This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base is on the other hand a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available ...

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Grocery store crystalline citric acid

Which type of citric acid crystalline powder do they sell in grocery stores? Is the concentration of citric acid in the crystals 100%?Is it anhydrous or a monohydrate?
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1answer
30 views

carbonic acid reaction

is it possible that if we blow water (hot/cold) can cause a bond between CO2 from expiration and H2O of the water, and say, maybe become H2CO3? Is H2CO3 a dangerous component? Thx, iccang-Indonesia
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1answer
40 views

Acidity of ester and benzoic acid

Can the oxygen in an ester participate in resonance donation? I think so, although the donation is slight. The hybridization is correct. However, resonance withdrawal by the ring via the oxygen ...
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3answers
59 views

Acidities of amines and carboxylic acids

I have been told that the first of the two acids is the stronger acid. According to this person,deprotonation for both occur at the nitrogen.The resulting conjugate bases include,respectively a ...
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1answer
16 views

Basicities of meta-nitrophenoxide and para-nitrophenoxide

The negative oxygen is the site of protonation. Size and EN are the same for both oxygens. We are mainly looking at resonance (and possibly inductive) effects here. We want the least resonance ...
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2answers
44 views

How does alkaline hydrolysis of peptides occur?

I have been learning about zwitterions and the isoelectric point, and have been trying to apply this to hydrolysis of peptides. From the diagram in my textbook, I can see that when acid hydrolysis ...
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1answer
21 views

What happens to the amino acid when it is in a solution with the pH of its isoelectric point? (zwitterions)

I am learning about zwitterions and am confused about the following: From what I understand, when amino acids are in their solid form, they exist as zwitterions which is why they have such a high ...
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1answer
55 views

Removing HCl from water

I have water contaminated with dissolved chlorine: $\ce{H2O + Cl2 <=>HCl + HOCl}$ During electrolysis, this is an issue. These are my products: $\ce{NaCl + H2O ->T[electrolysis] NaOH + Cl2 ...
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1answer
36 views

What happens when 0.02 mole NaOH is added to a buffer solution?

I am asking this question for my son. (This question is related but we still have our confusions.) We have one liter buffer solution of 4.74 pH which contains 0.1 mole $\ce{CH_3COOH}$ and 0.1 mole ...
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1answer
80 views

Is the Ocean acidification inconsistent with the Bjerrum plot?

$\ce{CO2}$ dissolves in water and goes through chemical reactions and exists at different concentrations of, dissolved $\ce{CO2}$, carbonic acid, bicarbonate, and carbonate. The Bjerrum plot ...
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53 views
+50

Adjusting PBS with HCl: pH drift after dilution of phosphate buffer

It is some kind of everyday lab science and with a feel of shame I cannot answer this observation. I noticed a pH drift (~0.5 units) of my 10X phosphate buffer (PBS), when I adjust the pH with ...
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0answers
10 views

Enzyme Assay - pectinase

I am working on Enzyme Assay.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from $pH\ 1-12.5$ However,the enzyme has good activities starting from $pH\ 1-10.5$ Is that possible to have enzyme activity in ...
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1answer
53 views

Why can't organic acids be concentrated and used like concentrated sulphuric acid, etc?

Is it possible to make organic acids concentrated like inorganic acids like concentrated sulphuric acid, etc?
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0answers
10 views

Dissolving Time Function for Concrete

So I was just exploring some ideas on my own and am having trouble analytically solving the following: Let $D(n,m,T)$ be the time it takes to dissolve an n x n x n cube of concrete in m molar HcL at ...
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2answers
41 views

How to separate HCl and NaOH from an aqueous solution of NaCl?

At home I make experiments on salt (as it is easily available at home). One day I came to know that on mixing salt and water I will get Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide. So I became really ...
2
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2answers
73 views

Why does alcoholic KOH prefer elimination whereas aqueous KOH prefers substitution?

What is the basic difference between aqueous and alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$? Why does alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$ prefer elimination whereas aqueous $\ce{KOH}$ prefers substitution?
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1answer
52 views

Explaining Ba(OH)2 as a base?

