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How would you go about synthesising amino sugars from sugars? e.g. How would you synthesise the compound below from D-glucose?

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Would adding ammonia (NH4) to it work?

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First, the anwer is “Would glucose and ammonia work?” is: no, definitely not. The OH group is a poor leaving group, and alcohol + ammonia definitely won't yield an amine. Moreover, in your case, you have many hydroxyl groups and you only want one transformed into an amine, which is tricky.

I don't know how the synthesis of the above compound can be achieved, but I know one way to help you start a literature search: your expected compound is called an amino sugar. In this particular case, it's the 6-amino-D-glucose.

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