A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

Is it possible for an atom to bond with 8 other elements (same or other type)? If yes, then please give some examples. If no, then what could be the possible reason for it? Update + Edit: My question ...
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98 views

Why do ion cores not move in a metal?

The delocalized electrons in a metal move about because of the electrostatic attractions between them and many different positive ion cores. But why does the same not occur with the ion cores ...
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What is the bonding type in hydrides of group 2 elements?

In one of my MCQ questions, there was a statement saying all group 2 elements form covalent hydroxides. I know it is incorrect. I know that $\ce{BeH2}$ is a covalent hydride. What about the rest? Are ...
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55 views

What is a non-classical carbocation?

What is a non-classical carbocation? How is it different from a classical carbocation? I am confused as I have come across this term many times on CSE but there seems to be nothing for my level of ...
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1answer
47 views

Change of electron spin in Carbon after Hybridization?

During bond formation in Carbon, one of the electrons from the 2s orbital jumps to one the empty p orbitals creating a hybrid orbital as seen in the figure below. Now clearly one electron from the ...
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1answer
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Possible Synthesis of a Polymer

Following a question I have asked previously, what I intend to inquire this time is quite similar as well, except, with a polymer. So previously I asked whether such monomer PCDO is possible to ...
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Method of deriving some properties or possible method of synthesis of a specific monomer

This is kind of like two questions but since they're related I have put them together. Consider a monomer under a hopefully anatomically correct name 'Phenyl Carbolithia Divinylene Oxide ...
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444 views

For a given element do heavier isotopes form stronger bonds than lighter isotopes?

I know that $\ce{C-D}$ and $\ce{C-T}$ bonds are stronger than $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, but is this generally true for isotopes of all elements? (By isotopes I mean stable ones with large half lives.)
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Can two metals bond covalently? [duplicate]

Can metal ions be engineered to behave like non-metals in terms of chemical properties (by supplying or removing electrons), would the altered metal ions bond covalently? Would the ions be too ...
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56 views

Why does a diatomic carbon molecule not exist? [closed]

Many p-block elements which are the first in their respective groups show $pπ-pπ$ multiple bonding. Why doesn't carbon do so?
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306 views

How long do the bonds in a molecule hold under nominally stable conditions?

Disclaimer: I am not a chemist I was just drinking my Ice Age mineral water which is 'untouched since the Ice Age' and wondered if the bonds formed in each molecule have remained intact for all those ...
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How to confirm the type of bonding taking place between two substances?

For example ink on paper: how can I confirm that the bonding is van der Waals and not covalent? Similarly, the same question can be asked about other interaction such as hydrogen bonding, ionic ...
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How can the dipole moment of carbon monoxide be rationalised by molecular orbital theory?

Despite the fact that oxygen is much more electronegative than carbon, the bond in $\ce{CO}$ presents a weak dipole moment. This observation can easily be explained using the concept of "dative bond", ...
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theoretical model for the Hydrogen bond

I am curious how from the perspective of quantum chemistry the Hydrogen bond is modeled. In particular I am interested in using such a model to estimate the amount of energy released per $\ce{H2O}$ ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Length of C-H bonds in hybridized bonding orbitals

What is the effect of hybridization and double-bond formation on the rest of the atoms/molecules attached to the central atom? For example, in a benzene molecule, the Carbon-Carbon bonds are ...
8
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1answer
73 views

Formation of radicals from C-H and C-C bonds

Why do radical mechanisms favor the homolytic dissociation of a $\ce{C-H}$ bond over a $\ce{C-C}$ bond? The $\ce{C-H}$ bond is stronger in magnitude (and it's also slightly polarized), so why would ...
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3answers
180 views

What are the correct resonance structures of nitrous oxide?

There was a question in one of my exam papers to draw the resonance structures for $\ce{N2O}$. But the resonance structures I drew were not given marks. The top 2 structures are the ones I drew and ...
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1answer
158 views

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds?

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds? Or could an inner shell create a bond under some conditions?
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1answer
84 views

Increase in Potential Energy When Bonds Are Broken

Why is it that the potential energy of a system increases when its bonds are broken? (I.e. when a solid turns into a liquid.) I thought the potential energy of the system was mostly contained in these ...
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108 views

Hypervalency and the octet rule

I realize that the octet rule is more a suggestion than a rule, and that it applies mainly to non-transition metal compounds. Still, compounds that don't have an octet, like $\ce{BH3}$, tend to ...
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223 views

Why is the bond order in the SO₃ molecule 1.33 and not 2?

The $\ce{SO3}$ molecule has three oxygen atoms double bonded to the central sulfur atom. Sulfur has $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization and has 6 outer electrons which make the bonds with the oxygen, so ...
3
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2answers
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Nucleic Acids Bonds

In a paper I am reading regarding instability and decay of DNA, the author says: "The chemical price paid for the greatly increased resistance of the nucleic acid phosphodiester bond (gained by ...
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3answers
160 views

How to determine bond length and angle in a conjugated pi-system (polymethine)?

I have a polymethine molecule with let's say 9 $\ce{C}$ atoms. $\ce{H-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH3}$ How can I calculate the length of the whole molecule? I need this number to compute the ...
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1answer
35 views

MO for $N_2^{2-}$

Could someone please show me the MO diagram for $\ce{N_2^{2-}}$? What I did was since N has 5 valence $\ce{e^{-}}$, then $\ce{N_2}$ must have 10, and $\ce{N_2^{2-}}$ must have 12. And $\ce{N}$ has $s$ ...
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1answer
29 views

Does intramolecular hydrogen bonding occur in dicarboxylic acids?

Consider ethanedioic acid: Could it form intramolecular hydrogen bonds (between the C=O and HO)?
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3answers
137 views

When does hydrogen bonding happen?

