The scientific study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter.

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Enzyme Assay - pectinase

I am working on Enzyme Assay.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from $pH\ 1-12.5$ However,the enzyme has good activities starting from $pH\ 1-10.5$ Is that possible to have enzyme activity in ...
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42 views

Using Hydrates as a skin moisturizer

I was just in my AP Chemistry class earlier today learning about hydrates and their properties. It occurred to me that a compound with so much water could aid in moisturizing the skin. Is this a valid ...
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29 views

What is the reason for particular reaction rates for oxidation, combustion, and metabolic reactions?

We are currently working with reaction rates in Chemistry. I need some help with a question for the upcoming test. "Give examples of phenomenons or products and explain why they have a certain ...
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71 views

What element or compound could be used to create a more base ocean?

The ocean is becoming acidic. This is not a natural evolutionary change but happens through human negative effect on the environment. What element or compound could be used to create a more base ...
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519 views

Biological Consequences of Asteroid Mining—Death by Isotope?

It's been documented that NASA hope to capture an asteroid in 2025, and have subsequent aims to mine that asteroid. If if this is successful, we would expect other asteroids to be mined in the future. ...
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31 views

How can I measure carcinogenic risks of an M-ENDO-Agar LES substrate after heat destruction?

I'm about to conduct a study of possible toxic traces from the substance M-ENDO-Agar LES in substrate after destruction with heat (I think it is 160℃) for 180 minutes. The substance is carcinogenic. ...
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22 views

Why are non-polar hydrogens neglected in protein-drug binding studies?

Why are (Non-polar) Hydrogen generally neglected in a protein-ligand (or drug) binding energy calculation? They do have charge and mass. Doesn't that affect the free energy calculation?
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62 views

Mercury brain half-life

If have read conflicting reports on the half-life of mercury in the brain. I would like to hear some estimates from this community. I am also wondering how long chelation therapy would take to remove ...
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23 views

Mercury binding agents which cross the blood brain barrier

The two substances I have come across are cilantro and lipoic acid. How effective would either of them be? Are there any other agents known which produce the desired results?
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17 views

removing mercury from the brain

I have conducted many searches on this subject with regards to agents which cross the blood brain barrier. I have read about lipoic acid. Is anybody on here aware of any studies or findings which show ...
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29 views

Mercury vapor release from amalgam fillings

What would cause vapour release from elemental mercury? Would it be pressure, friction... could one stop the vapour release through cooling the mercury?
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60 views

About all the pop drinks being sold

Regarding chemical synergies I read if someone ingests various product with sodium benzoate (forgive spelling) like the MANY soft drinks that exist ; AND if one has had some quantity of vitamin C ...
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295 views

What are these crystals on my champagne cork?

I opened up a bottle of champagne that was left in a wine cooler for approx. 8 years. To my astonishment there were small crystals at the underside of the cork. The crystals are colorless, odorless ...
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24 views

What makes sulfur-containing compounds such good antioxidants?

Many sulfur-containing compounds (like glutathione and cysteine groups) have high antioxidant activity. Why?
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43 views

Psychoactive ingredients in this soap?

Could any ingredients from this product be psychoactive in some people, if the are sensitive to them? https://www.lush.co.uk/products/honey-i-washed-kids I have found the product to be relaxing as ...
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30 views

Bohr Effect - related to H+ only?

Would I be correct in saying that the Bohr effect is ONLY related to the concentration of [H+] in the tissues. Obviously the concentration of carbon-dioxide can contribute to this concentration by ...
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1answer
51 views

Why is the deprotonated form of dopamine more reactive than the protonated/neutral form of dopamine?

See this (from the Wikipedia article on dopamine): Dopamine, like most amines, is an organic base. At neutral or acidic pH levels it is generally protonated. The protonated form is highly ...
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58 views

Does vinegar neutralize the strongly basic compounds in cement?

I have heard that washing one's hands with vinegar is effective in neutralizing the strong bases in cement and is more effective than water. I want to know how cement burns and what bases are ...
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16 views

What happen when there is no salt bridge in microbial fuel cell?

I wonder if there is no salt bridge on microbial fuel cell, Are there have the same amount of current or none?
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1answer
51 views

Greater entropy: an atom or macromolecule?

A question that appeared on my last chemistry exam was : Which of the following has greater entropy A) An atom B) A macromolecule The question doesn't specify anything else(i.e. type/size ...
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22 views

Quaternary ammonium anti-microbials

Also good against fungi, amoeba, and enveloped viruses,[7] quats are believed to act by disrupting the cell membrane. Quaternary ammonium cleaners have long-alkyl substituent chains. Why is this ...
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72 views

What is the mechanism of monofunctional glycosylase catalysis? [closed]

I am learning about base excision repair mechanisms. I understand the main idea how glycosylases are working, but I am trying to understand this in much more detail. I found a paper where they have ...
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1answer
43 views

Is Chemical Engineering a good pathway to Biomedical Engineering for graduate school? [closed]

I have been thinking about my future goals and I have recently decided to go for Biomedical Engineering. sites recommend to start in Chemical Engineering because its a good pathway for biomedical ...
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2answers
29 views

What is the difference between protein domains, motifs, and supersecondary structures?

I was just wondering if there is any difference between supersecondary structure and motifs. As well, is a protein domain an independently folded region of a protein that has a particular function ...
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70 views

What is the active ingredient in this “stimulant?”

It is an easily defensible argument that this is a medical question rather than a chemistry one, however, I feel that it leans ever so slightly towards chemistry, and so I posted it here. There is a ...
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1answer
46 views

Human Body and RNA/DNA

After research I found that enzymes are responsible for metabolism, specifically catabolism and anabolism. This in turn creates the necessary chemicals in your body. The only question left is: what ...
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1answer
63 views

Units for dissociation constant and relationship to Gibbs Free Energy

How does one "convert" between an equilibrium constant calculated from the Gibbs free energy for a dissociation reaction and experimentally determined dissociation constants? $$ \Delta ...
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1answer
36 views

How is chlorophyll made in plants?

