# All Questions

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### Converting condensed structural formula to fischer project (to ultimately find line diagram)

I know how to convert a fisher projection to a line diagram, but I can't figure out how to convert the condensed structural formula to the fischer project (so that I can then find the line diagram) E....
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### How slow is a ester reaction without a catalyst? (in a whiskey barrel?)

The typical description of a high school ester reaction of an alcohol and an organic acid uses a strong acid catalyst like HCl or ...
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### Calcium nitrate

Calcium nitrate is an ionic bond. How exactly does this bond and how can you tell? For instance, salt is nacl so the sodium transfers 1 electron to the chlorine atom making it a 1+ ion and the cl a cl-...
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### Why the optimization in gaussian shows no bond with some atoms in diborane?

I have optimized the structure of diborane with Gaussian at the B3LYP/6-31+g(d,p) level and when check it on Gaussview I found that there are two hydrogens with no bond to boron atoms (like free atoms)...
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### Why in alkali metal Li give crimson red flame coloration while Cs give Violet flame coloration?

Why $Li$ give Red flame color which has lower photon energy compared to $Cs$ which give sort of Violet flame color according to $E=hν$? Here's how I think. Since lithium has smaller size therefore ...
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### electrochemistry assistance

My class did a practical where 4 tests were conducted. The agar solution was water, agar, K₃[Fe(CN)₆], NaCl and pheno indicator. 1. two iron nails placed in agar solution 2. a zinc plate was linked ...
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### Does the structure of water change when a drop of color is added?

If I add a drop of color to water, would it change its structure entirely?
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### Can not find structural formula with compounds' IUPAC name

I currently need to read a paper. In that paper the following compound was mentioned: 1,2-benzo-6-(N-ethyl-N-isobutylamino)fluoran I tried to find the corresponding structural formula using the ...
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### Could compressed refrigerant be stored feasibly in residential setting?

In Vapor-compression refrigeration, a refrigerant is compressed releasing heat (typically outside a building) and then decompressed in another location, absorbing heat. A residential air conditioner ...
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### Use of water in IR spectroscopy

I am familiar with the process of IR spectroscopy and the preparation of IR samples. However, I am curious as to why you cannot use hygroscopic or protic solvents for IR spectroscopy. Is it just ...
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### How to dissolve bronze at room temperature

Is there any way to dissolve about 10 kg of bronze at room temperature? If yes, which substance would be the best to use and how would the reaction look like?
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### Mass by mass percentage [on hold]

Calculate the mass of potassium nitrate required to prepare 20%(mass percent) solution in 100 gm water.
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### Name for “stabilizer” substance [on hold]

Is there a general name for a substance that is used only to hold together the molecule and are there such common substances? For instance, I could find that the atom X will hold together an otherwise ...
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### What thing does this chemical formula represent?

I recently saw this- What thing does this formula mean? Thanks for any help!!
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### MO diagram for allyl cation

Given below is an image from google In $\pi_2$, isn't there two possibilities? On the third carbon, The green coloured lobe can be either on top or on bottom relative to the lobes of the first ...
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### Find coordination number [on hold]

If we are given the radius of Mg+2 and O2- as 0.65 A & 1.40A respectively . Then how can we calculate the coordination number of cation in the crystals of MgO . Can anyone tell me concept behind ...
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### What is the mechanism for this retro-aldol reaction?

It's supposedly a retro-aldol reaction, but I can't find a way to break the correct C-C bond.
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### Storage and risk of detonation of zinc powder

After hearing that fine powdered metal can explode without an ignition source I worried whether or not I was safely storing my zinc powder. I am currently keeping it in an air tight bag inside of ...
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### Cheletropic carbene addition to ethene under Woodward-Hoffmann rules

Woodward and Hoffmann state in their seminal paper [1], that a ground-state pericyclic reaction is thermally allowed when $p+q=\textrm{odd}$, with $p=(4n)_{antara}$ and $q = (4m+2)_{supra}$. When I ...
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### Is it possible to detect the component of an unknown substances using FTIR?

Currently I'm doing research involving photo-polymer which contains unknown substances. Is it possible to detect each component of the substance by using FTIR? Will it be able to separate the ...
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### Why doesn't 1,3-dichloro-2,4-dimethylcyclobutane have a plane of symmetry?

Firstly, I am not sure if I have the right name for the molecule below : Aren't the following blue lines planes of symmetry? My book says it has a centre of symmetry but not aplane of symmetry. ...
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### Chemical equilibrium [on hold]

One mole of N2 is mixed with 2 moles of H2 in a 4 L vessel. If 50% of N2 is converted to NH3 by thea following reaction N2 +3H2 ----->2NH3 then what will be the value of Kc for the following ...
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### 2-bromobutane absolute configuration from structural formula to 3D

For the 2-bromobutane drawn below, given the 3d image I can tell it is R configuration Source: annotated from http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/340/348272/Instructor_Resources/Chapter_05/...
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### Can toluene be used as a solvent for nucleophilic substitution?

