This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base is on the other hand a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available ...

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Hydrogen peroxide from water

Is it possible that $\ce{2 OH-}$ from water could react to form $\ce{H2O2}$? I mean most autoionization forms $\ce{H3O+}$ and $\ce{OH-}$. However I think it is possible that $\ce{H-}$ and $\ce{OH+}$ ...
2
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2answers
48 views

Why is the iodide anion a good nucleophile but a poor base?

The $pK_{aH}$ of $I^-$ is very low which indicated that it is not favourable for it to bond with a proton. However, why would it be likely to bond with any other atom (mostly carbon when considering ...
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1answer
25 views

Na2CO3 and HNO3 titration

As the title says, I am trying to find the pH of the followng problem (ANs: pH=10.77) Calculate the pH of a 100 mL solution containing 40.0 g of $\ce{Na2CO3}$ after 400 mL of ...
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2answers
43 views

Why is Al³⁺ considered a hard acid if it forms covalently bonded compounds like aluminium oxide?

If something is a hard acid, it tends to form ionic bonds as it is polarizing. So why is the aluminium ion a hard acid when it forms bonds with covalent character. A similar argument follows for why ...
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1answer
39 views

How is it possible to account for the fact that NH3 is a weak base in water but a strong base in HCl?

I understand that the solvents differ in their acidity but why does this affect the basicity of the solute?
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How is it possible to quantify the strength of a Lewis acid/base?

When the $pK_a$ scale is not applicable - when there is no proton/charged species transfer - what should be used to quantify the strength of an acid?
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0answers
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What distinguishes a Lewis Complex from an Adduct or are they synonymous?

I cannot think of a distinction - the terms seem to be used interchangeably when talking about products of Lewis acid-base reactions. However, I am concerned that I may have overlooked a subtlety. ...
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1answer
30 views

Finding pH of tri-protic acid

I am studying for my final and I am given this problem: A solution of sodium phosphate is made from 10.5 g sodium phosphate in 150 mL of water. What is the pH of this solution Given: Ka1, Ka2. ...
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2answers
71 views

If the hydroxide ion is such a poor leaving group then why does water dissociate?

Water dissociates into the hydroxide and hydronium ions but, why does this happen if the hydroxide ion is such a poor leaving group. Alcohols don't undergo $\ce{S_{N}1}$ reactions because the ...
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1answer
30 views

Why doesn't nitric acid have a positive charge?

From the diagrams I've seen $\ce{HNO3}$ has a dative covalent bond so why doesn't it have a positive charge?
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Acidity of Compounds and Inductive Effect Theory Use

What is the reason for which $\ce{CH3OH2+}$ is more acidic than $\ce{H3O+}$? If we look at the conjugate bases, the CH3- is electron-releasing, making the conjugate base of $\ce{CH3OH2+}$ more ...
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1answer
17 views

Common ion effect and acids

If I have 0.01M $\ce{HBr}$ in 0.09M $\ce{KBr}$, why would the presence of $\ce{Br-}$ ions from the $\ce{KBr}$ not reduce $\ce{HBr}$'s dissociation based on Le Chatelier's principle? Or would it?
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18 views

Acetic acid or ethanoic acid

Recently, my teacher likes to use household material to do an experiment. Today, we did an experiment on the reaction between vinegar and eggshell. When we were doing the analyzation of the ...
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1answer
25 views

What is the Chemistry behind “good” and “bad” cholesterol & their relation to Cis/Trans fatty acids?

I have searched Google for this but cannot seem to find an explanation. My question is as follows - what is the Chemistry/Biochemistry behind cis and trans fatty acids resulting in "Bad" LDL and ...
3
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2answers
76 views

why is benzoic acid stronger acid than 3-aminobenzoic acid?

why is m-aminobenzoic acid weaker acid than benzoic acid? obviously at m-position only -I effect will be shown but how doeas that make it a weaker acid than benzoic acid??
4
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1answer
54 views

How to Determine Acid Strength?

The correct answer is E, but I do not understand why :( Shouldn't (v) have the lowest pKa since it does not have a carboxyl group making it a strong acid? How do we determine the strength of acids?
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2answers
1k views

Why formulate drugs as HCl salts when HCl is in stomach acid?