What kinds of molecules will experience hydrogen bonding (inter and intra)? Why does it occur for some H atoms but not others?
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What type of bonding occurs in isolated silicon?

Would isolated silicon engage in network covalent bonding as quartz does or would it engage in a different kind of bonding? Would germanium display similar qualities? *I am asking what is the bonding ...
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Why are the axial bonds of PF5 longer than those of the equatorial bonds? (Hybridization)

The axial bonds of $\ce{PF5}$ are longer than those of the equatorial positions. One explanation is that because the axial bonds are experiencing more repulsion than those of the equatorial and ...
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silanization and epoxy

I'm using Hxtal epoxy to glue glass together. I'm first treating the glass with A-1100, which allows for silanization. Are the surfaces permanently changed? In other words, could I then wash it off ...
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Why does the lone pair of electrons have no effect on the dipole moment of PH₃? [duplicate]

Why the lone pair of electrons has no effect on dipole moment of $\ce{PH3}$ unlike $\ce{NH3}$? Taken in account that the bond angle is said to be 92 degrees.
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1answer
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PBP vs TBP geometry?

Why are the axial bond lengths greater than those of the equatorial bonds in a trigonal bi-pyramid (TBP) geometry molecule; but the opposite is true for pentagonal bi-pyramid (PBP) geometry molecules? ...
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1answer
45 views

Why is the melting point of TiCl4 lower than TiCl3

I was wondering why the melting point of $\ce{TiCl4}$ was below that of $\ce{TiCl3}$ The melting point of the former is $\ce{-25 Celsius}$ whereas the latter is $\ce{425 Celsius}$ . Thanks!
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2answers
66 views

How many electrons does each shell hold?

why some times 2nd shell onward it can hold 8 electrons and other times it is like they can hold K2 L8 M18 N32? when do i have to use first method(K2 L8 M8 N8) and when to use second method (k2 L8 ...
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why do charges result on atoms when coordinate bonds are formed

I have not been able to get my head around it yet.for instance in the raction between ammonia and borontrifloride why is it that a positive and a negative charge results.is it that ammonia donates is ...
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1answer
51 views

Lennard-Jones potential and vibrational energy level diagram explanation

I don't understand how to interpret graphs like the following: Forget the difference between the Harmonic and Morse (I think I get that), It's more what the horizontal lines mean and what the ...
2
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1answer
55 views

How can placing a lone pair in axial position differs from that in equatorial in number of electron domains?

Could you explain the following statement in my chemistry book: ((Trigonal bipyramidal)) "Placing a lone pair in an axial position would put it at 90 degree to three other electron domains. Placing ...
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0answers
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why does phosphorus makes 5 bonds with oxygen in P4O10 whereas 3 bonds in P4O6?

how phosphorus forms 2 types of bonds with oxygen i.e. 5 in $\ce{P4O10}$ and 3 in $\ce{P4O6}$ when only three are needed to complete its octet?
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1answer
70 views

Can we picture metallic bonding as an equilibrium between electrons and cations?

Can we picture metallic bonding as an equilibrium between electrons and cations? Suppose: $$\ce{Al^3+ + 3e- <=> Al}$$
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1answer
62 views

Structure of a Metal in gas phase

If we have a metal in gas phase. Suppose lets say Aluminum. Aluminum has delocalised electrons. There is Al cation -electron attraction in it. Its easier to visualize Al atomic structure in solid ...
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1answer
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Why is NaCl3 possible?

There. And there. Almost a year ago, a group of scientists claimed to have reached compounds of $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ with weird stochiometries ($\ce{NaCl3, Na3Cl, NaCl7, Na3Cl2}$ and $\ce{Na2Cl}$). ...
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Why does sulphur form S8 instead of S3?

P forms $\ce{P4}$ due to its inability to form double/triple bonds. So it makes a sort of tetrahedral structure. S however makes $\ce{S8}$ cycles w/ $sp^2$ hybridization. Why go all that way to ...
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0answers
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Why does Silver form bonds with covalent character?

Compounds of silver form particularly strong bonds which is accounted for by the significant covalent character of the bonding. Furthermore, is the tendency to form covalent bonds linked to the fact ...
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1answer
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How can transition metals form so many bonds with ligands? [duplicate]

For instance, copper can form $\ce{[Cu(H2O)6]^2+}$ so it accepts 6 electron pairs from $\ce{H2O}$ molecules to form dative covalent bonds. However it has one electron in the 4s subshell and 10 in the ...
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1answer
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how to determine the bond order using the Lewis structure

What are the steps to follow to determine which has a higher bond order say $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO3^{2-}}$ by drawing the Lewis structure?
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What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any ...
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1answer
47 views

Need of hyperconjugation?

Recently I read about Hyperconjugation. But i have a doubt. What is the need of hyperconjugation in this structure when there is charge separation resulting in lesser stable structure.
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1answer
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Is this a possible explanation as to why sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds?

Sigma bonds form due to the axial overlap of two orbitals whereas pi bonds form due to their lateral overlapping. Since the former is more effective, we can say that sigma is stronger than pi. We mean ...
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1answer
23 views

How do you figure out the dissociation energy for ions?

Specifically $\ce{KF}$ into the $\ce{K+}$ and $\ce{F-}$ ions. I can find tables on the DE into atoms, but where would I go to find the DE between ions? I am also given that the bond length is ...
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1answer
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Zeolite formation

I read in a book that zeolites are formed by Aluminium replacing a silicon atom in Silicon dioxide. It says there is a negative charge formation. How does this happen? Thanks.
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Am I right in giving the following reason for some questions relating to the p-block?

I'm seeking clarification as I believe this to be the answer to why boron compounds are electron deficient. While bonding, the $2s^2$ electrons of Boron are excited to the $2p_y$ orbital, they ...