# All Questions

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### Explaining Ba(OH)2 as a base?

It is well known fact that Barium Hydroxide is a base . How does Bronsted Lowry concept explain Ba(OH)2 as a base ? Is it that Ba(OH)2 first accept proton than leAVE BEHINd H2O
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### Which d orbitals of sulphur take part in the pi bonds of SO3?

In $\ce{SO3}$ 2 $p\pi-d\pi$ bonds are present. But which 'd' orbitals of sulphur take part in these $\pi$ bonds ? The answer says $d_{xy}$ and $d_{yz}$, someone also told me that crystal field ...
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### What additives could make a masonry unit water-repellent but vapor-permeable?

I'm curious about some of the wondrous materials available today are able to repel liquid water but permit water vapor to pass through. I've heard that housewrap-type plastics accomplish this by being ...
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### Is there a systematic way to determine the expected cubic structure of metals?

I've noticed that some groups of metals with similar properties tend to belong to the same cubic structure group, such as $\text{FCC, BCC, or HCP}$. What is a good explanation as to why these metals ...
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### Why do we need acid when making acetone peroxide?

Acetone peroxide is a very dangerous explosive, easily detonated by mild heating, friction or shock. It appears in form of small white crystals. This compound forms from the mixture of hydrogen ...
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### Why are DCM and Chloroform so resistant against nucleophilic substitutions?

In the book Organic Chemistry by J. Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, and P. Wothers I found the following reasoning: You may have wondered why it is that, while methyl chloride (chloromethane) ...
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### Is this the correct mechanism of the formation of the nitronium (NO2+) ion from sodium nitrate and sulfuric acid?

I am currently working on a mechanism for forming paracetamol (or N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanamide). The typical reaction to nitrate the phenol (starting product) is $\ce{NaNo3}$ with a catalyst of ...
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### Moist Chlorine & Hydrogen Psychrometric or Mollier Chart

In our electrolysis of brine, $\ce{Cl2}$ and $\ce{H2}$ are produced as gaseous products along with aqueous $\ce{NaOH}$. In this scenario I require what amount of maximum moisture can $\ce{Cl2}$ and ...
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### Length of copper wire in 1 lb spool

This is a homework question in my Hon. General Chemistry I class. Below this is the question, then below that is my work and answer explained as clearly as I could manage. Question: The diameter of ...
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### Water as a strong Base

Question: Classify each of the following ions according to whether they react with water to give a neutral, acidic, or basic solution: As a general rule: Strong acid + Strong base ...
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### What's the order of oxidising strength of the oxyacids of Chlorine?

What I have been told is that the acidity of the four oxyacids of Chlorine increase in the order $\ce{HOCl} < \ce{HOCl2} < \ce{HOCl3} < \ce{HOCl4}$. I have also been told that the oxidising ...
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### Stoichiometry Help

In the reaction: $Al_2(SO_4)_3 + 3Ca(OH)_2 → 2Al(OH)_3 + 3CaSO_4$ How many moles of $Al_2(SO_4)_3$ react with 6 mole of $Ca(OH)_2?$ I want to say 2, but I am unsure. If one mole of $Al_2(SO_4)_3$ ...
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### Utility of Bent's Rule - What can Bent's rule explain that other qualitative considerations cannot?

Does Bent's rule have any utility? I got a vehement earful for "NO." Points raised by my professor: Coulombic considerations can be used to rationalize bond angles, strengths, and lengths without ...
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### Analyzying Collection from Evaporation [on hold]

A solution is 5.00% potassium chloride by mass. How much potassium chloride would you expect to collect by evaporating 150.0 g of the solution?
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### Does knowing the ratio of masses of the elements in a compound lead to the unique chemical identity of the compound?

