# All Questions

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### How many Onkalo-sized facilities would be needed to store waste from the nuclear exploitation of all the uranium of the Earth?

In the "Into Eternity" movie, it is said that the uranium is a limited resource, like petroleum. Then one day there will be no more uranium. It is said, too, that the Onkalo facility will only take ...
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### Calculation of mass from mmol/L

Sorry I understand this looks like a "homework question", (I'm actually a 46yr old dentist looking to see what amount of calcium phosphate should be effective in a proprietary toothpaste!). However, ...
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### Hybridization in PH3

Does $\ce{PH3}$ exhibit $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridization? Arguments against hybridization: $\ce{PH3}$ is less basic than $\ce{NH3}$. This jibes with the supposition that $\ce{PH3}$ keeps its lone pair ...
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### Carbon Oxides and stability

If C2O4 is very unstable no matter the configuration(that is the structure based on the bonds) and especially unstable in the form that has an oxyanion and a carbocation than how come other carbon ...
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### Why is up spin in the px orbital and down spin in the py orbital considered an excited state?

Why is this form of p orbital occupation an excited state? I understand that there should be one up spin and one down spin in one orbital box by Pauli's exclusion rule. But in the p orbitals, it ...
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### Why do all medicines require storage temperatures below 25 °C?

Almost all medicines I buy have storage requirements saying $T\le25^\circ C$. But do they really spoil at higher temperatures? What if they are stored at e.g. $30^\circ C$, which is common at ...
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### Which disaccharide is this?--Is it sucrose?

I want to know if the structure I made is sucrose or an enantiomer of it The One I Made The one on internet
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### Molecules with more than 1 functional group

I need some help naming compounds with more than 1 functional group. Here are some examples: A 4 carbon alkane with an aldehyde and a ketone for both the ketone being right next to the aldehyde and ...
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### How do you calculate enthalpy for a reaction at non-standard conditions?

I understand how to calculate the change in enthalpy and entropy for a reaction in standard conditions, but is there a way to calculate these values at non-standard conditions? Also, is there any way ...
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### Can one reduce solubility of NaCl by adding CO2 under pressure? Will the salt fall out of solution?

One can salt CO2 out of solution by adding salt to carbonated water. Can one do the reverse? If one adds more and more CO2 to the water under pressure, can you drive out the salt?
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### How does propylene glycol/glycerin form formaldehyde/acetaldehyde when vaporized with a vaporizer?

So apparently, e-cigarettes produce formaldehyde/acetaldehyde because they vaporize propylene glycol/glycerin. What is the chemical reaction through which propylene glycol/glycerin forms ...
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### Steric Hindrance and Bronsted Basicity

Does steric hindrance affect Bronsted basicity? I understand that basicity is a thermodynamic quality. Not a kinetic factor. So it doesn't matter if it takes a million years for the proton to reach ...
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### -ic -ous nomenclature

I recently came across a practice problem in my textbook asking me to name a few compounds using -ic and -ous endings. The exact wording is: Write the name of each of the following ionic substances, ...
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### Finding the value of stoichiometric coefficient x

$\ce{2A_{(s)} + xB_{(g)} <=> 3C_{(g)}}$ $K_p=19.3, K_c=0.45, T=523K$ I work $\Delta n$ to be 1, So would $x$ be 1 or 2? I'm not sure if the coefficient is part of $\Delta n$.
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### SN1 reaction of ethanol at tertiary alkyl halide

I know this undergoes an $\ce{S_{N}1}$ reaction: Ethanol is the solvent. Weak nucleophile. Neutral nucleophile. This points toward $\ce{S_{N}1/E1}$ (competing pathways). The leaving group is on a ...
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### E2 Elimination; Anti-periplanar beta hydrogen

I'm confused by this picture I found online on a very popular organic chemistry website: (http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2012/10/10/comparing-the-e1-and-e2-reactions/) I agree that the ...
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### Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of these two synthesis?

Can anyone explain the reaction mechanism of the two synthesis given below ? $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{H2/Pd}][\ce{EtOH}] Ar-NH2}$ $\ce{Ar-NO2 ->[\ce{Sn + HCl} \text{ or } \ce{Fe + HCl}] Ar-NH2}$
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### Why cellphone batteries are still bad?

