This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base is on the other hand a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available ...

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Enzyme Assay - pectinase

I am working on Enzyme Assay.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from $pH\ 1-12.5$ However,the enzyme has good activities starting from $pH\ 1-10.5$ Is that possible to have enzyme activity in ...
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1answer
21 views

why cant organic acids be concentrated and used as a concentrated acids like conc sulphuric acid etc?

Is it possible to make organic acids concentrated like inorganic acids like conc. sulphuric acid etc?
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9 views

Dissolving Time Function for Concrete

So I was just exploring some ideas on my own and am having trouble analytically solving the following: Let $D(n,m,T)$ be the time it takes to dissolve an n x n x n cube of concrete in m molar HcL at ...
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1answer
23 views

How to separate HCl and NaOH from an aqueous solution of NaCl?

At home I make experiments on salt (as it is easily available at home). One day I came to know that on mixing salt and water I will get Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide. So I became really ...
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2answers
54 views

Why does alcoholic KOH prefer elimination whereas aqueous KOH prefers substitution?

What is the basic difference between aqueous and alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$? Why does alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$ prefer elimination whereas aqueous $\ce{KOH}$ prefers substitution?
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1answer
45 views

Explaining Ba(OH)2 as a base?

It is well known fact that Barium Hydroxide is a base. How does the Brønsted-Lowry concept explain $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$ as a base? Is it that $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$ first accepts a proton then leaves behind ...
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2answers
59 views

Water as a strong Base

Question: Classify each of the following ions according to whether they react with water to give a neutral, acidic, or basic solution: As a general rule: Strong acid + Strong base ...
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2answers
63 views

Why is formic acid a stronger acid than acetic acid?

I am told that because the methyl group is electron donating in the conjugate base of acetic acid, this destabilizes the conjugate base by exacerbating the existing negative formal charge on the ...
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1answer
41 views

What will happen when a metal reacts with an acid which is neither dilute nor concentrated?

We have always studied about metals reacting with dilute and concentrated acids, but I do not understand what will happen if the same metal reacts with an acid that is neither concentrated nor dilute? ...
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1answer
71 views

What element or compound could be used to create a more base ocean?

The ocean is becoming acidic. This is not a natural evolutionary change but happens through human negative effect on the environment. What element or compound could be used to create a more base ...
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2answers
56 views

Why is formic acid considered an acid if it is a reducing agent?

My understanding was that since the acceptance of Lavoisier's revised Easter Memoir of 1778, all acids were understood to be oxidising agents.* However, formic acid is often listed as a reducing ...
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1answer
38 views

What is the pH of a solution of HCOONa and HNO3?

Calculate the pH of an aqueous solution obtained by mixing 20 ml of $\ce{HCOONa}$ 0, 1 M and 5 ml of $\ce{HNO_3}$ 0,2 M. ($K_a$ of $\ce{HCOOH}$ $= 10^{–4}$) My try: The number of the moles involved ...
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39 views

Is it true that a pH higher than the pKa of an acid make the H automatically disassociate?

Will the hydrogen atom always disassociate if the pH of the solution is higher than the pKa of the acid?
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1answer
52 views

Amount of Phenolphthalein required

We just had chemistry practical few days a go. The topic was strong acid-base titration. In which we have to find normality and concentration of $\ce{HCl}$. My teacher instruct me to add 2 drops of ...
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1answer
48 views

Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

I am told by Dr. Klein that in the nitration of benzene, hydrogen sulfate anion acts as the base and deprotonates the sigma complex. My question is why would the hydrogen sulfate anion be doing ...
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3answers
2k views

Why is magic acid a superacid?

The above is a representation of magic acid. The left part is the acid; the right part is the solvent. Why would this combination make for a particularly good acid? The left part looks like a ...
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0answers
21 views

Common etchant for Stainless Steel 304L and Titanium Grade 2

I need a common etchant for S.S. and $\ce{Ti}$. Right now I'm using: $\ce{HNO3 + 3HCl}$ - for S.S. 304L $5\%~\ce{HCl} + 6\%~\ce{HNO3} + 16\%~\ce{HF} + 74\%~\ce{H2O}$ - for $\ce{Ti}$ Is it possible ...
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2answers
76 views

Why can the lone pair not align with the phenyl moiety in 2,6-xylidine?

