A basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

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How does the vacuum in atoms persist?

From very elementary chemistry I understand that atoms are mostly empty space, with a few tiny little objects whizzing around. There must then be a vacuum in between these particles. I always thought ...
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102 views

Explaining Ionization to kids

I have a quest to explain a physical, chemical theory to kids of age 8-12. The topic is "Ionization". We all understand from early experiments of Physics and Chemistry (the Millikan oil drop ...
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69 views

Why can't light pass through a gold foil, but alpha particles can?

Rutherfords experiment showed that most of the alpha particles passed through a thin gold foil undeflected. So why can't light pass through the foil, which is supposedly thinner than the heavy alpha ...
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How can two electrons lie together in an orbital?

Two electron of opposite spin can lie in a single orbital.. But what about the electron-electron repulsion. Okay! I got that the nuclear charge rather the large Z-effective overcome this repulsion by ...
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130 views

Difference between actual position of electron and Radial Distribution Probability

Its known that the radius of maximum probability of 2s orbitals is more than that of 2p orbitals. It means that the maximum probability of finding an electron in an 2s is further away from electron ...
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37 views

Why did Dalton assume that atoms are spherical?

One of the primary components of Dalton's theory is to "express" an atom as an unbreakable spherical shape filled with whatever. The question is, why didn't he suggest any other shape, like for ...
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56 views

Find n and the wavelength too

To start with its a homework problem, quite lengthy. A particle of mass equal to 208 times the mass of electron moves in a circular orbit around a nucleus of charge +3e. Assuming the BOHRs model of ...
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29 views

Protons or electrons are responsible for chemistry of an atom?

Is the question in a correct form? I can't add anything as a comment. Thank you.
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Atomic radii of Sc,Ti and Fe,Co

The atomic radii of Sc is 162pm , Ti is 147pm , Fe is 126pm and that of Co is 125pm. Electronic configuration of Fe is (Ar)3d6 4s2 and that of Co is (Ar) 3d7 4s2. Difference of Z between them is 1 ...
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Why Aren't Chlorides Of The Noble Gases As Prevalent As Their Fluorides?

I can't find the answer to this question on this SE website, and I apologize for the repetition if it has been answered before. It is my understanding that compound formation has only been observed ...
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40 views

What happens when we heat an atom?

Question is simple.. If we take an atom of any element and then supply heat energy to it then what will happen? Acc to me in beginning energy[quanta(due to excitement of electron and then moving ...
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43 views

Bombarding atoms with electron gun?

Just to explain this question in a better way just think about the Rutherford's experiment(the alpha particle bombarded on Gold foil) be conducted using a electron gun in place of the Alpha one.. So ...
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55 views

The definition of formal Charge

Ok, most people including me know that formal charge is just a book-keeping tool. I know how to calculate it, apply it to Lewis structures etc etc. But I am confused in its very basic definition which ...
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51 views

Greater entropy: an atom or macromolecule?

A question that appeared on my last chemistry exam was : Which of the following has greater entropy A) An atom B) A macromolecule The question doesn't specify anything else(i.e. type/size ...
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50 views

Wavelength of X-rays

What will be the wavelength of X-ray if we apply a potential difference of , say 20 KV across the ends of the x-ray tube ? Alright, i started with the modified de-broglie equation ...
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56 views

Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding

I learnt about intermolecular hydrogen bonding today, which occurs between molecules such as ortho-nitro-phenol. What I was told is that in case of intermolecular bonding, the molecules separate from ...
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1answer
68 views

Why are atom spherical in shape ?

I am learning about structure of atom, in which i saw right from J.J. Thomsom atomic model to modern nuclear atomic model all are spherical in shape. I have seen how different discoveries help to ...
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49 views

Shells, orbitals, subshells, and energy levels

I think i Know what these mean, each row on the periodic table has a new shell of electrons, a subshell is e.g. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, etc and energy levels are the same as shells whilst orbitals are the ...
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71 views

Why don't alkaline earth metals lose only one electron when they are ionized?

Why doesn't alkaline earth metals lose only one electron when they are ionized ? I know that magnesium atoms like to have the electronic configuration of neon but I don't understand the reason that we ...
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48 views

Find the uncertainty in position

The question says: A proton is accelerated to one tenth of the velocity of light. If it's velocity can be measured with a precision $\pm 1\%$. What must be its uncertainty in position? Therefore, ...
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68 views

Calculating Avogadro's Number

For a school project, I am in a group tasked with calculating Avogadro's Number in multiple manners. Other than the Millikan Oil Drop Experiment, we know of no ways to compute it. A Google search ...
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39 views

Finding out the number of atoms in the sun.

This is the question from the text book: This is what I did, since it worked with all the previous questions (similar to this). $$ \frac{\frac{4}{3}\pi(7*10^8)^3*1.4}{1.008} * 6.022*10^{23} $$ ...
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111 views

Law of reciprocal proportion

Is it necessary that the valency of an element must have the same valency? For eg. If 2 elements A and B combine with the same mass of C, is it necessary that they will have the same valency as they ...
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69 views

Degenerate Orbitals

How do I know if an atom has degenerate orbitals? My Understanding I understand that degenerate orbitals mean orbitals that have the same energy level for the same n. However, how do I distinguish ...
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118 views

How to calculate m/e value for the base peak in mass spectroscopy?

