For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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Solvent in a reaction

As I have seen many reaction in which below the arrow mark a compound is written , then How can determine in any reaction which compound is acting as a solvent ? Any help is appreciated .
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Chondroitin Sulfate (greater volume in solution than in crystal form)

I've read in a textbook on biophysics that chondroitin sulfate occupies a greater volume in a solution than in crystalline form. Why is that? Is it because of hydrogen bonds in solution that the ...
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Why are Alkali Metal Ions Soluble?

I think the question needs no elaboration. Why are salts containing Group 1A cations extremely soluble in water? I speculate that the reason involves the low charge density of those ions in a given ...
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1answer
32 views

Chemical desalination

Is there a way to remove salt from water, even just partially, using chemical or filtration methods prior to a reverse osmosis? The problems is that salt is very hard on a reverse osmosis membrane ...
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2answers
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Problem dissolving iron in HCl

I was trying to dissolve iron metal in HCl to make iron chloride, but ran into some problems. I'll give a brief background of my experiment. I took iron nails and put them in a container filled with ...
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1answer
63 views

Vapor pressure of immiscible liquids

I have read that vapour pressure of a mixture of two immiscible liquids is $$P=P^0_A + P^0_B$$ where A and B are immiscible liquids. My question is, if they are immiscible, they would form separate ...
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1answer
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Detection of NaF levels in aqueous solution also containing NaCl

Is it possible to determine the concentration of sodium fluoride, more specifically fluoride ions, in a solution that also contains sodium chloride? I have looked into using an ion-specific electrode, ...
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48 views

What is the colour of chromium(III) chloride solution?

I had a question asking about the colour of the solution of chromium(III) chloride in my exam, all my colleagues have different answers, I couldn't find any exact answer after searching!
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1answer
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Why don't we take into account the auto-protonation of water when measuring its concentration?

When we calculate the concentration of water at $ 25~^\circ\rm C $, why don't we assume dissociation of water at this temperature? $$\ce{H2O <=> H+ + OH-}$$
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25 views

Rate of Evaporation of solution

Why does rate of evaporation of solution decreases on adding a non volatile component? Also what happens if we add a volatile solute?
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1answer
25 views

Can aluminium be split into Al 3+ and OH-?

When writing a net ionic equation containing aluminum hydroxide, can the aluminum hydroxide be split into ions of $\ce{Al^3+}$ and $\ce{OH-}$, or does it stay as $\ce{Al(OH)3}$?
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What makes the double displacement reaction:CaZ + 2 NaCl = Na2Z + CaCl2 (Z is zeolite) possible?

$\ce{CaZ + 2 NaCl -> Na2Z + CaCl2}$, where Z stands for zeolite. This is the reaction which generally occurs under removal of hardness of water during a process called Permutit or Ions exchange ...
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Why is iron(II) fluoride thermodynamically favorable when dissolved in acid?

I am reviewing for the AP Chemistry test, and the question is this $$ \ce{FeF2(s) <=> Fe^2+(aq) + 2F^- (aq) } \quad K_1 = 2\times 10^{-6} $$ $$ \ce{F- (aq) + H+ (aq) <=> HF(aq)} \quad ...
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1answer
26 views

Charge, Size, and Movement in Aqeuous Ions as Electrolytes

Would a pair of aqueous $+2$ and $-2$ ions necessarily conduct electricity better than the same concentration of $+1$ and $-1$ ions? Furthermore, would more massive ions not conduct as well as less ...
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1answer
76 views

What will be the reaction between tin (II) chloride and copper (II) chloride?

I just tried conducting an experiment during lunch today. Now, I calculated this reaction 4 days ago dealing with electrochemistry, $$\ce{SnCl2 + CuCl2 -> Cu(s) + SnCl4}$$ Theoretically, I got ...
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3answers
31 views

w/w % to molarity

After reading a number of explanations about it after googling, I'm a bit confused on this. Some explanations are doing it using a solution density, others aren't, though most are. On one site it's ...
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27 views

Special effects: using non-toxic solutions to create colors

I'm looking for a non-toxic solution to create low budget special effects without using digital effects. An actor ($175\: \mathrm{cm}$ tall) could: wear a particular kind of clothing? be coated ...
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1answer
40 views

How to filter out magnesium acetate (a soluble salt) quickly and cheaply from water

I am conducting an experiment that involves reacting a weak acid and a weak base to form water and a salt with this overall equation $$\ce{Mg(OH)2(s) + 2CH3COOH(l) <=> 2H2O(l) + ...
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1answer
204 views

Do you include the “10 H2O” in the formula for borax?