I am told that for this molecule, the amino group cannot line up in such a way that its p-orbital is parallel with respect to the p-orbitals of the carbons in the ring. I've looked for papers and ...
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2answers
32 views

Ammonia and hydroxide ion - Lewis basicity

Which is the stronger Lewis base, and why? I'm thinking that the answer is "it depends." With regard to the hydrogen proton, which hydroxide ion is obviously the stronger Lewis base. However, with ...
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2answers
22 views

Kb of hydride anion

I can't find any data about the Kb value of the hydride anion except that it's huge. Does anyone know what it is, or how I can characterize it? I know I can use electrochemical means but the only ...
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0answers
22 views

Concentration of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite

Given a total chlorine concentration and pH, and pKa of HOCl, how would you find the concentration of OCl- and HOCl disinfectants? if the given total chlorine concentration =.1 M, pH of Cl is 8, and ...
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0answers
34 views

Boric Acid - Mechanism of Acidity

I was wondering how one could test the hypothesis that boric acid behaves not as a Bronsted acid but as a Lewis acid in that boric acid cleaves water molecules as to make hydrogen protons. rad ...
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0answers
14 views

Ligand strength - Coulombic effect and/or Electronegativities?

According to my teacher, these three Lewis bases generally decrease in strength in the following order: 1) Ammonia 2) Water 3) Hydroxide ion I agree. However, he argues that their ability to act as ...
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2answers
81 views

Why does ammonia react with water to produce hydroxide?

My question relates to dissolving $\ce{NH3}$ in water and how it produces $\ce{OH-}$ for the reaction $\ce{NH3 + H2O -> NH4+ + OH-}$? I know that the $\mathrm{p}K_b$ of $\ce{NH3}$ is $4.8$ and ...
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1answer
25 views

tap water and distilled water for electrolysis

my water electrolyzer which I've built using this pdf, produces less gas than I expected. In that file the author insists on using distilled water instead of tap water and I have used tap water. would ...
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1answer
377 views

How can I identify whether a substance is KOH or NaOH?

I've bought NaOH or KOH (I don't remember which one!) for my electrolyzer and I've tested it. Now I want to improve its performance and I was searching for a better electrolyte when I realized I've ...
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3answers
190 views

Why Does A Brønsted–Lowry Acid Accept Proton from Stronger Acid?

This is mechanism of Nitration of Benzene. In the first step, Nitric Acid (pKa = -1.4) accepts a proton from sulfuric acid which is stronger acid (pKa = -9). According to Brønsted-Lowry theory we ...
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1answer
96 views

Acid-base equilibrium of NH4CN

I'm having difficulties understanding this problem. We have in the problem that $K_a$ for $\ce{HCN} = 6.2\cdot10^{-10}$ and $K_b$ for $\ce{NH3} = 1.8\cdot10^{-5}$. Write chemical equations to ...
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1answer
102 views

Byproducts of the neutralisation of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

Given a 1M concentration of $\ce{HCL}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ here are the pHs: pH of $\ce{HCL}$: 1 pH of $\ce{NaOH}$: 13-14 and of course water has a pH of 7. Here is a reaction that is most likely to ...
2
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2answers
114 views

Steric Hindrance and Bronsted Basicity

Does steric hindrance affect Bronsted basicity? I understand that basicity is a thermodynamic quality. Not a kinetic factor. So it doesn't matter if it takes a million years for the proton to reach ...
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3answers
51 views

Why cellphone batteries are still bad?

There are constantly new features in cellphones over the years, but it seems like batteries are not getting any better. Why is that?
2
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1answer
40 views

Can very dilute acids exposed to air become more concentrated as water evaporates?

If a very minute quantity spilled acid (e.g. $\ce{H2SO4}$, though the question would apply to other acids as well) is cleaned up with water (e.g. yielding a $0.0001~\mathrm{M}$ solution), and some of ...
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1answer
36 views

What is the chemistry of this household cleaning recipe?

What would be the product if baking soda and common salt and vinegar are added together?
2
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2answers
28 views

Find the color of the solution

The acid-base indicator methyl red has a $K_{a}$ = $1 \times 10^{-5}$. Its acidic form is red while its alkaline form is yellow. If methyl red is added in a colorless solution with a $pH = 7$, the ...
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3answers
35 views

What does the hydrolysis of a salt tell us about its basic/acidic character?