It is well known fact that Barium Hydroxide is a base. How does the Brønsted-Lowry concept explain $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$ as a base? Is it that $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$ first accepts a proton then leaves behind ...
2
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2answers
64 views

Water as a strong Base

Question: Classify each of the following ions according to whether they react with water to give a neutral, acidic, or basic solution: As a general rule: Strong acid + Strong base ...
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2answers
71 views

Why is formic acid a stronger acid than acetic acid?

I am told that because the methyl group is electron donating in the conjugate base of acetic acid, this destabilizes the conjugate base by exacerbating the existing negative formal charge on the ...
2
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1answer
42 views

What will happen when a metal reacts with an acid which is neither dilute nor concentrated?

We have always studied about metals reacting with dilute and concentrated acids, but I do not understand what will happen if the same metal reacts with an acid that is neither concentrated nor dilute? ...
3
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1answer
71 views

What element or compound could be used to create a more base ocean?

The ocean is becoming acidic. This is not a natural evolutionary change but happens through human negative effect on the environment. What element or compound could be used to create a more base ...
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2answers
61 views

Why is formic acid considered an acid if it is a reducing agent?

My understanding was that since the acceptance of Lavoisier's revised Easter Memoir of 1778, all acids were understood to be oxidising agents.* However, formic acid is often listed as a reducing ...
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1answer
42 views

What is the pH of a solution of HCOONa and HNO3?

Calculate the pH of an aqueous solution obtained by mixing 20 ml of $\ce{HCOONa}$ 0, 1 M and 5 ml of $\ce{HNO_3}$ 0,2 M. ($K_a$ of $\ce{HCOOH}$ $= 10^{–4}$) My try: The number of the moles involved ...
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2answers
63 views

Is it true that a pH higher than the pKa of an acid make the H automatically disassociate?

Will the hydrogen atom always disassociate if the pH of the solution is higher than the pKa of the acid?
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1answer
54 views

Amount of Phenolphthalein required

We just had chemistry practical few days a go. The topic was strong acid-base titration, in which we had to find the normality and concentration of $\ce{HCl}$. My teacher instructed me to add 2 drops ...
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1answer
48 views

Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

I am told by Dr. Klein that in the nitration of benzene, hydrogen sulfate anion acts as the base and deprotonates the sigma complex. My question is why would the hydrogen sulfate anion be doing ...
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3answers
2k views

Why is magic acid a superacid?

The above is a representation of magic acid. The left part is the acid; the right part is the solvent. Why would this combination make for a particularly good acid? The left part looks like a ...
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0answers
21 views

Common etchant for Stainless Steel 304L and Titanium Grade 2

I need a common etchant for S.S. and $\ce{Ti}$. Right now I'm using: $\ce{HNO3 + 3HCl}$ - for S.S. 304L $5\%~\ce{HCl} + 6\%~\ce{HNO3} + 16\%~\ce{HF} + 74\%~\ce{H2O}$ - for $\ce{Ti}$ Is it possible ...
3
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2answers
77 views

Why can the lone pair not align with the phenyl moiety in 2,6-xylidine?

I am told that for this molecule, the amino group cannot line up in such a way that its p-orbital is parallel with respect to the p-orbitals of the carbons in the ring. I've looked for papers and ...
1
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2answers
33 views

Ammonia and hydroxide ion - Lewis basicity

Which is the stronger Lewis base, and why? I'm thinking that the answer is "it depends." With regard to the hydrogen proton, which hydroxide ion is obviously the stronger Lewis base. However, with ...
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2answers
24 views

Kb of hydride anion

I can't find any data about the Kb value of the hydride anion except that it's huge. Does anyone know what it is, or how I can characterize it? I know I can use electrochemical means but the only ...
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0answers
22 views

Concentration of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite

Given a total chlorine concentration and pH, and pKa of HOCl, how would you find the concentration of OCl- and HOCl disinfectants? if the given total chlorine concentration =.1 M, pH of Cl is 8, and ...
2
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0answers
37 views

Boric Acid - Mechanism of Acidity

I was wondering how one could test the hypothesis that boric acid behaves not as a Bronsted acid but as a Lewis acid in that boric acid cleaves water molecules as to make hydrogen protons. rad ...
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0answers
17 views

Ligand strength - Coulombic effect and/or Electronegativities?

