A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Why is NaCl3 possible?

There. And there. Almost a year ago, a group of scientists claimed to have reached compounds of $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ with weird stochiometries ($\ce{NaCl3, Na3Cl, NaCl7, Na3Cl2}$ and $\ce{Na2Cl}$). ...
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Why does sulphur form S8 instead of S3?

P forms $\ce{P4}$ due to its inability to form double/triple bonds. So it makes a sort of tetrahedral structure. S however makes $\ce{S8}$ cycles w/ $sp^2$ hybridization. Why go all that way to ...
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Why does Silver form bonds with covalent character?

Compounds of silver form particularly strong bonds which is accounted for by the significant covalent character of the bonding. Furthermore, is the tendency to form covalent bonds linked to the fact ...
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How can transition metals form so many bonds with ligands?

For instance, copper can form [Cu(H2O)6]2+ so it accepts 6 electron pairs from H2O molecules to form dative covalent bonds. However it has one electron in the 4s subshell and 10 in the 3d subshell. To ...
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how to determine the bond order using the Lewis structure

What are the steps to follow to determine which has a higher bond order say $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO3^{2-}}$ by drawing the Lewis structure?
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What are the factors to be considered when comparing the bond length in different nitrogen oxygen species? [closed]

At what factors do we have to look when comparing the $\ce{N-O}$ bond length in the species $\ce{NO2+}$, $\ce{NO2-}$ and $\ce{NO3-}$? Is there a difference between bond angle and bond length?
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What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any ...
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Need of hyperconjugation?

Recently I read about Hyperconjugation. But i have a doubt. What is the need of hyperconjugation in this structure when there is charge separation resulting in lesser stable structure.
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Covalent Molecular Lattice [closed]

The element $\ce X$ froms $\ce {XO2}$ reacting with oxygen gas. This oxide forms a covalent molecular lattice with high melting and boiling points. Write the period and the group that $\ce X$ could be ...
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Is this a possible explanation as to why sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds?

Sigma bonds form due to the axial overlap of two orbitals whereas pi bonds form due to their lateral overlapping. Since the former is more effective, we can say that sigma is stronger than pi. We mean ...
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17 views

How do you figure out the dissociation energy for ions?

Specifically $\ce{KF}$ into the $\ce{K+}$ and $\ce{F-}$ ions. I can find tables on the DE into atoms, but where would I go to find the DE between ions? I am also given that the bond length is ...
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30 views

Zeolite formation

I read in a book that zeolites are formed by Aluminium replacing a silicon atom in Silicon dioxide. It says there is a negative charge formation. How does this happen? Thanks.
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Am I right in giving the following reason for some questions relating to the p-block?

I'm seeking clarification as I believe this to be the answer to why boron compounds are electron deficient. While bonding, the $2s^2$ electrons of Boron are excited to the $2p_y$ orbital, they ...
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Why is snow white?

I know that this is a rather ambiguous question; but my question is, whenever we take water and freeze it in the freezer, it still tends to stay clear. Since snow is just frozen water, why is it ...
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Why do no known atoms have electrons in the g or h subshells?

I'm learning about orbital quantum numbers. While checking several elements on the periodic table I noticed that there aren't any atoms that have electrons in the g or h sub-orbitals. Why is this?
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Is there a relationship between bond strength and polarity?

I believe that a more polar bond would be stronger, since it would be similar to an ionic bond. However, this seems to be wrong when applied to the study of acidity of some compounds.
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Clarification for metallic bond

Recently, I learn about bonding and my teacher only focus on ionic and covelant bond, not metallic bond. So, I go on google search but I have no idea of what is it? How electrons can suddenly appear ...
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What kind of interacion is there between a nanoparticle and its functionalizing coating?

The functionalization of nanoparticles (with coatings such as polymer ligands; see image) are very common (for example, DNA-functionalizied gold nanoparticles). What's the type of interaction between ...
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What are examples of group 14 elements forming dπ - pπ bonding?

While studying the Group 14 elements, I came across the anomalous behaviour of carbon. In that there was a point: Carbon forms only p$\pi$-p$\pi$ type bonding while other elements in the group ...
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Why is water considered ionic in fuel cells but otherwise covalent?

If water, $\ce{H2O}$ is a covalent compound formed by sharing of electrons, why is it said (in case of fuel cells) that formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is a redox reaction (transfer of ...
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36 views

Comparing the strength of metallic bonds

Why is the boiling point of iron higher than magnesium?
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Is there a clear distinction between the various intra- and intermolecular interactions?

Wikipedia lists dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals under intermolecular interactions, and hydrophobic, ionic and covalent under intramolecular interactions. Is there a clear ...
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How to calculate bond enthalpies from first principles?

Is it possible to calculate bond enthalpies using the periodic table and the molecule's geometric structure? I am interested in a way of calculating this without getting the answer from measurements ...
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HO vs OH Atomic Structure

Can the $\ce{HO}$ bond be written as $\ce{OH}$ and still be correct?
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Why is the inductive effect of σ-electrons only along saturated carbon chains?

In my book the following is written: When an electron withdrawing atom such as a halogen is attached to the end of a carbon chain, the $\sigma$-electrons of the $\ce{C-X}$ bond are attached to or ...
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How to rationalise the difference in halogen bonding?

