A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Calcium nitrate

I am trying to understand ions and bonds. For example, calcium nitrate is an ionic bond. Do the ions ($\ce{Ca^2+}$) and ($\ce{NO3-}$) form as the two are coming together as a bond or are the ions ...
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Imaginary Bonding Interactions

Usually in chemistry, we deal with bonding interactions. That is, if I have the diatomic A-A molecule or A-B molecule, there's a favorable interaction (i.e., a bond) and a prototypical MO diagram like ...
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Redox reactions

First semester chem student and I am wondering about redox reactions. For example, when copper is oxidized by silver ions in the reaction: Cu + 2Ag+(aq)----->Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) what is causing the ...
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Reaction with BH3

If the following compound is reacted with first $\ce{BH_3/THF}$ and second $\ce{H_2O_2/HO^{-}}$ then $\ce{OH}$ group is attached at less subtituted carbon. But if it is treated with $\ce{CH_3COOH}$ ...
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How does ice formation glue things together?

Today, I took two crumpets out of the freezer, which had become stuck to each other where moisture between them had frozen. They were two separate crumpets, the top one stuck fast to the bottom one, ...
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Is OH the same as O-H?

When 2-hydroxylpropanitrite undergoes hydrolysis by H20, it will become 2-hydroxylpropanoic acid. In the structural formula, I wrote the O-H that are connected to the carbon with double bond as OH. Is ...
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30 views

Placing oxygen molecule into electric field

I am trying to understand what happens inside various types of air ionisers. Some of them are sold for their purported health effects (which I do not want to discuss here), another type are used in ...
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19 views

Bond order using orbital-electron formula

As far as I know, bond order is, simply speaking, the number of average active bonds between a pair of atoms. In case of polyatomic molecules with more than two like atoms and a central atom, we take ...
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Energy of hydrogen bonds vs. kinetic energy of water molecules

I watched an extremely engaging video "Why does ice float in water?" by George Zaidan and Charles Morton, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UukRgqzk-KE. In particular, video says "Below 4oC kinetic ...
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Expanded Valence Shell [duplicate]

I was reading Atkins' Principles of Chemistry about Expanded Valence Shell. He has explained that the two most important factors that allow the expanded octet is (i) a greater atomic radius (for ...
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31 views

Can two C atoms form quadruple bond? [duplicate]

This question might appear to be extremely stupid, but I am not from a chemistry background. But one of my friend called me to ask this question- Can two C atoms form quadruple bond? Means four ...
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How can alkali metals form covalent bonds?

Alkali metals have spherical outer s orbitals unlike elements like carbon which have protruding p orbitals that can "attach" onto other orbitals to form covalent compounds. Even in cases like methane ...
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Why does rotating a double bond break the bond?

It is well known that double bonds are "stiff" and make particles less likely to rotate around the bond. But why? What makes it so that the bond has to be orientated a specific way?
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What are the bond angles of propane?

In an organic chemistry book, I find out that the observed C-C-C bond angle is approximately $111.16$ degrees. What about the C-C-H bond and H-C-H bond (as shown in the picture below)?
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Acids in aqueous solution [duplicate]

Why do acids donate a proton to water? For example, HCl. I realize it ionizes to form H+ and Cl- and the hydronium ion is formed. Why scientifically does this happen? Why does the H donate its proton ...
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36 views

Find bond lengths from moments of inertia [on hold]

How do I find $r$ in a triatomic (asymmetric molecule) if I know $I_\mathrm a$, $I_\mathrm b$, and $I_\mathrm c$? So I can calculate $r_\mathrm a$, $r_\mathrm b$, and $r_\mathrm c$ using rotational ...
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45 views

Why does greater orbital overlap mean a stronger bond?

According to valence bond theory, orbital overlap produces a bond. However, I don’t understand why having greater orbital overlap renders a bond stronger. It’s intuitive, I suppose, but I haven’t been ...
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53 views

Dissociation of HCl in aqueous solution

My question is regarding $\ce{HCl}$. In my book it states that: $$\ce{HCl (aq) -> H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)}$$ I understand that when added to water the $\ce{H}$ leaves its electron to the $\ce{Cl}$ ...
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2answers
59 views

How to determine whether a given compound is paramagnetic or diamagnetic? [closed]

Well i am very confused whether we can determine the magnetic property of compounds.. If it us asked for elements we can say by looking at electronic configuration... For ex- how is N2O diamagnetic?...
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What is the hybridisation of hydrogen in methane?

I am trying to understand hybridisation. In methane carbon has $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, but what is the hybridisation of hydrogen? Is it $\mathrm{sp^3}$? If yes then why?
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Molecular orbital theory and the conservation of molecular orbitals

I am not clear with the molecular orbital theory. I have read: If the atomic orbitals are combined with the same phase they interfere constructively and a bonding orbital is formed. If the ...
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2answers
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Difference between black and brown eumelanin / red and pink pheomelanin

Wikipedia says the following: There are two types of eumelanin—brown eumelanin and black eumelanin—which chemically differ from each other in their pattern of polymeric bonds. What are those ...
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Bond Energy of Ions of Molecular Oxygen

Three of the bond energies of $\ce{O2,\ O2^{-},\ O2^{2-},\ O2^+}$ have the values approximately $200, 490$ and $625\ \mathrm{kJ\ mol^{-1}}$. The value for one of the species is uncertain and, ...
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Molecular orbital theory configuration question

Recently while studying my high school chemistry textbook I came to know that according to molecular orbital theory, the energy of $\sigma 2p_z$ is actually greater than the energy of $\pi 2p_x$ and $\...
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Nature of Bond in Methylammonium lead Halide

I want to know about the nature of bond in Methylammonium Lead halide(CH3NH3PbX3),a perovskite compound.I went through wikipedia and many other sites and through certain research papers but I didn't ...
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Can electrostatic interaction affect nucleophilic attack by thiolate anion

Suppose a protein side chain has a $\ce{-SH}$ group which is partially deprotonated to thiolate anion $\ce{-S -}$. This thiolate can perform a nucleophilic attack on a certain substrate. Will the ...
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How phenyl shift is possible in Benzil-benzilic rearrangement?