I'm curious to know how basicity and acidity arises when a salt or covalent compound is dissolved in water.
2
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2answers
174 views

Calculating pH of diprotic and amphoteric solutions

I am trying to understand this problem and its corresponding solution (complete solution not shown) First off, from the above one can see that the equilibrium constants when $\ce{H2ASO4-}$ ...
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1answer
67 views

How could household vinegar create a salt on car carpet?

I am not a chemist! My chemistry classes from my molecular biology undergrad are far behind me. But I think I created a salt, and I don't know how. Here is my mystery: I recently got some water in my ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Neutralization reaction

Question) Complete and balance each of the following molecular equations (in aqueous solution); include phase labels. Then, for each, write the net ionic equation. (A) $\ce{NH_3 + HNO_3 ->}$ My ...
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2answers
318 views

How much can the pH change through dilution?

Consider an acidic solution with Hydrogen ion concentration, $\ce{[H+]}$ of $10^{-5}\:\mathrm{M}$. Since $\:\mathrm{pH} = -\log \ce{[H+]}$ the $\:\mathrm{pH}$ of solution is $5$. Suppose we dilute ...
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2answers
57 views

Calculate the pH of acetic acid for a 0.02 M solution

We have a solution $\ce{CH3COOH}$ (acetic acid) with $c=0.02~\mathrm{mol/L}$ and the of acetic acid, $K_A = 1.8\cdot10^{-5}$. Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of this solution. I tried everything ...
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3answers
75 views

Why is HSO4- shown as an example of a weak acid instead of HSO4?

I'm watching some (really awesome) chemistry courses, and I think I have a fairly decent handle on acids and bases (or maybe not, and I'm fooling myself). But the teacher just showed a table of ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Any possible additives to a drain cleaner I use as a source of NaOH?

It is in pellets. And the box says main ingredient $\ce{NaOH}$ at least $30\%$ (I hope it's more). The box also says "aluminium catalyst". My goal was to take these pellets and dissolve them in water ...
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0answers
38 views

Neutralisation of HCl with NaOH - generated heat and excess concentration [closed]

If you have $75\:\mathrm{mL}$ of $M(\ce{HCl}) = 4\:\mathrm{M}$ at $25\:\mathrm{^\circ C}$ and $100\:\mathrm{mL}$ of $M(\ce{NaOH})=5\:\mathrm{M}$ at $27\:\mathrm{^\circ C}$ with a final temperature ...
0
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1answer
30 views

How to create a buffer solution from NaOH and $\ce{CH3COOH}$?

In my chemistry book, they say that an approach to making a buffer solution of pH$=5.09$ is by adding an appropriate amount of strong base($0.052$ mol $\ce{NaOH}$) to $0.300L$ of $0.025 M$ ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Formation Constants; Lewis Acidity

I still distinctly remember reading about how Lewis acidity/basicity was characterized using kinetics. The reason given was that because formation constants are so large, these reactions are not ...
2
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1answer
71 views

Conversion of CO2 to methane

Suppose one could generate an enzyme with arbitrary conditions at the active site. What conditions would then be necessary to cause carbon from dissolved $\ce{CO2}$ in low $pH$ water to combine with ...
9
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2answers
309 views

The Acidity of Boric Acid

The “real way” boric acid behaves as an acid in water is first by acting as a Lewis acid (bottom reaction, in black). In fairness to the undergrads, I’d bet >25% of graduate students around the ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Differentiating between Titration, Buffer, diluted buffer, Deionized H₂O

I had a chemistry lab where we had to titrate three solutions with HCl, a buffer, a diluted buffer and deionized water. My partner and I didn't label the charts we made, so now I have to figure out ...
2
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2answers
106 views

Does H3O+ donate a H+ to Water?

Does the hydronium ion donate a proton to water? If the collision of 2 molecules of water can cause a proton to be transferred, does hydronium 'pass' a proton to water?
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2answers
42 views

Reconciling the units of pH calculation

As part of a simulation I am developing I have an acid in aqueous solution represented as a concentration field of mass density (units g/L) at various points in ...