Can anyone explain the difference in halogen bonding to me. I understand the explanation in (c). It appears to me, that accepting that would contradict the answers to parts (a), (b), and (c). Is the ...
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What's the type of bonding in La@C60?

Endohedral fullerene is the name given to a brand new chemical species with the following attributes: A metal, usually a transition metal, is "trapped" inside the fullerene, like $\ce{C60}$ and ...
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Effect of radioactivity on bonding [duplicate]

What effect does $\alpha$ or $\beta$ decay have on the bonding in molecules? In particular the example I was thinking of was if you have a radioactive metal at the centre of a complex ion. I had a ...
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H bond comparison

How do you compare the strength of H bonds when it's the same atom on both sides of the H? Like $\ce{N-H\bond{...}N}$ vs $\ce{F-H\bond{...}F}$? Is one still stronger than the other, or are they both ...
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Is a hydrogen bond considered to be a van der Waals force?

Is a hydrogen bond considered to be a Van der Waals force?
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How many delocalised electrons in gold?

How can we determine how many delocalised electrons every atom of gold contributes to the 'sea of delocalised electrons'? More generally, how can we determine the number of electrons any metal ...
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Why does symmetry have to be maintained in molecular orbitals?

Using the example of $\ce{XeF4}$: What is the physical explanation enforcing the symmetry of the $\ce{1b_{1g}}$ orbital on the fluorine atoms? Why isn't the symmetry of a nonbonding orbital ...
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45 views

Cohesive forces in solid solutions

I have searched through printed books and the Internet, but I cannot find a definitive answer on an issue that fascinates me: what forces keep the various compounds belonging to a solid solution ...
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Bonds within complex anions

Many groups of bound atoms complexively bearing a (negative) charge are called complex anions. Examples are $\text{NO}_3^{-}$, $\text{CO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{BO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{CrO}_4^{2-}$, ...
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Can we really see the bonds?

I was thinking is there really bond present at microscopic level or atoms/molecules are just nearby and are connected with force which is not visible(like gravitational force between earth and sun) ...
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s-s, s-p, p-p, and hybrid bonds

Please clarify: 1) Are hydrogen atoms the only s-s bonded molecule? 2) Are diatomic halogen atoms the only p-p bonded molecules? 3) Are the bonds in ammonia s-p bonds? 4) Is oxygen difluoride a ...
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If hydrogen bonding in water was weaker, what happens to H+ ion concentration?

Water ionization becomes much less evident if the hydrogen bonds are just a few percent stronger but pure water contains considerably more $\ce{H+}$ ions if they are few percent weaker. I found ...
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Why do molecular orbitals in solids merge to bands?

Why do molecular orbitals in solids merge to bands? For example: In silicon every atom is sp3 hybridised, but when I merge two of these orbitals then it yields a bonding and an antibonding MO. When a ...
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A different structure of Ozone?

The structure of ozone is shown as having a resonating form. However, what I am wondering is instead of using such an idea to explain the structure why can't we show the structure of ozone like ...
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How was the diatomic nature of many common gaseous elements originally determined?

How did scientists find out that $\ce{Cl2, H2, O2}$ atoms have a two-atomic molecular structure ?
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How does Resonance stabilize a molecule?

How does resonance lower the potential energy of the molecule? Take $\ce{O3}$ as an example.
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C-H Bond Dissociation Energy varies with substitution

What is the reason behind it? "Among sp3 hybridized systems, methane has the strongest C-H bond. C-H bonds on primary carbons are stronger than those on secondary carbons, which are stronger than ...
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What is it with resonance structures?

This is a concept I have never really understood. I mean to say is how can we include such a thing in a theory? How can we use them if we know that they don't actually exist? Are they some sort of ...
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How are reactivity and dipole moment related?

Recently, I came across a question: which of the two compounds has a greater reactivity; $\ce{NH_{3}}$ or $\ce{NF_{3}}$? It is known that despite the same structure the dipole moment of ...
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First ionization energy of hydrogen molecule

If we have the dissociation's energies of hydrogen molecule $H_{2}$($D_{0}$) and the corresponding molecule ion $H_{2}^{+}$ ($D_{1}$) together with the first energy of ionization of hydrogen atom ...
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Where does the energy of formation of covalent bonds come from?

Consider two $\ce{H}$ atoms. Since the proton in one attracts the electron in another, they attract each other, and form a covalent bond ($\ce{H}-\ce{H}$). Bond forming requires energy (436 kJ/mol for ...
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Using MO theory, give an explanation for the C-C bond length in cyanogen

1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 2. The attempt at a solution I know that the MO diagram for CN- is this: I am unsure how to draw the MO diagram for cyanogen. I know ...
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How does a carbocation have a positive charge?

When an alkene bonds with an H+ ion, the electron pair from the pi bond goes towards a new dative covalent bond with the hydrogen ion, leaving, on one side of the old double bond, a carbon bonded to ...
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What physical properties are manifested when an electron leaves Na and moves to Cl to form an ionic bond?

When an ionic bond is formed between Na and Cl, the lone electron in Sodium's outer shell leaves, and completes Chlorines outer shell. Are there any physical characteristics that I can use as an ...
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How many electrons are there in the pi-system of cyanogen?

I know that there are 18 electrons available for bonding in the entire molecule, and that 6 of these are used for sigma bonds. That leaves 12 left over. Which molecular orbitals best describe the ...