This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base is on the other hand a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

-1
votes
0answers
22 views

Calculating the pH of a diluted aqueous solution [on hold]

A 50 ml solution with pH = 1 is mixed with a 50 ml solution of pH = 2. What is the pH of the mixture?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

When do one have to actually calculate the net charge of an amino acid? [duplicate]

When the pH and the pKa levels differ by 2 or more you don't need to calculate the net charge. What you do then is to just count the negative and positive charge and add them up. When pH=pKa you also ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

How to calculate the pH of low concentration Hydrochloric acid in water

For relatively high concentrations of $\ce{HCl}$, I usually just assume that $\ce{[H+] = [HCl]}$, because $\ce{HCl}$ is a strong acid and completely ionizes. By taking the negative log of the ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Why does water donate a proton to ammonia instead of accepting one?

Water can donate a proton to $\ce{NH3}$ when they react. Why doesn't water accept a proton from $\ce{NH3}$? Why does water have a tendency to donate protons when reacting with $\ce{NH3}$?
6
votes
1answer
57 views

How can I- be both a nucleophile and a weak base?

I am just confused as to how $\ce{I-}$ cannot attract $\ce{H+}$, but it can attack a carbocation. It is sharing electrons in both cases, so what is the difference?
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Hard-hard and soft-soft acid/base interactions

How does one conclude if a given compound or a complex is a hard or soft acid or base? What are the factors that contribute to hard-hard, soft-soft, soft-hard, and hard-soft interactions?
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Aromatic substitution

Respective aromatic substitution: Why isn't the $\pi$ bond attacked by the catalyst $\ce{FeBr3}$? $\ce{Fe}$ must have a strong partial positive charge and acts as an electron acceptor to form a ...
6
votes
1answer
192 views

What bases are fit for human consumption and can be used in foods?

I know that are several acids that can be found in the kitchen, such as citric acid and vinegar. However, I never heard of a base that can be used in the kitchen to raise the pH levels of any food. ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Carbidopa : zwitterion

The pKa of carbidopa is 7-8 of the base hydrazin. Is this because of the zwitter form with the acid? Why is the basicity so low? If it can form a zwitter ion wouldnt the pKa be higher? ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Stainless steel corrostion resistance to strongly basic solutions

Several online sources indicate that SAE 304 stainless steel is a "Good" but not "Excellent" material for containing strongly basic (e.g., 3.0 M $\ce{NaOH}$) aqueous solutions. They define "Good" as ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Can -OH group on the benzene ring of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid react with PCl5?

I learned that, a phenol will not react (or react very slowly) with $\ce{PCl5}$ due to it's stabilized structure. How about $\ce{-OH}$ group on the benzene ring of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, will that ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

From whom did the description that acids are sour and bases are bitter come from?

With Arrhenius definition, those descriptions may have fitted acids and bases, but with the Lewis definition I guess they would not really apply. For example, AlCl3, a known Lewis acid, does not ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Chemical Equillibria Comparisons

In which of the following reactions is the equilibrium farthest to the left? a) $\ce{P4O10 + $x$ H2O <=> 4 H3PO4(aq)}$ b) $\ce{AlCl3 + $x$ H2O <=> [Al(H2O)6]^3+ + 3 Cl- (aq)}$ c) ...
1
vote
1answer
423 views

Does Cute Poison actually work?

For those of you that have watched Season 1 of Prison Break (TV Series), in the "Cute Poison" Episode Micheal Scofield combined $\ce{CuSO4}$ (Copper Sulfate) and $\ce{H3PO4}$ (Phosphoric Acid) to ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How to determine which substance is the strongest base / acid?

What is the simplest way to determine which substance, from a list, is the strongest base/acid? For instance, which is the strongest acid here? $\ce{HClO}$ $\ce{HClO2}$ $\ce{HClO3}$ ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Calculating pH: Weak Acid, Strong Base

This is a question that had me puzzled for quite a while. I feel that information is missing. A weak acid, $\ce{HA}$, $K_a = 1.0$ x $10^{-4}$, is titrated with $\ce{NaOH}$. At the equivalence ...
5
votes
1answer
48 views

pKa values for protonated nitrogens in ketoconazole

Everywhere on the internet I see that the two $p\mathrm{K_a}$'s of Ketoconazole are 6.4 and 2.3, but I don't think that is correct. The $p\mathrm{K_a}$ of imidazole is around 6.4 . But ketoconazole ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

How do I store HCl safely?