My working out: Propan-1-ol : CH3CH2CH2OH This can be broken up into: CH3 + CH2CH2OH CH3CH2 + CH2OH CH3CH2CH2 + OH Base peak = most abundant fragment formed (highest peak) How do i know which ...
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111 views

Is it possible to compress an atom to infinite density?

I know, by nature, normally atoms are stable. But I wonder, if it is possible to compress an atom, say the Hydrogen atom, to infinite density by applying external force? After all, electrons and ...
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Are atoms really round?

I'm not sure if this is a silly question, but I was sitting here with a cup full of cheezey poof balls thinking, "My goodness, it's like an amazing cheesey delicious liquid - huge water molecules!" ...
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Why does free chlorine in the stratosphere lose its ozone-depleting potential after about 100,000 reactions?

Free chlorine ($\ce{Cl}$) in the stratosphere can deplete ozone ($\ce{O3}$) as follows: $$\ce{Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2}$$ The chlorine atoms can then react with oxygen and return to the beginning of ...
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Number of molecules and atoms are same in a gas, how?

I had a test this morning in school and I am not sure of the answer,I think it is related to the quantity of a mole being constant: A sample of certain mass of gas was collected and it was found that ...
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27 views

Comb and hair, is that an example for ionic boding?

As i understand, when brushing hair, some electron transfer from hair to the comb. Thus, make the comb have different charged from hair and they attract each other. It's look likely what i have learn ...
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60 views

Ground state electron configuration of chromium

What is the ground state electron configuration of chromium? Is it [Ar]4s23d4 or Is it [Ar]4s13d5
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Electrons and their affect on the atomic radius [closed]

What happens to the atomic radius when an magnesium atom loses an electron? What happens to the atomic radius when a sodium atom loses an electron?
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27 views

What is the largest possible element? [duplicate]

I assume there is a limit to the number of protons in a nucleus. If so, there should be a theoretical atomic number that no element can exceed. So, what is the largest possible atomic number? Is such ...
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54 views

Photoelectric effect and electron loss

I've read that when a certain amount of UV light is shone on a metal surface, electrons are ejected (the photoelectric effect). Are these electrons from the metal atoms themselves? and in case they ...
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80 views

Cathode Ray Tube

I am considering the cathode ray tube of the set up, when the cathode rays were discovered Voltage = Very High Gas = any Atmospheric Pressure = We change (In the following example i am just changing ...
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76 views

Why aren't atomic radii calculated using Schrödinger's equation?

The atomic radii are estimated using a variety of methods: most of these involve dividing their bond length by 2. But that is a very crude way of measuring atomic radii. I mean, atoms overlap each ...
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65 views

Reason for vibration of molecules

Why molecules of a body exhibit vibrational motion ? Is it due to interaction between various molecules of the body or inter atomic interaction of the same molecule? If it is because of any of them ...
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35 views

Comparision of donation power

There is a group R an organic group connected to either Oxygen or Nitrogen.R is such a group which has almost zero electronic effects(Resonance effect and inductive effect).I want to ask if N or O are ...
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245 views

The last element's atomic number

I was just thinking what can be the last atomic number that can exist within the range of permissible radioactivity limit and considering all other factors in quantum physics and chemical factors.
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164 views

How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is ...
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77 views

Comparison of ionization enthalpies of Cs and Fr

Why is the ionization enthalpy of Fr greater than that of Cs, even though it has a larger size? I found no Google result regarding.
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Is there an easy way to find number of “valence electrons”?

I want an high-school level answer.What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement?(eg. $3$ in an atom with electronic arrangement $2,8,3$) ...
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84 views

Types of Radioactive Decay

Besides Alpha, Beta, and Gamma, are there any other types of radioactive decay? If so, what are they? Is there any type of radioactive decay more powerful than Gamma?
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324 views

How many electrons can each shell in an atom hold?

I know that the first shell can hold 2, the second and third 8, and the fourth 18. But what about after that?
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Iodate ion (IO3-). Is it polar or non-polar?

I am trying to figure out the shape of the iodate ion or $\ce{IO3^-}$. No matter how many times I draw it, I keep getting Iodine in the centre, and 3 oxygen atoms surrounding it, 2 with single bonds, ...
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158 views

If atoms are mostly empty space then how are we able to interact with things?

Note: This question has come out of curiosity Q: We all have read that atoms are mostly empty, they are generally compared to a football stadium in which a pea is kept in the center(nucleus) and flies ...
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What are the known atomic oxygen species?

I'm interested in chemical reaction mechanism with more exotic particles. The Wikipedia page seems to imply that the normal atomic oxygen is $O(^3P)$, is that right? I also came across ...
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50 views

Atomic properties

This may be a very broad question. I always asked myself how scientists manage to find out the exact molecular structures of for instance water or carbohydrates. How do they know? How do they know the ...
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154 views

Critical separation at which molecule breaks

I have the following question. The potential energy of two atoms, a distance $r$ apart, is: $$U = -Ar^{-2} + Br^{-10}$$ Given that the atoms form a stable molecule at a separation of 0.3nm with an ...
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105 views

In nuclear chemistry, how does a neutron split to form a proton and an electron?

I'm studying radioisotopes at the moment and balancing nuclear reactions isn't making sense in that more matter is coming out of the equation in negative β decay equations : ...