A chemical bond is an interaction between atoms which results in release of energy. It is one of the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in chemical reactions.

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Is a hydrogen bond to be a Van der Waals force?

Is a hydrogen bond considered to be a Van der Waals force?
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How many delocalised electrons in gold?

How can we determine how many delocalised electrons every atom of gold contributes to the 'sea of delocalised electrons'? More generally, how can we determine the number of electrons any metal ...
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Why does symmetry have to be maintained in molecular orbitals?

Using the example of $\ce{XeF4}$: What is the physical explanation enforcing the symmetry of the $\ce{1b_{1g}}$ orbital on the fluorine atoms? Why isn't the symmetry of a nonbonding orbital ...
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Cohesive forces in solid solutions

I have searched through printed books and the Internet, but I cannot find a definitive answer on an issue that fascinates me: what forces keep the various compounds belonging to a solid solution ...
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Bonds within complex anions

Many groups of bound atoms complexively bearing a (negative) charge are called complex anions. Examples are $\text{NO}_3^{-}$, $\text{CO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{BO}_3^{2-}$, $\text{CrO}_4^{2-}$, ...
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Can we really see the bonds?

I was thinking is there really bond present at microscopic level or atoms/molecules are just nearby and are connected with force which is not visible(like gravitational force between earth and sun) ...
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s-s, s-p, p-p, and hybrid bonds

Please clarify: 1) Are hydrogen atoms the only s-s bonded molecule? 2) Are diatomic halogen atoms the only p-p bonded molecules? 3) Are the bonds in ammonia s-p bonds? 4) Is oxygen difluoride a ...
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If hydrogen bonding in water was weaker, what happens to H+ ion concentration?

Water ionization becomes much less evident if the hydrogen bonds are just a few percent stronger but pure water contains considerably more $\ce{H+}$ ions if they are few percent weaker. I found ...
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Why do molecular orbitals in solids merge to bands?

Why do molecular orbitals in solids merge to bands? For example: In silicon every atom is sp3 hybridised, but when I merge two of these orbitals then it yields a bonding and an antibonding MO. When a ...
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A different structure of Ozone?

The structure of ozone is shown as having a resonating form. However, what I am wondering is instead of using such an idea to explain the structure why can't we show the structure of ozone like ...
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How was the diatomic nature of many common gaseous elements originally determined?

How did scientists find out that $\ce{Cl2, H2, O2}$ atoms have a two-atomic molecular structure ?
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How does Resonance stabilize a molecule?

How does resonance lower the potential energy of the molecule? Take $\ce{O3}$ as an example.
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C-H Bond Dissociation Energy varies with substitution

What is the reason behind it? "Among sp3 hybridized systems, methane has the strongest C-H bond. C-H bonds on primary carbons are stronger than those on secondary carbons, which are stronger than ...
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What is it with resonance structures?

This is a concept I have never really understood. I mean to say is how can we include such a thing in a theory? How can we use them if we know that they don't actually exist? Are they some sort of ...
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How are reactivity and dipole moment related?

Recently, I came across a question: which of the two compounds has a greater reactivity; $\ce{NH_{3}}$ or $\ce{NF_{3}}$? It is known that despite the same structure the dipole moment of ...
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First ionization energy of hydrogen molecule

If we have the dissociation's energies of hydrogen molecule $H_{2}$($D_{0}$) and the corresponding molecule ion $H_{2}^{+}$ ($D_{1}$) together with the first energy of ionization of hydrogen atom ...
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Where does the energy of formation of covalent bonds come from?

Consider two $\ce{H}$ atoms. Since the proton in one attracts the electron in another, they attract each other, and form a covalent bond ($\ce{H}-\ce{H}$). Bond forming requires energy (436 kJ/mol for ...
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Using MO theory, give an explanation for the C-C bond length in cyanogen

1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 2. The attempt at a solution I know that the MO diagram for CN- is this: I am unsure how to draw the MO diagram for cyanogen. I know ...
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How does a carbocation have a positive charge?

When an alkene bonds with an H+ ion, the electron pair from the pi bond goes towards a new dative covalent bond with the hydrogen ion, leaving, on one side of the old double bond, a carbon bonded to ...
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What physical properties are manifested when an electron leaves Na and moves to Cl to form an ionic bond?

When an ionic bond is formed between Na and Cl, the lone electron in Sodium's outer shell leaves, and completes Chlorines outer shell. Are there any physical characteristics that I can use as an ...
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How many electrons are there in the pi-system of cyanogen?

I know that there are 18 electrons available for bonding in the entire molecule, and that 6 of these are used for sigma bonds. That leaves 12 left over. Which molecular orbitals best describe the ...
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Ethane and ethene: which is easier to burn? Which one burns hotter? Why?

Anything that burns "easy", has a low activation energy for the burning process. Anything that burns hotter, will have a lesser enthalpy and thus, will have a more aggressive exothermic reaction. ...
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Does the ammonium ion hydrogen bond with water?

What about oxonium ions, such as hydronium ion? Do these hydrogen bond with water? If we see hydrogen bonding as a purely electrostatic phenomenon, then why not? Ammonium ion still has nitrogen ...
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The difference between peptide bonds and the bonds between polypeptides?