I'm in a textile unit, where we use different chemicals. My question is what type of material should I make my tank out of to store my hydrochloric acid?
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Question about buffers [closed]

Could somebody please help me by explaining this problem: How to prepare $250\ \mathrm{mL}$ buffer solution with the $\mathrm{pH}$ value of $4.5$ from $0.2\ \mathrm{mol/L}$ $\ce{CH3COONa}$ and $0.3\ ...
1
vote
2answers
39 views

Can acid concentration be determined from Ka values in a titration? [duplicate]

Say I have a sample of vinegar and I want to find the concentration of ethanoic acid in it. So I perform a titration using a $\mathrm{pH}$ meter, and using that data I can draw a $\mathrm{pH}$ curve ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

acids, bases, salts, etc

All the chemical compounds can be categorized as acids, bases, and neutral compounds. There are different theories, namely Arrhenius Theory, Brønsted-Lowry Theory, Lewis Theory, which define the ...
-1
votes
0answers
50 views

pKa of domperidone

The p$K_{\rm a}$ of domperidone is 7.9. A typical tertiary amine has a p$K_{\rm a}$ ~9.8. Why is the p$K_{\rm a}$ of domperidone lower? I think it is the $\ce{N}$ from piperidine. Is it because of the ...
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Acid Accident Treatment

What are the general ways to treat an accident involving highly concentrated or similarly dangerous acids? I have a lab instructor who is very inexperienced and recently debated with our group about ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Oxidation of acetic acid in wine?

When wine is exposed to oxygen, acetic acid forms because of an oxidation reaction. The wine then loses acetic acid. Why? Is it because it is oxidised itself to form carbon dioxide?
3
votes
2answers
78 views

Why is the pKa of the thiol group in N-acetylcysteine higher then the pKa of the thiol group in cysteine?

I understand why cysteine has a $\mathrm pK_{\mathrm a}$ of 8.3. But the $\mathrm pK_{\mathrm a}$ of thiol in N-acetylcysteine is 9.27. Since there is an acetyl group attached to the nitrogen, doesn't ...
3
votes
2answers
75 views

How to find the concentrations of the acid-base equilibrium between sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide for a known pH using Octave?

The system is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide. I know how much sulfur there is and I know the pH. The system is in equilibrium. I would like to use Octave to solve the ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Baking Soda + Citric Acid + Water = CO2, how much though?

Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) + citric acid react when mixed with water to form some amount of carbon dioxide gas ($\ce{CO2}$). I am trying to determine what percentage of the products is carbon ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views
+50

pH of sodium metasilicate anhydrous vs pentahydrate when dissolved in water

I'm not a chemist and don't remember much chemistry from school, so please forgive a naive question (I've read the Wikipedia article on sodium silicate though). I'm researching this topic to make ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

What alcohol concentration makes bathroom cleaner “disinfecting”?

There are many do-it-yourself cleaner solutions out there, using a combination of vinegar, alcohol (in a "cheap vodka" concentration), dish soap, baking soda and essential oils. I like these recipes ...
7
votes
3answers
333 views

Why is HF the least acidic hydrogen halide?

Fluorine is the most electronegative halogen and therefore, there is larger difference in electronegativity between the atoms of $\ce{HF}$ than any other hydrogen halide, which means the positive ...
3
votes
0answers
853 views

How long would it take to dissolve someone using fluoroantimonic acid? [closed]

After writing an answer on worldbuilding.SE, I came here to ask a question. How long would it take to dissolve a human body using fluoroantimonic acid? I understand that since the human body isn't ...
4
votes
0answers
63 views

Difference in acid strength of oxalic acid and malonic acid

Despite very similar skeletal structures, the difference in acid strength between oxalic acid (ethanedioic acid) and malonic acid (propanedioic acid) is quite significant. What is the reason for that? ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Is it possible for monobasic and dibasic potassium phosphate to complete break down into phosphates? [closed]

Here is the picture of monobasic potassium phosphate: And here is the picture of dibasic potassium phosphate: Is it possible for the phosphorous-containing anions to further break down into ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

How does the acidity of soft drinks not affect certain drugs, such as opiates? What about drugs and stomach acid?