I was posed this question from a friend, however I am not necessarily sure. I think: yes, because a molecule of any compound is composed of a whole-number ratio of atoms of its elements, per the law ...
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### Ozone resonance structure: differing opinions

I've always thought that the two-form resonance structure of ozone was the scientific concensus (from Wikipedia]: Then today I found two other opinions. A three-form structure: And a four-form ...
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### Why is formic acid a stronger acid than acetic acid?

I am told that because the methyl group is electron donating in the conjugate base of acetic acid, this destabilizes the conjugate base by exacerbating the existing negative formal charge on the ...
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### Reaction with Grignard Reagent [on hold]

I am confused with the mechanism of the reaction using Grignard Reagent. Below are some problems I cannot solve. Could someone please briefly outline the mechanism of this type of reaction and help me ...
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### Examples of intramolecular hydrogen bonding closing bond angles

Okay, we've established that intramolecular hydrogen bonding can exist in molecules, and doesn't always serve the purpose of closing the bond angle at least relative to other stereoisomers of the same ...
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### Pedagogical exercise - How to synthesize methamphetamine

I am asked to synthesize "methamphetamine." Note that there is no configuration designated for this molecule, and methamphetamine refers to a very specific configuration. In any case, here are the ...
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### Bromination Pathways with alkane, alkene, and alkyne substrates

I'm confused about halogenation pathways. From what I understand, there are multiple halogenation pathways. I'll try summarizing them below; let me know if I do anything incorrectly. Halogenation ...
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### Nitrobenzene reduction with (tin) Sn catalyst: Why is C-H bond cleavage preferred over O-H bond cleavage?

I am trying to understand this mechanism for nitrobenzene reduction with $\ce{Sn/HCl}$. I do not understand why it implies that you pull off the $\ce{C-H}$ hydrogen instead of the $\ce{O-H}$ hydrogen ...
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### What are the Waves Modeling when Referring to the Atomic Orbitals

It is taught that the orbital shapes derive from wave functions with different numbers of nodes. For example, the "s" orbital comes from a wave that has one node. But what are the waves modeling? A ...
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### Using Hydrates as a skin moisturizer

I was just in my AP Chemistry class earlier today learning about hydrates and their properties. It occurred to me that a compound with so much water could aid in moisturizing the skin. Is this a valid ...
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### The difference between heat of reaction at constant pressure and that at constant volume

If supposing the kp value of a reaction is 10 Atm at 300K and 4atm at 400K. Then how can we say that the difference between the heat of reaction at constant pressure and that at constant volume is RT ...
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### How to produce hot water-soluble soap balls? What is their chemical background? What about medical capsules?

There are water-soluble balls for soap baths. Then there are medical capsules that disappear in mouth. Is it possible do this kind of capsules and water-soluble containers at home? If not, what do I ...
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### How can I clean solid sulphur and it's oxides from test tube?

I was experimenting with sulphur few years ago. The test tube I used for that purpose has still sulphur stuck onto it. I was searching for a way to dissolve it. I found an idea to try warm acetone. ...
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### Retrieving burnt-off marker from tinfoil using chemistry

I was using a furnace-oven (450 C) to remove organic matter from water filters, and the filters were encased in a tinfoil-pocket. However I labelled the tinfoil with a Sharpie marker, and I didn't ...
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### In a microbial fuel cell, is the zinc anode the final electron acceptor?

I am doing a science fair experiment on microbial fuel cells and am wondering if I'm correct in assuming that the anode acts as the final electron acceptor. In anaerobic respiration using a process ...
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### What is the bond angle of H2O?

I have been trying to find out the bond angle of H2O, but every site I visit has a different answer. So far, I have found the following angles listed: Site 1: 104.4º Site 2: 107.5º OR 104.5º, ...
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### Reaction Pathways - Substitution and elimination [on hold]

This one was a bit involved. The alkyl halide turning into an alcohol with retention of stereochemistry suggested that an SN1 mechanism was at work. The addition of NaOH and the inversion of ...
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### Determining equilibrium constant of complex cell(Hard Question)

Question: The following galvanic cell has a potential of 1.214 V at 25 °C: $$Hg_{(l)}|Hg_{2}Br_{2(s)}|Br^-(0.10\,M)||MnO_{4}^-(0.10\,M)|Mn^{2+}(0.10\,M),H^+(0.10\,M)|Pt_{(s)}$$ Calculate the ...
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### The walls of a plastic vial with Mercury inside are darkening. What is causing this?