This is a continuation to a previous question of mine regarding a change to a one-pot procedure for the preparation of Wellbutrin that I performed in college last semester. Could toluene have been ...
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### Calcium nitrate

I am trying to understand ions and bonds. For example, calcium nitrate is an ionic bond. Do the ions ($\ce{Ca^2+}$) and ($\ce{NO3-}$) form as the two are coming together as a bond or are the ions ...
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### What is the energy of the London dispersion force holding together two atoms of the same element?

I read somewhere that the energy is around $U=-\frac{3\alpha I}{4r^6}$ where $\alpha$ is the polarizability and $I$ is the ionization energy but I'm obtaining way too large energies for a lithium ...
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### Why is 1,1-dimethylbenzene impossible?

It seems possible, as each carbon needs four bonds, so the first carbon could be bonded to two adjacent carbons and two methyl groups.
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### Calculation of concentration [on hold]

I would like some help to work out the correct unit of concentration in the question below please. I added a substance which has a density of 1.020 kg/m3 to a sample at a rate of 800 μL/ L of sample. ...
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### Imaginary Bonding Interactions

Usually in chemistry, we deal with bonding interactions. That is, if I have the diatomic A-A molecule or A-B molecule, there's a favorable interaction (i.e., a bond) and a prototypical MO diagram like ...
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### Which MO approximation best fits with lab results and observation? [duplicate]

I understand that there are many different methods that can be used to approximate the set of MOs for an arbitrary molecule, as the actual quantum mechanical description is taxing to calculate. I just ...
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### Why not orbital correlation diagram for sigmatropic rearrangemnt

In Ian Fleming's frontier orbital book he describe the use of correlation diagram as a method for the predicting of whether reactions will be allowed/forbidden on symmetry argument (he calls this a ...
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### General property of rare earth metals [on hold]

What general chemical properties of rare earth metals make them so useful for a variety of electronics components and batteries?
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### Confusions about oxidation and reduction

My teacher told me that elements get oxidised when: 1)There is a loss of electron 2) There is an addition of oxygen 3)There is a loss of hydrogen And that they get reduced when: 1)There is a gain ...
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### Decarboxylation of Sodium Pyruvate

Can Sodium Pyruvate decarboxylate to acetic acid + CO2 in the presence of just moisture and heat? If so, what kind of temperature is required?
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### Why are the absorption and emission spectra mirror images of each other?

In one of my chemistry courses we learned that the absorption and emission spectra are mirror images of each other, but I can't rationalize why. I know that the electronic transitions in emission ...
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### “Limit test” vs. “Titration” in a pharmaceutical guide

From the "Technical guide for the elaboration of monographs" by EDQM, edition 7, 2015, page 35: Where the introduction of tests for foreign anions in organic substances is considered then a single ...
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### What is a “lower organic acid”?

From the "Technical guide for the elaboration of monographs" by EDQM, edition 7, 2015, page 25: Where the counter-ion of an active substance is formed from a lower organic acid, a test for related ...
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### What is a good and safe way to store or contain hydrogen?

I have looked for a while trying to find a good and safe way to store small amounts of gas hydrogen (I was thinking like half a gallon.). I would like to get a answer quickly though(Science project ...
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### Hydrogen and oxygen react according to the equation 2H2+O2→2H2O [on hold]

According to Avogadro's law, how many liters of hydrogen are required to react with 4.5 L of oxygen at STP?
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### Does any known substance ignite on cooling?

As the title says, I'm interested to know if there's any substance or combination of substances which ignites (or even increases its chance of spontaneous ignition) when cooled. I've never heard of ...
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### What will happen to the conductivity of weak electrolyte as dilution increases?

Suppose initially the dissociation was 10% ... then if 1oo molecules were there 10 would be formed . After dilution , number of molecules will be 50 but dissociation would be >10% ... Now if it is 15% ...
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### How are Proton and Neutrons staying together inside the Nucleus of the atom? How Proton and Neutrons can be identified? [on hold]

I am a student and im studying in XI standard and i have been thinking that, like in the nucleus of an atom protons and neutrons have been arranged but i have been lately thinking that protons are ...
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### (3-Glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane AND Starch

I have made a scaffold and have used 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as a cross-linker. As a result the 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) made starch silanized. Now, how can i find ...
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### how does iron reacts with the vinegar solution? [on hold]

how does it react when it is dipped in the vinegar? and what reaction is it called? why? please give me the exact reason to make sure my conclusion in my experiment is A+ thanks in advance.
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### What is meant my solubilized?

I was studying Leaching and I read the line that says It involves the treatment of the ore with a suitable reagent as to make it soluble while impurities remain insoluble. The impurities, in this ...
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### Reaction between RCH2=CH2 and CCl4 — Why does it form RCHClCH2CH(R)CH2CCl3 along with RCHClCH2CCl3?

I am reading Organic Chemistry from Morrison & Boyd and there is this problem in it: Problem 6.8 From the addition of $\ce{CCl4}$ to alkenes (in presence of peroxides), $\ce{RCH2=CH2}$, there ...
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### Cyclopentane conformations

What is the energy minimum of cyclopentane conformational diagram: the halfchair or envelope? How does cyclopentane flip?
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### Balance redox reaction by oxidation method

How to balance chemical reactions through oxidation method.. I know all the steps except for the part where u b Adjust the coefficients to balance the electrons. I don't know how to do that.. I don't ...