Here's a very random introduction. I heard the term, "dirty Sprite" (it's some rap album/slang term) on a YouTube advertisement. I Googled "dirty Sprite", and it's apparently a recreational drug: ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

How Many mL of 1.0M HCl Would be Required to Completely Decompose Sucrose into Glucose and Fructose?

I am currently conducting an experiment into the glucose content of certain sports drinks. However, I have hit a roadblock. A majority of the drinks that I intend to test contain sucrose. I am ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Does imidazole and hydrochloric acid yield imidazole hydrochloride salt?

I'm asking this because I found a link for imidazole-HCl buffer: , but from what I understand, a buffer is a weak acid or base with its corresponding salt. Would imidazole-HCl buffer be a salt ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

Why do chloride ions not bond to water molecules/hydronium ions when hydrochloric acid dissociates? [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I was reading a textbook and it gave me the equation of this hydrochloric acid which was put into water and the products formed were hydronium and chlorine. $\ce{HCl ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

percent ionization explanation [duplicate]

Using a weak acid as an example: $$\ce{HOAc <=> AcO- + H+}$$ The position of this equilibrium shifts to the right with increasing dilution. I have found textbooks that say this, but do not ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Why does solvation release energy? [duplicate]

Whether dissolving acids and salts is exothermic or endothermic, depends on the lattice and solvation energy. Breaking bonds in the lattice requires energy and is endothermic - that is clear. However, ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

Sodium Polysulfide production from NaOH and Sulfur

Does the sulfur also oxidize the $\ce{OH-}$ radicals after the $\ce{Na2S4}$ chains form? Something like this: $$\ce{9S + 4NaOH -> 2Na2S4 + SO3 + H2O}$$
0
votes
0answers
16 views

The reason for bicarbonate acting as a buffer

My question is: what is the primary reason that bicarbonate ($\ce{HCO3^-}$) can act as a buffer in a solution? The two (possibly) relevant equations that I can think of are $$ \ce {H2CO3 + H2O ...
4
votes
0answers
21 views

What is the relationship between the two definitions of the difference between basicity and nucleophilicity?

(Clarification: this is a question about terminology, not so much about when to use different concepts. I think I do understand which characteristics of a species to use when trying to determine ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

If both Nitric acid and Nitrate ion are stabilised through resonance, what makes Nitrate ion more stable in aqueous medium?

If both Nitric acid and Nitrate ion are stabilised through resonance, what makes Nitrate ion more stable in aqueous medium? Can the same argument be applied to Nitrous acid and Nitrite ion in aqueous ...
-2
votes
1answer
44 views

How do you know that Sodium Hydrogencarbonate is amphiprotic?

Do you just have to remember that it is? For example, I know that substances with CHs are hydrocarbons. Does such a 'code', if you will, exist for amphiprotic substances ?
5
votes
0answers
36 views

By how many pKa units will the pKa value of a ketone be minimized by addition of a lewis acid?

I want to enolize a ketone, let's take for instance acetone with a pKa value of about 20 (in $\ce{H_2O}$). Now I'd like to know if there exist rule of thumb (I don't think so), by how many pKa units ...
2
votes
1answer
113 views

Making carbon monoxide gas from formic acid and sulphuric acid?

Can I create carbon monoxide gas by just mixing formic acid and sulphuric acid together. Or do they have to be heated?
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Does the addition of base to 3-pentanone give the cis or trans enolate?

I've spent several hours searching the WWW with entries like "stereoselective enolate formation" and similar ones, but I find almost only entries for Li-amide bases (LDA, LMTP) and no other bases like ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Why does hydrogen phosphate act as a base?

Let's look at question c So, I'm a bit confused with what's happening. It seems that water is acting as an acid in this reaction, and donating protons to the ion. Can someone just elaborate on this ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Neutralization reaction with insoluble salt (weak acid, strong base)? [duplicate]

Consider the following reaction. $\ce{2 HF(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) -> CaF2(s) + 2 H2O(l)}$ The reaction produced a fairly insoluble salt. Assume that this reaction proceeds entirely to completion as ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Titrating a base into an existing acid-base mixture

I am trying to determine the mass of a particular product in a reaction, which is as follows: phenylamine + ethanoic anhydride -> N-phenylethanamide + ethanoic acid So, I perform the experiment, and ...