I have a sample of Mercury in a plastic vial, The vial is a BD Vacutainer (genuine), made of polyethylene terephthalate. It is used for blood samples, and the one I used was new. When the vial was ...
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### How can I work out what reaction will happen?

I have recently started learning chemistry, and I've been reading a GCSE (UK high school level) textbook on the stuff :D Much of it has been fairly straightforward, though there has been a ...
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### What is Bent's rule?

I'm all bent out of shape trying to figure out what Bent's rule means. I have several formulations of it, and the most common formulation is also the hardest to understand. Atomic s character ...
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### What are the standard math prerequisites for physical chemistry?

I'm currently a chemistry major and I know that physical chemistry requires lots of calculus. Which mathematics courses should I take so that I am well prepared for my physical chemistry courses? ...
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### What is the cause for thermodynamic reversible and irreversible process?

My book defines Thermodynamic irreversible process is defined as the process in which the changes take place rapidly, instead of occurring in successive stages with infinitesimal changes in ...
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### What will happen when a metal reacts with an acid which is neither dilute nor concentrated?

We have always studied about metals reacting with dilute and concentrated acids, but I do not understand what will happen if the same metal reacts with an acid that is neither concentrated nor dilute? ...
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### What is the reason for particular reaction rates for oxidation, combustion, and metabolic reactions?

We are currently working with reaction rates in Chemistry. I need some help with a question for the upcoming test. "Give examples of phenomenons or products and explain why they have a certain ...
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### Differences between chemical physics and physical chemistry?

What makes these two seemingly identical topics separate? What does each field more focus on, like do chemical physics researchers study more the atomic/molecular interactions while the physical ...
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### Can you make napalm out of gasoline and orange juice concentrate?

According to the novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk: The three ways to make napalm: One, you can mix equal parts of gasoline and frozen orange juice concentrate. Two, you can mix equal parts ...
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### Exceptions to motif: nucleophile attacks electrophile

I hear this all the time with regard to organic chemistry. Are there any exceptions? I think this statement is always true in general because it's a restatement of Coulomb's law. But then are there ...
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### How much does water expand when heated, and does salt affect that?

For this question, assume all things not mentioned are perfectly controlled, all at 14.7lbs of atmospheric pressure, and water is 100% pure of anything not mentioned, with no dissolved air. Given a ...
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### Polar bonding for chemistry [closed]

I am stuck in general chemistry 2 because the chemistry course I took did not really explain polarity and lewis structures. my first question is how to determine a Polar bond? I see that it something ...
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### What Numerical Integration methods are used in DFT? [on hold]

Finally I could figure out how to do DFT calculations from the scratch !. I am using Mathematica for that purpose and got very good results but here is the problem: For Hartree Potential Calculation ...
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### Strategy to determine half-reactions of synthesis and decomposition reactions [closed]

Question: For the following equations, what strategy would be used to determine the two half reactions. \begin{aligned}\ce{ (1) && Mn(OH)_{2(s)} + H_{2}O_{2(aq)} &->T[base] ...
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### What factor determines the strength of reducing agents and oxidizing agents

The best reducing agents are located at the bottom left of the periodic table(low electronegativity) and the best oxidizing agents are located at the top right of the periodic table(high ...
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### relativistic effect: d-electrons in metallorganic complexes

With higher period the d-electrons of the metal are less strong bonded and therefore oxidative addition is easier for $\ce{Ir(I)}$ as for $\ce{Rh(I)}$ and much easier as for $\ce{Co(I)}$. For metal ...