I was doing some tests for the multiple-choice final we've got ahead. And it was on me to count the peptide bonds in an Insulin hormone with 51 aminoacids arranged in two polypeptides with 30 and 21 ...
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Delocalization of pi electrons in nitrate ion

In my textbook, as examples of delocalization of pi electrons, benzene and nitrate ion have been considered. Benzene, due to symmetry of its resonating structures is simple enough. We assume that ...
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Why is Graphene So Strong?

There has been a lot of news about Graphene since its discovery in 2004. And as we are all told it is a revolutionary material which is very strong, conductive and transparent; even in some cases it ...
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Halogen bond definition

I was looking for an accurate definition of halogen bonding. I was able to find quite a few good ones, but none of them would explain if a X---H intermolecular interaction would count as a form of ...
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Why do noble gases bond with themselves but not other elements?

Noble gases have full electron shells, which virtually blocks any other element from bonding with it. Though for some reason, noble gases can bond with the same element. For example: Helium bonds in ...
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Why is covalent bonding stronger than electrostatic attraction?

I guess if we look at this problem from a "conjugate" perspective then the conjugate of a covalent bond is two elements with electrons lying around. On the other hand, with two electrostatically ...
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Why is hydrogen bonding generally defined to include only three period two elements?

Traditionally, hydrogen bonding has been defined only include interactions between a positively polarized hydrogen and three period two elements: nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Why, however, was ...
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Which Lewis Structure for BeCl2 is more commonly seen?

One is more stable according to its charge. The other one does not satisfy as much as the first does the formal charge rule but has a complete octet.
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Why does coordinate covalent bond form?

Coordinate covalent bonds are bonds on which both electrons from one atom. But why does this happen? Some may think it is because one of the bonding atoms have strong electronegativity. But ...
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Why does N2 react with O2 to Form NO at high temperatures?

This also raises questions that I have about the Haber Process which produces ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) from molecular nitrogen ($\ce{N2}$) and hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$). I have heard multiple times that bond ...
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why there is charge on the elements,in the dative bonding?

according to the definition of dative bonding electrons are shared which are given by one of the atoms , so if the electrons are shared so how come there is charge on the elements in the dative ...
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Is a C-F bond stronger than a C-Cl bond?

In hydrolysis/nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes, the bond enthalpy indicates the rate of hydrolysis (e.g. the $\ce {C-I}$ bond is weaker than the $\ce {C-Cl}$ bond so in hydrolysis the alkane ...
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Where does the extra electron come from in the Lewis Dot Electron structure of say for example nitrate ion?

As most of you know, this is the diagram for nitrate ion: To draw this, i have to make all bonds with electrons from nitrogen, nitrogen only has five valence electron so ONE of the bonds consists of ...
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Lewis structure of Carbon Suboxide [closed]

What is the proper Lewis structure for Carbon Suboxide ($C_{3}O_{2}$).
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Why isn't water an ionic compound?

If two alkali metal atoms join with an oxygen atom, an ionic bond forms. Since hydrogen has the same number of valence electrons as alkali metals, why can't water be ionic? This is what I'm ...
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Bond Potential Energy Lowering

"Bonds will form only if the potential energy will be lower when the atoms are bonded than when they are separate." Is this statement true? If so, how do endothermic reactions exist? Can't you add ...
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Why is water transparent?

Some substances like Copper Sulfate for example have vivid colors. But why is water transparent? Does it not emit any visual light from the electromagnetic spectrum?
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C-H vs C-C: which is stronger?

I've read that nonpolar bonds are stronger than polar ones. If it is true, why C-H bond entalpy (413) is bigger than C-C (348)? I'm very confused at the moment. Thanks a lot
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What is the bonding picture in Peroxomonosulfate?

In $\ce{SO5^{2-}}$, can somebody tell me which orbitals are used to form the pi bonds in this anion. Please tell the hybridization. And the lewis structure. Well I tried and the answers I got was sp3 ...
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What's the meaning of the $-\equiv-$-like bond symbol?

In the following image, $\mathrm{CH}_2$ is connected to benzene rings with a $-\equiv-$ like symbol. What's the meaning of this symbol?
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Best representation of hydrogen bond in solid HF?

I'm unable to figure out why the answer for question number 95 is C. Any help would be appreciated. :)
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Determine the bond angle in a compound [closed]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
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Why do double bonds break

So today we performed an experiment, where we mixed cyclohexene with Bromine water. The equation was which seems to make sense. The Bromine water we were using was decoloured as evidence that this ...
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What is lowest energy state, how does an atom gain it and what does it have to do with hybridization?

I understand that hybridisation occurs due to the atom wanting to exist in the most stable state possible, and the most stable state has the lowest energy. What I don't understand, however, is say, in ...
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Molecular Orbital Theory and No. of bonds

The order of filling of molecular orbitals $\ce{O2}$ by MOT is this : But from it, how can I deduce that there is one sigma and one pi bond in an oxygen molecule ?
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What happens if the electronegativity difference is exactly 2.1?

I'm learning about electronegativity in atoms and how their difference affects the type of bond they make. I know that no difference makes a non-polar covalent bond, a difference less than 2.1 is a ...
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Histidine-Phosphate in Succinyl CoA synthetase and phosphoglycerate mutase enzyme

I would need to know the type of bond of histidine-phosphate in succinyl CoA synthetase enzyme. Can anyone help with this? Is it a Carboxy phosphate anhydride ? Is it the same type of bond of ...