I know there are issues of formulation and industrial processing that make it advantageous to produce many amine containing drugs as their salts rather than as freebases. And if giving the drug ...
2
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1answer
94 views

What's the strongest known organic acid?

What's the strongest known organic acid? Is it maybe trifluoromethanesulfonic acid or tautomer of pentacyanocyclopentadien?
3
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1answer
32 views

Explanation for behavior of acetic acid in aquaponic/hydroponic systems?

Because aquaponics is hydroponics with fish & bacteria, options for adjusting pH are limited. Primarily people use phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid (heavily diluted). A less ...
3
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1answer
64 views

Inductive vs resonance effects and the acidity of phenol

A lot of people rationalize the acidity of phenol by saying that resonance is responsible for much of phenol's acidity as opposed to aliphatic alcohols. However, this image suggests that in fact ...
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1answer
27 views

Antacid tablet is acid?

Doing a grade 9 experiment comparing the alkalinity of antacid tablets. Using bromothymol blue indicator. Dissolved tablets in both tap water and distilled water and in all situations antacid came out ...
3
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1answer
39 views

Why does hydrogen bonding in salicylic acid make it more acidic?

When salicylic acid deprotonates (losing the proton from the carboxyl group) it forms a hydrogen bond with between the oxygen in the carboxylate anion and the hydrogen in the alcohol group. However, ...
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0answers
18 views

Why is O-Toluic Acid (2-Methylbenzoic Acid) more acidic than Benzoic Acid?

Why does the methyl group at the ortho-position stabilize the carboxylate ion? I recognize that there will be a steric clash between the carboxyl group and the methyl group but I don't understand why ...
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1answer
47 views

Why doesn't baking soda react with the solid form of an acid?

Baking soda (powder) will react when it comes into contact with a solution of citric acid crystals dissolved in a liquid medium such as water. But why doesn't baking soda react when mixed with a solid ...
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1answer
35 views

A defining feature for acids / bases

I now know of 3 different definitions for acids and bases including Arrhenius, Brønsted–Lowry and Lewis. Can anyone tell me what is the common feature among these 3 definitions that we have to label ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Why is the maximal percent concentration of acids similar to their molar mass

Why is the usual percent concentration of a concentrated acid's solution similar to its molar mass? For example: ...
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2answers
78 views

Should I use H3O+ or H+?

I learned the equation $$\ce{H2O + H+ -> H3O+}$$ And I know $\ce{H^+}$ and $\ce{H_3O+}$ are the same. But I am confused as to when can I use $\ce{H^+}$ and $\ce{H_3O+}$?
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0answers
29 views

Find H3O+ of weak acid salt solution which compose of solute that can gain and give protons

Find $[\ce{H3O+}]$ of 0.100 M $\ce{NaHCO3}$ ($K_{\ce{H2CO3},1}=4.45×10^{-7}$, $K_{\ce{H2CO3},2}=4.7×10^{-11}$) My work is: $$\ce{HCO3- + H2O<=>H2CO3 + OH-}$$ Initial: $[\ce{HCO3-}]$ = 0.100 M, ...
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2answers
179 views

What's the difference between a nucleophile and a base?

Obviously it depends on the context whether you would call a particular species a nucleophile or a base but are the two terms largely synonymous or is there a difference?
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1answer
34 views

How is ethanenitrile protonated?

I know that the proton will attack the HOMO, but I'm having difficulty imagining how this will happen. Thank you.
2
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1answer
42 views

Why can't the conjugate base of benzoic acid be stabilized by conjugation with the aromatic ring?

All the carbon and oxygen atoms are sp2 hybridised and can have a p orbital in the correct plane yet only conjugation of the COO- group occurs. I can't think why. I can't draw resonance structures for ...
3
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2answers
37 views

The pH of a neutralized solution

If pH is defined as the concentration of Hydrogen ions in solution, then how can a 'neutralized' solution (defined as having an equal amount of Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions) have a pH other than 7? ...
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3answers
39 views

Strong and weak acid

I know sulphuric acid is a strong acid and acetic acid is a weak acid. However when I write them in their chemical symbol. Sulphuric acid: $\ce{H2SO4}$ Acetic acid: $\ce{CH3COOH}$ And I realise ...
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1answer
19 views

Alkaline and Bases

I learned about acids and bases in the latest chapter. And I saw that my textbook sometimes write alkaline and sometimes it write base. For me, alkaline and bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxide. ...
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1answer
36 views

Is a metal hydroxide fully or partly oxidised in insufficient base?