We know C-C bond is much stronger than C-OH bond (because similar sized atoms have maximum overlap)as in case of phenyl-cabonyl carbon bond. Also due to resonance there is double bond character in ...
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How do ion–dipole bonds manage to break apart an ionic lattice?

I was reading this answer and its reasoning behind the dissolution of NaCl seems to lie in entropic favorability. However, as it states, many, if not most, dissolution reactions are favored by ...
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49 views

What is the solution to Kauzmann's paradox?

Kauzmann's paradox is the paradox of what happens when a liquid is supercooled below the temperature at which the difference in entropy is zero.
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Ionic charge factors [closed]

New to chemistry so forgive the fundamental question. What exactly determines the element's charge? Oxygen has 2- and hydrogen has 1+. Oxygen wants to receive 2 electrons to complete a shell when ...
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67 views

Delocalization and Stability

Why does delocalization of electrons make more stable compounds? Is there any proper explanation involving quantum-mechanics?
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Hydration of Acids

I was told that when we add water to an acid it gets hydrated. When it gets hydrated oxygen part of water gets attracted towards the H+ ion of acid and the hydrogen part towards the anion in acid. So ...
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Nitrogen bonding and electron affinity

How does nitrogen bond with itself to form N2 if it has no affinity for electrons? If a nitrogen atom can't pull on the electrons of another nitrogen atom how can N2 have covalent bonds.
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Why are bonding interactions so much stronger than interactions of other types?

Why are bonding interactions so much stronger than all the other types of interactions like dipole-dipole, London dispersion, hydrogen bond etc. even though they are all of electromagnetic origin?
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Decomposing chemical compounds - Ease of Decomposition [closed]

Someone asked me a question, that which of the following can be decomposed chemically: Ammonia Iron Neon Hydrogen Flourine My Analysis: At first attempt I answered Ammonia but changed it to 'I ...
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Is it possible to quantify alkane branching? [closed]

Is it possible to express the extent to which an alkane has branching (branch count)?
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Trying to work out the Mean Bond Energy for C-H Bond

The question is asking me to find a value for the mean bond energy of the C-H bonds in Ethene and Ethane. I am given the mean bond energies for the C=C, the H-H and the C-C bonds which are 612kj/mol, ...
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44 views

Is Fajan's rule only applicable to ionic compounds?

Is Fajan's rule applicable to only ionic compounds? The rules only talk about anions and cations, but I have come across examples like $\ce{MnO4-}$ in which high oxidation state of $\ce{Mn}$ leads to ...
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Dipole and size of a thioether relative to hydrocarbon

I am an enzymologist and I would like to check whether the consensus of how enzymes tell thioethers from hydrocarbons on substrates is a fact or fiction. So are any of these wrong? S–π ...
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1answer
218 views

Why does Sulfur have 12 valence electrons in the Sulfate ion? [duplicate]

So I am completely and utterly confused about why sulfur has 12 valence electrons. I understand in it's configuration, it has 2 electrons for the 3s subshell, and 4 electrons from its 3p subshell, and ...
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1answer
124 views

AlCl3: ionic and covalent?

My textbook states that AlCl3 is both an ionic and a covalent compound .How is it so?
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Friedel craft alkylation of toluene [duplicate]

When toluene is reacted with CH3Cl , AlCl3 with heat . Then the product is m-xylene. But methyl group is o,p-director , so according to me o-xylene and p-xylene must be formed .
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Bonding in alkali metal complexes

How exactly is the bonding described in complexes involving alkali metals? In particular, how much of a covalent component is there? Take three examples: $\ce{[Na(H2O)6]+}$: This previous answer by @...
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From a Quantum Chemistry Point of View how can I break Bonds without Heating?

Is it possible to dissolve/break bonds using strong alternating magnetic fields at high frequency? (Perhaps from tesla coils?) Could you use resonance to cause the bond to weaken over time? If so how ...
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Intermolecular Forces in Teflon vs Polyethylene

From Wikipedia, polyethylene has a melting point of around $400K$, while Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) has a melting point of $600 K$, which is much higher. Besides the increased London Dispersion ...
4
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Sulfurous acid tautomerisation

In the structure of $\ce{H2SO3}$ there is a lone pair on sulfur. Why can't sulfur make a bond with one of the hydrogen atoms and a double bond with oxygen to avoid lone pair?like given below ...
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Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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What should I use as the starting structure for stacking interaction energy calculation using Gaussian?

I have a crystal structure (single crystal, organic molecule- pyranone carboxamide derivative) that shows pi-pi stacking, and I want to do theoretical calculations. I am using Dispersion-correcting ...
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Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
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Mechanism for the Cleavage of Diborane?

The cleavage of diborane was presented in a recent lecture, and it was said that the borane could be cleaved unsymmetrically if sterics allowed, or symmetrically if they did not, as shown in the image ...