When you calculate the mass of borax needed to make up a standard solution, do you include $\ce{\cdot 10 H2O}$ in the formula for borax? Why or why not?
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39 views

Hydronium Salts

When it comes to solids, hydroxide salts are quite abundant. There is $\ce{Mg(OH)_2}$, $\ce{NaOH}$, $\ce{CsOH}$, $\ce{Ca(OH)_2}$, and $\ce{Fe(OH)_3}$, just to name a few. However, (correct me if I'm ...
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1answer
48 views

Freezing Point Depression Problem

Assuming an ideal solution, which of these 0.10 M solutions would have the least freezing point depression? $\ce{HCl}$ $\ce{NaBr}$ $\ce{KNO_3}$ $\ce{MgSO_4}$ They all produce ...
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1answer
31 views

What solutes will give the largest reduction in volume when dissolved in water

This question is inspired by another question. If you take some common salt (NaCl) and some water and mix them, then the volume of the solution is less than the volume of the constituents. I did ...
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1answer
50 views

Unique Solubility Expression for Sulfide Salts

While looking at aqeuous $\ce{K_{sp}}$ values in the back of my textbook, I noticed that there is a asterisk by all of the sulfide compounds (such as $\ce{HgS}$), and the asterisk says, "For a ...
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1answer
21 views

Mixing a Tagged Sample of Lead Iodide with another Iodide Salt [closed]

A sample of sparingly soluble $\ce{PbI_2{(s)}}$ containing radioactive $\ce{^{133}I}$ is added to 0.10 M $\ce{KI_{(aq)}}$ and stirred overnight, what happens? I The radioactivity of the liquid phase ...
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1answer
44 views

What actually happens when citric acid is added to a highly alkaline soap solution?

A few days ago I made an experiment. I diluted a few small chunks of bar soap with 20 ml of water. I then measured the ph of the solution which was around 10. I then added a tiny amount of citric ...
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2answers
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Can one predict the entropy change for aqueous phase reactions without calculation?

I have seen several sources that claim aqueous solutions always have more entropy than pure liquids or solids, however, some aqueous ions have negative standard entropy. This opens the possibility of ...
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79 views

What does solubility limit mean in practical terms?

I am not really a chemist guy so please bear with me. Glycerol monolaurate has an upper limit of solubility in water of 20 μg/mL, which is enough for my experiment. Does this mean that no matter how ...
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0answers
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Poor aqueous solubility of chloroazodin

Below is the structure of chloroazodin: Why is chloroazodin poorly soluble in water? It has multiple amine and imine nitrogens, all of which appear to be available for hydrogen bonding, and thus it ...
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3answers
236 views

What is the compound called when it is in solution?

When a compound precipitates out of solution, for example Calcium Carbonate from a water solution, it is called the precipitate. What is the same compound called before it precipitates out - once it ...
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28 views

Will bases typically precipitate silver atoms from silver ions?

In class I learnt that one can dissolve many substances using acid and that this can be predicted using standard electrode potentials. For example, $$\begin{align} \ce{Zn &-> Zn^{2+} + 2e^-} ...
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28 views

Why does adding PBS to a lipid+propylene glycol solution cause the lipid to precipitate?

I am trying to create an aqueous phospholipid suspension using ~50 mg of 1,2-dibehenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DBPC), 13 mL of propylene glycol (PG), and 72 mL of phosphate-buffered saline ...
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Gas solubility in water and alcohol

I know that a certain gas is soluble in water but not in alcohol. How can I find the solubility of the gas in mixture of water and alcohol? Do I use a simple linear relation? The gas in question is ...
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1answer
56 views

Trying to displace iron from ferrous sulphate heptahydrate using aluminium foil but nothing has happened

I started by dissolving the sulphate into water and filtering it as I noticed there was a dirty residue lying at the bottom. (I am using ferrous sulphate that is commonly used in gardening.) I then ...
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vertically growing icicle

I made some "super" soap bubbles with my kids using the following ingredients: liquid dish soap tap water corn syrup We left the solution out over night last night here in Maine and the ...
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2answers
252 views

pH of a buffer made with H3BO3 and KH2BO3

The Problem Calculate the pH of a buffer that is 0.200M $\ce{H3BO3}$ and 0.122M $\ce{KH2BO3}$. The $K_a$ for $\ce{H3BO3}$ is $7.3*10^{-10}$ What I Tried For each of these methods, I used 0.200M as ...
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26 views

Entropy and enthalpy of hydrogen ion?