According to my teacher, these three Lewis bases generally decrease in strength in the following order: 1) Ammonia 2) Water 3) Hydroxide ion I agree. However, he argues that their ability to act as ...
3
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2answers
85 views

Why does ammonia react with water to produce hydroxide?

My question relates to dissolving $\ce{NH3}$ in water and how it produces $\ce{OH-}$ for the reaction $\ce{NH3 + H2O -> NH4+ + OH-}$? I know that the $\mathrm{p}K_b$ of $\ce{NH3}$ is $4.8$ and ...
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1answer
27 views

tap water and distilled water for electrolysis

my water electrolyzer which I've built using this pdf, produces less gas than I expected. In that file the author insists on using distilled water instead of tap water and I have used tap water. would ...
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1answer
378 views

How can I identify whether a substance is KOH or NaOH?

I've bought NaOH or KOH (I don't remember which one!) for my electrolyzer and I've tested it. Now I want to improve its performance and I was searching for a better electrolyte when I realized I've ...
2
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3answers
195 views

Why Does A Brønsted–Lowry Acid Accept Proton from Stronger Acid?

This is mechanism of Nitration of Benzene. In the first step, Nitric Acid (pKa = -1.4) accepts a proton from sulfuric acid which is stronger acid (pKa = -9). According to Brønsted-Lowry theory we ...
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1answer
106 views

Acid-base equilibrium of NH4CN

I'm having difficulties understanding this problem. We have in the problem that $K_a$ for $\ce{HCN} = 6.2\cdot10^{-10}$ and $K_b$ for $\ce{NH3} = 1.8\cdot10^{-5}$. Write chemical equations to ...
5
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1answer
103 views

Byproducts of the neutralisation of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

Given a 1M concentration of $\ce{HCL}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ here are the pHs: pH of $\ce{HCL}$: 1 pH of $\ce{NaOH}$: 13-14 and of course water has a pH of 7. Here is a reaction that is most likely to ...
2
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2answers
128 views

Steric Hindrance and Bronsted Basicity

Does steric hindrance affect Bronsted basicity? I understand that basicity is a thermodynamic quality. Not a kinetic factor. So it doesn't matter if it takes a million years for the proton to reach ...
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3answers
51 views

Why cellphone batteries are still bad?

There are constantly new features in cellphones over the years, but it seems like batteries are not getting any better. Why is that?
2
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1answer
42 views

Can very dilute acids exposed to air become more concentrated as water evaporates?

If a very minute quantity spilled acid (e.g. $\ce{H2SO4}$, though the question would apply to other acids as well) is cleaned up with water (e.g. yielding a $0.0001~\mathrm{M}$ solution), and some of ...
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1answer
37 views

What is the chemistry of this household cleaning recipe?

What would be the product if baking soda and common salt and vinegar are added together?
2
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2answers
29 views

Find the color of the solution

The acid-base indicator methyl red has a $K_{a}$ = $1 \times 10^{-5}$. Its acidic form is red while its alkaline form is yellow. If methyl red is added in a colorless solution with a $pH = 7$, the ...
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3answers
35 views

What does the hydrolysis of a salt tell us about its basic/acidic character?

I'm curious to know how basicity and acidity arises when a salt or covalent compound is dissolved in water.
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2answers
192 views

Calculating pH of diprotic and amphoteric solutions

I am trying to understand this problem and its corresponding solution (complete solution not shown) First off, from the above one can see that the equilibrium constants when $\ce{H2ASO4-}$ ...
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1answer
68 views

How could household vinegar create a salt on car carpet?

I am not a chemist! My chemistry classes from my molecular biology undergrad are far behind me. But I think I created a salt, and I don't know how. Here is my mystery: I recently got some water in my ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Neutralization reaction

Question) Complete and balance each of the following molecular equations (in aqueous solution); include phase labels. Then, for each, write the net ionic equation. (A) $\ce{NH_3 + HNO_3 ->}$ My ...
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2answers
327 views

How much can the pH change through dilution?

Consider an acidic solution with Hydrogen ion concentration, $\ce{[H+]}$ of $10^{-5}\:\mathrm{M}$. Since $\:\mathrm{pH} = -\log \ce{[H+]}$ the $\:\mathrm{pH}$ of solution is $5$. Suppose we dilute ...