I like this merriam-webster definition of rigorous:
done carefully and with a lot of attention to detail
Chemistry is an experimental science there are a lot of patterns that work fine in most of the cases but not in all (e.g. the Octet rule) these are called rules of thumb. Chemistry is however a rigorous science, simply there are exceptions that don't follow clear patterns or easy simplifications so they are harder to predict or to comprehend for a student in an introductory text.
As in all the science (physics, mathematics etc. etc.) there are some topics that are still debated, this don't mean that introductory chemistry is non-rigorous.
I suggest you to read some books about history of chemistry (e.g. Asmiov, A Short History of Chemistry), you will find that chemistry has been for most of his history (and it is in part now days) a trial and error research, followed by the attempt to find a theory, a pattern or a sense to the observations done, this doesn't mean that there isn't a rigorous approach but simply that reality don't fit the scheme that we propose so easily.
I think maybe most of the text books don't emphasize in this aspect of chemistry, but most of the reasoning is a posteriori.