Firstly, my question only applies to transition metal compounds with more than one hydroxide group, otherwise it would be more obvious. The reason I'm asking is in an effort to oxidise some nickel ...
3
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1answer
43 views

Why did HF disolve this lightbulb at the surface rather than more submerged points?

I watched this video where a lightbulb is suspended in a solution of HF. The result is that the HF dissolves the glass, but it seems like the part of glass on the surface reacted faster than fully ...
4
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1answer
74 views

Why is ammonia so much more basic than water?

The only reason I can think of is that the lone pairs in the oxygen in water are in lower energy orbital relative to the nitrogen in ammonia due to increased effective nuclear charge in oxygen. ...
2
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1answer
57 views

Soap versus Shampoo

Soap and shampoo are both cleaning agents in our daily life. Why is soap in solid form and shampoo is in a liquid form, though? Is it because of the chemical components inside them or another ...
2
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2answers
61 views

Reaction an ROH-resonance-stabilized Group with Hydroxide/Acid-Base Reactions

The book says there is no reaction. However, I do not understand why. The ROH group is resonance-stabilized with the benzene-like group. Its conjugate base is stable. There is an inductive effect ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Finding pH of a buffer solution

A $\ce{pH}$ 4.88 buffer was prepared by dissolving 0.10 mol of benzoic acid (Ka = 6.3 . 10-5) and 0.50 mol of sodium benzoate in sufficient pure water to form 1.00 L solution. To a 70.0ml aliquot of ...
2
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2answers
82 views

Buffer Solution - Sodium Benzoate

A buffer with a pH of $\mathrm{4.79}$ contains $\mathrm{ 0.39\ M}$ of sodium benzoate and $\mathrm{0.10\ M}$ of benzoic acid. What is the concentration of $\mathrm{[\ce{H} ]}$ in the solution after ...
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2answers
29 views

Balancing Ionic and Net Ionic equations

I am currently taking a chemistry course about acids and bases. One of the things I am a bit confused about, is the acid and base neutralization reaction, and how to balance it. For Example: ...
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1answer
44 views

Why are metal oxides basic and non-metals' acidic or neutral

Recently I came across the fact: Metal oxides basic and non-metals' acidic or neutral. Searching for it, partly my query is solved, as I found: Metal oxides or $\ce{O2-}$ forms $\ce{OH-}$ after ...
5
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1answer
46 views

How do I calculate the concentration of H₂SO₄ by a titration experiment with NaOH?

In my latest chem lab the objective was to create a primary standard of $\ce{NaOH}$ and use it to determine the concentration of sulfuric acid. The first part of the lab was determine the molarity of ...
0
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1answer
49 views

What happens when oxidizing Ni(OH)2 with a strong base?

In an aqueous solution, Nickel oxyhydroxide is oxidised with a 1:1 ratio of aqueous Sodium hydroxide. My goal is to produce Nickel oxyhydroxide ($\ce{NiOOH}$). Strong Base: $\ce{NaOH + H2O ...
2
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1answer
114 views

Can protons be swapped in a chemical reaction?

Can the protons of two elements be swapped in a chemical reaction?
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3answers
74 views

Filling a buret tip before an experiment

I have a question that asks if the buret tip is not filled before the experiment what would happen (effect on molarity for acid/base titration). The way I'm thinking about it, it's not like you're ...
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2answers
54 views

contact process<application of Sulphuric acid in industry>

Choose the two correct options from A-F, why it is not commercially suitable to dissolve $\ce{SO3}$ directly in water to give concentrated sulphuric acid instead of contact process? The major reaction ...
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1answer
37 views

What does 0.12N mean on a bottle of sulfuric acid?

I just bought a bottle of sulfuric acid in order to simulate acid rain for an experiment. I was wondering what 0.12N on the bottle means. I need a simplified version of the explanation as I'm ...
1
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0answers
30 views

Hexafluorosilicid acid attacks glass?

When HF meets glass, Hexafluorosilic acid is formed (assuming some water is present). It appears that Hexafluorosilic acid and further attack glass? How is this so, considering that all F atoms are ...