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I know how to measure the concentration of free thiols which is reflective of the redox potential of cellular compartment such as the cytoplasm or a lysosome.

What other methods exist?

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I am only writing this as a comment because I don't know whether it is doable... but maybe you can use an electrochemical approach (e.g. amperometry or cyclic voltammetry). You could give an oxydative stress to the system and measure the decay of the signal of oxydable species over time. –  nico Feb 17 '12 at 8:05
    
@nico Amperometry/(cyclic) voltammetry would be inconvenient, since he'd have to recreate a macroscopic copy of the cell interior. Maybe this or that? –  CHM Apr 21 '12 at 4:05
    
@CHM: I read "cellular system" as a group of cell rather than the interior of a single one. –  nico Apr 21 '12 at 6:16
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There are many complexes of d-elements, that can reversibly lose/gain one electron, changing their color in process. They are known as Redox Indicators. Some of them are stable enough to be used in vivo.

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Electrochemistry; using microelectrodes. So, basically, place one microelectrode inside the cell, and another (the reference electrode) just outside the cell, and then use a potentiostat to measure the potential between them. Reference: Electrophysiology - Intracellular recording

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