A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Why is the bond order in the SO₃ molecule 1.33 and not 2?

$\ce{SO3}$ molecule has three double bonded oxygen to the central sulfur atom. Sulfur has $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization and it has 6 outer electrons which make the bonds with the oxygen. So shouldn't ...
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I have a question about nucleic acids bonds

I am computational graduate student in biochemistry. I took organic chemistry, and I am reading a paper about instability and decay of DNA. The author says: "The chemical price paid for the greatly ...
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How to determine bond length and angle in a conjugated pi-system (polymethine)?

I have a polymethine molecule with let's say 9 $\ce{C}$ atoms. $\ce{H-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH3}$ How can I calculate the length of the whole molecule? I need this number to compute the ...
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MO for $N_2^{2-}$

Could someone please show me the MO diagram for $\ce{N_2^{2-}}$? What I did was since N has 5 valence $\ce{e^{-}}$, then $\ce{N_2}$ must have 10, and $\ce{N_2^{2-}}$ must have 12. And $\ce{N}$ has $s$ ...
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Does intramolecular hydrogen bonding occur in dicarboxylic acids?

Consider ethanedioic acid: Could it form intramolecular hydrogen bonds (between the C=O and HO)?
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When does hydrogen bonding happen?

What kinds of molecules will experience hydrogen bonding (inter and intra)? Why does it occur for some H atoms but not others?
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What type of bonding occurs in isolated silicon?

Would isolated silicon engage in network covalent bonding as quartz does or would it engage in a different kind of bonding? Would germanium display similar qualities? *I am asking what is the bonding ...
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Why are the axial bonds of PF5 longer than those of the equatorial bonds? (Hybridization)

The axial bonds of $\ce{PF5}$ are longer than those of the equatorial positions. One explanation is that because the axial bonds are experiencing more repulsion than those of the equatorial and ...
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silanization and epoxy

I'm using Hxtal epoxy to glue glass together. I'm first treating the glass with A-1100, which allows for silanization. Are the surfaces permanently changed? In other words, could I then wash it off ...
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Why does the lone pair of electrons have no effect on the dipole moment of PH₃? [duplicate]

Why the lone pair of electrons has no effect on dipole moment of $\ce{PH3}$ unlike $\ce{NH3}$? Taken in account that the bond angle is said to be 92 degrees.
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PBP vs TBP geometry?

Why are the axial bond lengths greater than those of the equatorial bonds in a trigonal bi-pyramid (TBP) geometry molecule; but the opposite is true for pentagonal bi-pyramid (PBP) geometry molecules? ...
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Why is the melting point of TiCl4 lower than TiCl3

I was wondering why the melting point of $\ce{TiCl4}$ was below that of $\ce{TiCl3}$ The melting point of the former is $\ce{-25 Celsius}$ whereas the latter is $\ce{425 Celsius}$ . Thanks!
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How many electrons does each shell hold?

why some times 2nd shell onward it can hold 8 electrons and other times it is like they can hold K2 L8 M18 N32? when do i have to use first method(K2 L8 M8 N8) and when to use second method (k2 L8 ...
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why do charges result on atoms when coordinate bonds are formed

I have not been able to get my head around it yet.for instance in the raction between ammonia and borontrifloride why is it that a positive and a negative charge results.is it that ammonia donates is ...
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Lennard-Jones potential and vibrational energy level diagram explanation

I don't understand how to interpret graphs like the following: Forget the difference between the Harmonic and Morse (I think I get that), It's more what the horizontal lines mean and what the ...
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How can placing a lone pair in axial position differs from that in equatorial in number of electron domains?

Could you explain the following statement in my chemistry book: ((Trigonal bipyramidal)) "Placing a lone pair in an axial position would put it at 90 degree to three other electron domains. Placing ...
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why does phosphorus makes 5 bonds with oxygen in P4O10 whereas 3 bonds in P4O6?

how phosphorus forms 2 types of bonds with oxygen i.e. 5 in $\ce{P4O10}$ and 3 in $\ce{P4O6}$ when only three are needed to complete its octet?
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Metallic bonding

Can we picture metallic bonding as an equilibrium between electrons and cations . Suppose:
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Structure of a Metal in gas phase

If we have a metal in gas phase. Suppose lets say Aluminum. Aluminum has delocalised electrons. There is Al cation -electron attraction in it. Its easier to visualize Al atomic structure in solid ...
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How to compare bond strengths of multiple bonds with each other?

Sort these bonds in decreasing order of their bond strengths: $\ce{C#O}$ $\ce{C#N}$ $\ce{N#N}$ $\ce{C-C}$ $\ce{C-H}$ My attempt to solve the question: $\ce{C#O > N#N > ...
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Why is NaCl3 possible?

There. And there. Almost a year ago, a group of scientists claimed to have reached compounds of $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ with weird stochiometries ($\ce{NaCl3, Na3Cl, NaCl7, Na3Cl2}$ and $\ce{Na2Cl}$). ...
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Why does sulphur form S8 instead of S3?

P forms $\ce{P4}$ due to its inability to form double/triple bonds. So it makes a sort of tetrahedral structure. S however makes $\ce{S8}$ cycles w/ $sp^2$ hybridization. Why go all that way to ...
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Why does Silver form bonds with covalent character?