I've been studying photosynthesis and something made me think about how chlorophyll itself is made in plants.How exactly is it formed ?
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191 views

Basic chemistry of the Shinoda test for flavonoids?

In this test, four pieces of magnesium fillings (ribbon) are added to the ethanolic extract followed by a few drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid. A reddish colour indicates the presence of ...
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Simulating enzymatic change rates of Carbonic anhydrase

I'm trying to simulate effects of carbonic anhydrase on cellular pH as caused by changes in bicarbonate. I assume a bicarbonate homeostatic mechanisms which replenishes intracellular conenctrations ...
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1answer
45 views

What does the adenosine do in ATP?

This is an extremely basic question about biochemistry from someone who doesn't know much about organic chemistry. I'm aware of how organisms store energy ATP and release it by dephosphorylating it ...
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49 views

How can i detect Formalin in food easily

I am trying to detect formalin in different types of food. Formalin $(\ce{CH2(OH)2})$is an aqueous solution of formaldehyde, which is $\ce{CH2O}$ or $\ce{H2CO}$. I used many chemicals to do this, but ...
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68 views

How is Melatonin Synthesised?

I should like to know roughly how the hormone melotonin is synthetically made for the pharmaceutical industry (i.e. not how it is made in living beings). I can't seem to find any reference to its ...
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5 views

How do I go about calculating protein concentration to make a set of protein standards for protein quantification via dot blot?

I have been given a protein of unknown concentration and have been asked to make a set of standards using a protein with a known concentration so we can quantify roughly via dot blot. I need to know ...
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58 views

Lewis Acidity and Bacteria

How does Lewis acidity correlate with bactericidal activity? I read on Wikipedia that the two are positively correlated but no explanation was given. Does it have to do with the movement of ...
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1answer
44 views

(+)-Bicuculline, what does (+) mean?

I was looking up some ion channel blockers. What does (+) or (-) below mean? (+)-Bicuculline (-)-Bicuculline methiodide
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1answer
33 views

Decrease of Bicarbonate to compensate Respiratory alkalosis

I am studying this claim Compensatory mechanism in respiratory alkalosis is decrease of SB i.e. bicarbonate ions ($\ce{HCO3^-}$). There are reactions $\ce{HCO3- \rightarrow H+ + CO3^{2-}}$ ...
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37 views

Atomic coordinates for DNA bases as they appear in a B-form or A-form duplex

Where can I find atomic coordinates for guanosine / cytosine / thymine / adenine (either the ribonucleotide or deoxyribonucleotide bases) where the atoms are configured in the manner we would expect ...
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1answer
41 views

Test for gluten?

I have searched online for 'chemical tests for gluten'; however all the results are about 'home testing kits' (presumably for people with a gluten intolerance). I would like to know if there is a test ...
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1answer
42 views

What in general will determine whether a chemical reaction will occur? [closed]

This probably is (too) huge a question, just like Is there a general way to predict products of a chemical reaction. However, it is still a valid question to ask, given that its sister (or mother) ...
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1answer
31 views

How is Humic substance destroyed in nature?

Humic substance consists of many, to my knowledge poorly understood, species of organic matter, mostly carbohydrates chained in intersting (and also poorly understood) ways. Humic substance is an ...
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19 views

Does Bioglass 45S5 attach to enamel?

When I search, I see bioglass binds to bone and dentin, but nothing is said about enamel. The bioglass allows the creation of a hydroxyapatite, and from what I've read I think enamel is ...
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2answers
57 views

Is photosynthesis endothermic and exothermic at the same time? … somehow?

Photosynthesis is obviously an endothermic reaction, I mean, what would be the point otherwise, right? This is probably just sheer and utter stupidity on my behalf, but why does Wikipedia say the heat ...
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1answer
55 views

Test for glyphosate in water, boolean style

Testing for contamination of the ever so popular glyphosate based herbicide "Roundup" in water is a service that many labs provide, one of them is the Microbe Inotec Laboratory . They use an enzyme to ...
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120 views

pH of amino acid solutions

Hi may someone help me with this question A glycine ($\ce{NH2CH2COOH}$) is a standard amino acid with two $\text{p}K_{a}$ ($\text{p}K_{1}=2.0$ for $\ce{-COOH}$ and $\text{p}K_{2}=10.0$ for ...
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1answer
77 views

Ratio of conjugate bases of a tricarboxylic acid

Hi does anyone know how to solve this question? A tricarboxylic acid $\ce{H3A}$ has three different types of $\text{p}K_\text{a}$ $(\text{p}K_\text{a, 1} =2.0,$ $\text{p}K_\text{a, 2}=5.0,$ ...
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1answer
71 views

Deriving goldman equation

So I've been trying to follow the derivation of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation on Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Goldman_equation ) - I can follow it through after it sets up ...
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2answers
176 views

Which branches of chemistry and in what order to learn (self study)?

Hi I have decided to give chemistry another shot (it didn't take so well way back in high school). My main interest is for reading up on brain chemistry and pharmacology. I currently have a textbook ...
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1answer
187 views

A Material that sticks to the skin, without adhesives! [closed]

I am onto a project for making knee braces for female anatomy, and I have been looking for a material, that i could line the pads with, that would stick to the skin of the players and still provide ...
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1answer
73 views

Concentration from Absorbance vs Time

I am given a protein, BAPNA, and the initial concentration of the protein. The experiment involves reaction rates of varying protein concentrations. Each sample cuvette is inserted into a ...