A conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals which exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone.

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Electrophilic aromatic substitution with fluorine

Why don't we usually use diatomic fluorine in electrophilic aromatic substitution? Is it because fluorine is a potent oxidizer and will react with the carbons? What might happen if we reacted ...
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74 views

why is benzoic acid stronger acid than 3-aminobenzoic acid?

why is m-aminobenzoic acid weaker acid than benzoic acid? obviously at m-position only -I effect will be shown but how doeas that make it a weaker acid than benzoic acid??
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56 views

Is the Nitrogen in pyridine electron withdrawing and what effect does this have on electrophilic substitution?

If I were to attempt to nitrate Pyridine (essentially benzene but with one carbon replaced with Nitrogen) would I get substitution at the Ortho-, Meta- or para position? Also why is this? I can only ...
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54 views

Extended conjugation in cyclic ketone

This is a continuation of Aromaticity of cyclic ketone So, I'm looking at the molecule that does have the carbonyl double-bond. Is this resonance structure considered aromatic? Would the electrons ...
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191 views

How are Phenols made?

What are the equation and condition for the synthesis of Phenols? Would it work if we added NaOH to Benzene and then reflux?
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89 views

Role of Alcohols(EtOH,MeOH) in nitro reduction used for Metal(Sn,Fe)

Hi. I'm trying to nitro benzene reduction. I understand these reactions are radical reaction by metal, but i don't understand why use alcohols as a solvent. Alcohols are role of proton source? or ...
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182 views

Structure of carbon fiber

What is the structure of carbon fiber? Wikipedia doesn't give much insight. The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite, consisting of sheets of carbon atoms (graphene ...
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30 views

Difference between Andy arene and an aromatic compound?

I can't seem to find what the difference between these two is. In my text book, it says that 'arenes are aromatic hydrocarbons containing one or more benzene rings' which to me suggests that arenes ...
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51 views

Abstraction of a proton in cycloheptatriene

So, whenever there is abstraction of H+ by an acid-base reaction, I see that the proton on the sp3-hybridized carbon is taken. Why is this if you take into account that vinylic hydrogens are more ...
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161 views

Is the Kekule structure of benzene completely wrong?

I've found out about something called resonance but I'm getting the impression that this indicates the kekule structure is possibly correct as it uses double bonds (I thought that the delocalised ...
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33 views

Effect of temperature on benzenediazonium

What will benezendiazonium ion become if it is not maintained at temperature below 5 degree celsius during diazotization?
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41 views

giving a conclusion from observation

There is a question I come across of an examination. I know the answer and also know the solution. Well when I first saw this problem I don't know how to approach this problem and I think I will ...
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400 views

How does a Frost diagram reproduce the solutions to the wave equation?

I came across a Frost diagram for cyclic compounds in my book, and all my book had to offer was that it geometrically reproduces the solutions of the wave equation, and can therefore determine the ...
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300 views

Is aniline aromatic - How to treat the lone-pair electrons of nitrogen when applying Huckel's rule?

Why is aniline aromatic? Doesn't it have 8 pi electrons, thereby violating Huckel's rule? The way I see it, there are 6 pi electrons from the benzene ring, and an additional 2 from the sp2 ...
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2answers
65 views

Formation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by free chlorine mediated oxidation of Triclosan

I cannot find much guidance in the literature. This is the reaction between free chlorine in water and triclosan. I understand ether cleavage and electrophilic aromatic substitution (maybe) involved. ...
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202 views

Regioselectivity of Birch reduction (electron donating groups)

Why does Birch reduction on benzene derivatives with an electron donating group happen at ortho and meta positions? When the substitute is electron withdrawing, ipso and para reduction take place ...
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77 views

Are phenylboranes susceptible to ipso or meta substitution?

Are phenylboranes susceptible to ipso or meta electrophilic aromatic substitution, i.e. what's the regioselectivity?
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85 views

Donation by inductive effect and withdrawal by conjugation

Is there a group that would attached to a benzene ring, donate electrons by inductive effect and withdraw them by conjugation?
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106 views

Nitrosation of benzene

How does benzene react with $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$? Will $\ce{PhNO}$ be obtained? I read that pyridine can be produced under special conditions, but what will happen in some less exotic conditions?
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133 views

Are there any negatively charged electrophiles, or simply neutral and positive?

When reading up on electrophilic aromatic substitution, most resources refer to electrophiles as positively-charged species, "in general" or "mostly". What are non-positively charged electrophiles? ...
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49 views

Is it possible to make meta-phenol?

Normally phenols have the $\ce{OH}$ group at the 1 or 4 position. Can they be made at 2 or 3 positions, where nitro groups and $\ce{-CN}$ can attach? If not, why not?
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120 views

Aromaticity of cyclic ketone

By looking at the structure of the uploaded ketone, it doesn't seem that it is aromatic, but the resonance structure with C(+)-O(-) is aromatic. Is it correct to say that the ketone in the image is ...
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36 views

Converting cyclic compounds to linear compounds (possible ?)

Can one convert from cyclic convert to linear compound? Like $Cyclohexane$ $+$ $?=Hexane$ Even in High Temp and Pressure? I know it is very tough since we are going from a stable compound to a ...
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23 views

What sort of lab can determine PAH concentration in a soil or charcoal sample? How difficult is it to do?

Non-chemist here. I'm curious how difficult it is to determine concentration of PAH in a sample of soil or powdered charcoal, or a sample of the two mixed together. What would be involved in doing ...
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117 views

Why does m-cresol exist, given that -OH group is activating and should be o-, p-directing?

Why does m-cresol exist? The $\ce{-OH}$ group is a ring activating group, and hence should be o-, p- directing.
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202 views

Why does fusing benzene rings not produce polycyclic alkynes?