Compounds of silver form particularly strong bonds which is accounted for by the significant covalent character of the bonding. Furthermore, is the tendency to form covalent bonds linked to the fact ...
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How can transition metals form so many bonds with ligands? [duplicate]

For instance, copper can form $\ce{[Cu(H2O)6]^2+}$ so it accepts 6 electron pairs from $\ce{H2O}$ molecules to form dative covalent bonds. However it has one electron in the 4s subshell and 10 in the ...
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how to determine the bond order using the Lewis structure

What are the steps to follow to determine which has a higher bond order say $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO3^{2-}}$ by drawing the Lewis structure?
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What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any ...
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Need of hyperconjugation?

Recently I read about Hyperconjugation. But i have a doubt. What is the need of hyperconjugation in this structure when there is charge separation resulting in lesser stable structure.
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Is this a possible explanation as to why sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds?

Sigma bonds form due to the axial overlap of two orbitals whereas pi bonds form due to their lateral overlapping. Since the former is more effective, we can say that sigma is stronger than pi. We mean ...
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How do you figure out the dissociation energy for ions?

Specifically $\ce{KF}$ into the $\ce{K+}$ and $\ce{F-}$ ions. I can find tables on the DE into atoms, but where would I go to find the DE between ions? I am also given that the bond length is ...
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Zeolite formation

I read in a book that zeolites are formed by Aluminium replacing a silicon atom in Silicon dioxide. It says there is a negative charge formation. How does this happen? Thanks.
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Am I right in giving the following reason for some questions relating to the p-block?

I'm seeking clarification as I believe this to be the answer to why boron compounds are electron deficient. While bonding, the $2s^2$ electrons of Boron are excited to the $2p_y$ orbital, they ...
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Why is snow white?

I know that this is a rather ambiguous question; but my question is, whenever we take water and freeze it in the freezer, it still tends to stay clear. Since snow is just frozen water, why is it ...
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Why do no known atoms have electrons in the g or h subshells?

I'm learning about orbital quantum numbers. While checking several elements on the periodic table I noticed that there aren't any atoms that have electrons in the g or h sub-orbitals. Why is this?
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Is there a relationship between bond strength and polarity?

I believe that a more polar bond would be stronger, since it would be similar to an ionic bond. However, this seems to be wrong when applied to the study of acidity of some compounds.
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Clarification for metallic bond

Recently, I learn about bonding and my teacher only focus on ionic and covelant bond, not metallic bond. So, I go on google search but I have no idea of what is it? How electrons can suddenly appear ...
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What kind of interacion is there between a nanoparticle and its functionalizing coating?

The functionalization of nanoparticles (with coatings such as polymer ligands; see image) are very common (for example, DNA-functionalizied gold nanoparticles). What's the type of interaction between ...
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What are examples of group 14 elements forming dπ - pπ bonding?

While studying the Group 14 elements, I came across the anomalous behaviour of carbon. In that there was a point: Carbon forms only p$\pi$-p$\pi$ type bonding while other elements in the group ...
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Why is water considered ionic in fuel cells but otherwise covalent?

If water, $\ce{H2O}$ is a covalent compound formed by sharing of electrons, why is it said (in case of fuel cells) that formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is a redox reaction (transfer of ...
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Comparing the strength of metallic bonds

Why is the boiling point of iron higher than magnesium?
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Is there a clear distinction between the various intra- and intermolecular interactions?

Wikipedia lists dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals under intermolecular interactions, and hydrophobic, ionic and covalent under intramolecular interactions. Is there a clear ...
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How to calculate bond enthalpies from first principles?

Is it possible to calculate bond enthalpies using the periodic table and the molecule's geometric structure? I am interested in a way of calculating this without getting the answer from measurements ...
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HO vs OH Atomic Structure

Can the $\ce{HO}$ bond be written as $\ce{OH}$ and still be correct?
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Why is the inductive effect of σ-electrons only along saturated carbon chains?

In my book the following is written: When an electron withdrawing atom such as a halogen is attached to the end of a carbon chain, the $\sigma$-electrons of the $\ce{C-X}$ bond are attached to or ...
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How to rationalise the difference in halogen bonding?

Can anyone explain the difference in halogen bonding to me. I understand the explanation in (c). It appears to me, that accepting that would contradict the answers to parts (a), (b), and (c). Is the ...
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What's the type of bonding in La@C60?

Endohedral fullerene is the name given to a brand new chemical species with the following attributes: A metal, usually a transition metal, is "trapped" inside the fullerene, like $\ce{C60}$ and ...
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Effect of radioactivity on bonding [duplicate]

What effect does $\alpha$ or $\beta$ decay have on the bonding in molecules? In particular the example I was thinking of was if you have a radioactive metal at the centre of a complex ion. I had a ...
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How many delocalised electrons in gold?

How can we determine how many delocalised electrons every atom of gold contributes to the 'sea of delocalised electrons'? More generally, how can we determine the number of electrons any metal ...
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Why does symmetry have to be maintained in molecular orbitals?

Using the example of $\ce{XeF4}$: What is the physical explanation enforcing the symmetry of the $\ce{1b_{1g}}$ orbital on the fluorine atoms? Why isn't the symmetry of a nonbonding orbital ...
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Cohesive forces in solid solutions

I have searched through printed books and the Internet, but I cannot find a definitive answer on an issue that fascinates me: what forces keep the various compounds belonging to a solid solution ...
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Bonds within complex anions

Many groups of bound atoms complexively bearing a (negative) charge are called complex anions. Examples are $\text{NO}_3^{-}$, $\text{CO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{BO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{CrO}_4^{2-}$, ...