The absolute entropy of $\ce{H^+ (g)}$ is $\ce{108 kJ/mol.K}$. However, the absolute entropy of $\ce{H^+ (aq)}$ is exactly 0. Why is that? Also, the standard enthalpy of $\ce{H^+ (aq)}$ is 0, so ...
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Hydrogen Peroxide - Iron Nail Galvanic Cell?

I am planning to create a simple galvanic cell made up of common household materials. Suppose I have hydrogen peroxide (to serve as cathode), diluted in water, in one beaker, and I have a bunch of ...
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47 views

Getting the wrong pH value, according to data and online calculator

I'm doing a titration problem with a week acid and strong base, I used experiment data and an online calculator to check my answer, but my pH I calculated is a bit off. Can anyone see where I messed ...
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Why do some insoluble salts undergo slow chemical reaction instead of dissociation in water?

$$\ce{PbCl2 + H2O ->[\Delta] Pb(OH)Cl + HCl}\tag{1}$$ $$\ce{2ZnCO3 + H2O ->[\Delta] Zn2(OH)2CO3 + CO2}\tag{2}$$ $$\ce{2NiS + 2H2O → Ni2(OH)2S + H2S}\tag{3}$$ $$\ce{Hg2SO4 + H2O → HgO + Hg + ...
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55 views

How Can the System Reach Equilibrium?

Suppose that you had a generic cation, $\ce{X^+}$, that can form a hydroxide salt X(OH). In water, $\ce{X^+}$ undergoes the equilibrium $\ce{ X^+ (aq) + OH^- (aq) <=> XOH (s)}$ with a certain ...
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43 views

Molar concentration of water and pKa value

By defintion, $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ value is defined as $$\mathrm pK_\mathrm a = -\lg ([\ce{H2O}] K_\mathrm{eq})$$ Consider the reaction: $$\ce{HCl + H2O <=> H3O+ + Cl-}$$ The Eq constant of ...
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Getting a pH value that's not right for acid/base titration problem, after added 10mL titrant

Can someone please help me figure out where I'm messing up and getting a weird pH value? This is supposed to be after adding 10.00mL during a titration with HCl of 0.249M. It's late, and I've been ...
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Weird titration result, is this wrong like it seems?

For a titration yesterday, we used what was marked as ${0.5}$ M $\ce{HCl}$ and ${0.5}$ M $\ce{NaOH}$, adding the $\ce{NaOH}$ into the $\ce{HCl}$ that had an indicator in it. I used ${35}$ mL of ...
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How to choose the correct volumes when preparing a dilution series?

Original Question A solution of dye, Amido Black 10B dye ($10~\mathrm{mM}$, $6.165~\mathrm{g\over L}$), as-provided absorbs light much too strongly for measurement of an absorbance value. It is ...
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Autoprotolysis Constant of Water

My chemistry textbook states that $[\ce{H3O+}][\ce{OH-}] = K_w$ in all aqueous solutions, which we know of as $K_w$. However, I was wondering why this was true. The textbook states that it is true ...
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Why ethoxyethane is not very soluble in water? Since, oxygen in ethoxyethane is electronegative, as oxygen in water

If the reasons is related to polarity, I have another question. Why water is polar it is also symmetrical?
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Is it possible for a liquid chemical to have a pH value lower than its aqueous solution?

During the QC check of one of the products that we make as a company, the product had a $\mathrm{pH}$ of $10.44$ on one $\mathrm{pH}$ meter and $10.20$ on the other. (The product is a liquid, so it's ...
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58 views

Calcium sulphate soluble in water

In the volumetric estimation of calcium in a given solution as calcium oxalate.. We convert the calcium oxalate to oxalic acid by dissolving the former in hot (~70 °C) 2 N sulphuric acid solution. ...
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Mass of salt required to make a 1.2g/ml solution

I would like to make an NaCl and water solution with a density of 1.2g/ml. How would you calculate the grams of NaCl required to make a 1000ml solution? I have used density of mixture = (mass NaCl + ...
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The stability of the cupric and cuprous ions

My teacher told me that $\ce{Cu^2+}$ is more stable than $\ce{Cu+}$ in solution, but why? I think $\ce{Cu+}$ is $\ce{[Ar] 3d^10 }$ ,$\ce{Cu^2+}$ is $\ce{[Ar] 3d^9}$, why is $\ce{Cu^2+}$ more stable ...