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What are the blocks of the periodic table? What is the purpose of naming the elements per block group? What do they signify?

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Below is a picture of the 4 blocks in the Periodic Table. The elements in a block all use the same orbital to hold their valence or outer shell electrons. For example, all of the elements in block 1 have their valence electrons in an $\ce{s}$ orbital, those in block 2 have their valence electrons in a $\ce{p}$ orbital, block 3 the $\ce{d}$ orbitals and block 4 the $\ce{f}$ orbitals.

enter image description here

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Thanks! Now I have a better understanding of the periodic table! – Scribblenautical Jun 27 '14 at 13:20

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