

Why are hybrid orbitals more efficient at overlapping?

What is the reason for considering that hybrid orbitals provide more effective overlapping resulting in formation of stronger bonds? Will this reasoning be correct that the hybrid orbitals have ...
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Could we bond H to the edges of Covalent Network structures like Diamond?

I know that Diamond is just Carbon atoms structured in a way that differs it to Graphite and Charcoal etc. But the carbon atoms on the edges do not have full valence shells. Would it be possible to ...
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Number of dative covalent bonding

How can I calculate the number of co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds in a molecule? For example, how many co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds are there in $\ce{NO^2+}$ ?
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Can ionic and covalent bond be explained in terms of orbitals?

Covalent bonding is stated as overlap of atomic orbitals .In ionic bonding the composite ions are held together by their electrostatic charges that result from the transfer of electrons from one atom ...
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1answer
79 views

H2 Triplet State

How does $\ce{H2}$ triplet state exist if there are electrons in both bonding and antibonding ($1\sigma$ and $1\sigma^*$) orbitals? Or am I being taught the hypothetical triplet states of the ...
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24 views

How to estimate the number of hydrogen bridges in a bouncing ball?

We want to make a bouncing ball: the reaction is between with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) of wood glue and borax. It makes bridges between the molecules like DNA and hydrogen bonds. We would like to ...
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1answer
70 views

Can't you form a ring from almost any number of sides from carbon?

Recently, we have been learning Chemistry in my physics class at school. We learned that Carbon is one of the elements that has the most variety in the compounds it can formed, being able to form four ...
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1answer
16 views

Finding the energy given out when 2 moles of reactants are mixed and ignited from a balanced equation

The question I am trying to answer is this: I only know about Hess' law, bond enthalpies and enthalpies of combustion and have tried to use all concepts in order to somehow get an answer but none of ...
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66 views

Why is there no Pi-backbonding in BeCl2?

The $\ce{Cl}$ atoms in $\ce{BeCl2}$ donate a lone pair to the $\ce{Be}$ atom of another molecule so that Beryllium can complete its octet. What I don't understand is why don't the $\ce{Cl}$ atoms ...
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22 views

The diference between covalent molecule lattice and covalent network lattice

Can you tell me the difference between covalent molecular lattice and covalent network lattice? Thanks for your help.
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What is the hybridisation state of the sulphur atom in S4N4F4?

The molecule is shown in the textbook as: I can rationalise that the N is sp2 hybridised with a single electron in the p-orbital perpendicular to the plane of the S/N ring. (The sp2 lone pair is ...
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155 views

Reactivity of Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes

In my textbook, it says that alkanes are generally the least reactive of the three, alkenes are slightly more reactive, and alkynes are even more reactive. However, alkanes have single bonds, alkenes ...
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86 views

Logical way to compare dipole moment

I have to find the decreasing order of dipole moment of $\ce{CHCl3}$, $\ce{CH3Cl}$, $\ce{CH2Cl2}$, and $\ce{CCl4}$. Now I know that in $\ce{CCl4}$ there will be no dipole moment. Now to compare the ...