It would make sense that when the benzene rings are fused they keep their pi bonds and form a polycyclic alkyne. However this is not the case. My hypothesis is that because monocyclic alkynes at 8C ...
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57 views

What's the difference between Carvacrol and Thymol?

What is the difference when it comes to separating Carvacrol and Thymol on HPPLC with reverse phase - C18 column? Carvacrol elutes first, is that because it is ortho?
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85 views

Hydrogen suspended in the center of an aromatic ring and NMR

My textbook (Organic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Hornback, Joseph) states that if a hydrogen is located near the center of an aromatic ring it will experience an (often quite sizable) upfield shift, as seen in ...
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151 views

Preparation of phenylamine/aniline

This is the procedure I carried out in class: Reduction of nitrobenzene by using tin and $HCl$ acid After the completion of the reaction, $NaOH$ added to neutralize excess acid and dissolve any ...
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110 views

Draw pyridine as an R Group

You know how when you carry out a reaction with many compounds, when drawing the reactions you just draw a line at a right angle to the bond with a 'R' at the end (see image)? Then you can specify ...
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3answers
682 views

what is the origin of the colour of azo dyes?

what is the origin of the colour of azo-dyes? Is it the same reason as to why transition metal complexes have colour?
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90 views

Steam distillation- how it actually works?

To obtain phenylamine after it is formed from the reduction of nitrobenzene with tin, we carried out steam distillation. This is what I learned in class: "During the process,steam is injected ...
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4k views

reason for the stronger acidic property of phenol than alcohol

"In phenol, pulling the $p_z$ electrons from the oxygen atom into the ring causes the hydrogen atom to be more partially positive than it is in aliphatic alcohols. This means it is much more easily ...
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785 views

Does benzene have isomers and resonance structures?

Does benzene have both isomers and resonance structures? I know that it has resonance structures because you can manipulate the position of the double bonds but what about isomers?
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133 views

Reasons for dry conditions in substituition reactions with benzene

All substitution reactions of benzene must be carried out in dry conditions with a catalyst that produces a powerful electrophile. This was a statement from my book. My question is, why must it ...
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452 views

Benzene and resonance

In my book, to explain the structure of benzene, it referred to the idea of resonance: "The idea of resonance is that actual molecule is a definite structure that is a hybrid of two theoretical ...
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1answer
2k views

Why use glacial acetic acid in bromination of anisole?

In my organic chemistry lab (next week, the experiment has not been conducted yet) we are being asked to react anisole with bromine to get 2-bromoanisole (as well as 2,4-dibromoanisole and all the ...
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2answers
95 views

Formation of 3-chloromethylbenzene VS 3-chloromethylbenzene VS 4-chloromethylbenzene

For methylbenzene (with the methyl group at position 1), is it easier for chlorine to substitute the hydrogen at position 2, 3 or 4? I was thinking somewhere along the lines of different charge ...
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185 views

Thermodynamic stability of benzene ring

In learned that when benzene undergoes hydrogenation, $208KJ$ of energy is given off and thus $152KJ$ less energy than what would be given off if Kekule's structure was correct. My confusion is that ...
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144 views

delocalised electrons and benzene's stability

In most high school chemistry books, it is said that the delocalised electrons in benzene makes it particularly stable. However, how does it contribute to stability? Is there any simple way of ...
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183 views

Which is better leaving group

How can I compare the leaving group ability of $Br^+$ and $Cl^+$ ions for the electrophilic substitution reactions for aromatic compounds?
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195 views

What does it mean by degree of aromaticity of a molecule?

This is a fundamental question, though I didn't really get the meaning/idea what does it mean by aromaticity or degree of aromaticity. Does it mean the ability of a molecule to be aromatic?
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784 views

How to distinguish between benzyl chloride and chloro benzene?

If I add $aq. \ce{KOH}$ to both of the compounds substitution takes place in the case of benzyl chloride and then if I oxidize with $\ce{KMnO4}$ I will get benzene carboxylic acid which will give ...
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112 views

Is aromaticity of the 4 aromatic amino acids affected by pH?

During a discussion of NMR, my lecturer told me to think about which amino acids contain protons in an aromatic ring, and whether any are likely to be affected by changes in pH. The 4 aromatic amino ...
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74 views

Where do things connect in EAS reactions?

If you have an aromatic ring that requires substitution of some molecule, how do you know where this molecule is supposed to substitute on the ring? In (i) and (ii) how do we select the ring and ...
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800 views

Resonance of benzoic acid

My book says that benzoic acid does not show resonance as the carboxylate ion and the benzene ring are not in the same plane due to steric effects. But there aren't any large group in the ortho ...
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1k views

Ozonolysis conditions for Benzene

What are the precise conditions under which Benzene undergoes ozonolysis? All anyone can tell me is that it undergoes ozonolysis under "vigorous" conditions. But, what vigorous conditions?
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3answers
554 views

Reaction of Benzene with 2-methylpropene?

I'm studying organic chemistry at the moment and it's really confusing. What could ever happen between benzene and an alkene? and why is $\ce{H2SO4}$ there?
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436 views

Competing resonance and inductive effects in a substituted benzene

A molecule of phenol is much more inclined to under go an electrophilic substitution reaction than a molecule of benzene because the -OH group is highly reaction favoring. From what I understand, this ...
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Is the reactivity of Benzene with an -N(R)₃⁺ group greater than its reactivity with an -NH₃⁺ group?

Both are m-directors, and Electron Withdrawing groups, but which one is more reactive? At first sight, one might think clearly $\ce{-N(R)_3^+}$ is more reactive, but when you factor in that $\ce R$ is ...