There are constantly new features in cellphones over the years, but it seems like batteries are not getting any better. Why is that?
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### How to study chemistry effectively, quickly and enjoyably [on hold]

I'm not sure if this question belongs in the meta section or not, and if it does, do tell me and I'll repost it elsewhere, thanks! Basically, I have 40+ days to my final exam. I've been trying to ...
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### calculate the amount of energy in KJ necessary to convert 346 g of liquid water from 0 C to water vapor at 182 C

Calculate the amount of energy in $\mathrm{KJ}$ necessary to convert $346~\mathrm{g}$ of liquid water from $0~^\circ\mathrm{C}$ to water vapor at $182~^\circ\mathrm{C}$. The correct answer is ...
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### Difference between torsion, out of plane, coplanar and perpendicular bends?

In Infrared spectroscopy, stretches are easily understandable. But, how do I visualize (or conceptually understand) the difference between dihedral (torsions), out of plane bends, coplanar bends, and ...
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### Are non-ionic compounds generally as dehydrating as ionic compounds in drinking water?

In order to turn sea water into drinkable water, virtually all of the salt must be removed. By definition, salts are ionic compounds. I am assuming that there are other non-ionic compounds devolved ...
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### Can very dilute acids exposed to air become more concentrated as water evaporates?

If a very minute quantity spilled acid (e.g. $\ce{H2SO4}$, though the question would apply to other acids as well) is cleaned up with water (e.g. yielding a $0.0001~\mathrm{M}$ solution), and some of ...
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### Calculating Ka values from std. state thermodynamic data

My professor showed us a sample calculation of the Ka value for a strong acid. He used standard state thermodynamic data. I have an issue with this: 1) Wouldn't this give us an understated Ka ...
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### How to detect if a beverage has Sucralose or aspartame?

There is a drink that claims to be sweetened with stevia, but I think I taste Sucralose in there even though it is not listed on the ingredients. Is there any easy way I could test for the presence ...
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### Does ice melt faster when submerged in water?

Suppose you have a container with a drain at the bottom full of frozen H2O which you leave a room temperature to melt. Will the ice melt faster if you drain the water as it melts? I would expect that ...
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### Rearrangements; Carbocations; E1 Mechanism

If the leaving of the leaving group creates a secondary carbocation, and a tertiary carbocation has the possibility of being formed through a 1,2 methyl shift: 1) Will the methyl shift? I'm guessing ...
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### Electronic configuration of Ace-Ala-Nme

Below is the structure of Ace-Ala-Nme. I have labelled just four of the carbon atoms (1-4 in blue). I need to identify (i) the hybridization state, and (ii) the number of electron withdrawing groups ...
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### Are homemade batteries a practical alternative during a blackout?

If your home lost power without warning; are homemade batteries (such as the lemon/potato variety described in this question Are homemade batteries economically practical?) a practical alternative for ...
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### When using Gaussian to calculate NMR, what's the default solvent and frequency?

If I choose GIAO HF/STO-3G, is the default solvent $\ce{CD3Cl}$? Is the default frequency for $\ce{^1H-NMR}$ 500 MHz? What about the frequency for $\ce{^13C-NMR}$?
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### “Electrwd” group?

The Amber force field parameters describe hydrogen atoms in various states: ...
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### Reaction mechanism of combustion of H2?

After a discussion about the usefulness of hydrogen fuel for cars with a friend of mine, I wondered what the reaction mechanism for combustion of $\ce{H}_2$ was. I only study (well almost) organic ...
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### Organic chemistry textbook for self-learning?

I am interested in learning organic chemistry in order to solidify my knowledge of molecular biology. However, there are a lot of options for organic chemistry textbooks, and I plan on simply ...
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### Invariants in chemistry used for model selection

What invariants related to geometrical structures that describe molecular geometry are used in chemistry? Explanation: Here, Electronic model with highest prediction rate…, one can learn about ...
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Why is energy released during the process of adsorption? How is this energy change observed and how is it calculated?
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### Mathematical model of isomerism

Does there exist a mathematical model of isomerism? (a model which is capable of predicting, for given circumstances, the re-arrangement that is going to occur, e.g. Demjanov, Wagner-Meerwein etc.). ...
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### Difference between nickel catalyst and Raney nickel catalyst

Many times i have seen the catalyst as Raney nickel instead of nickel catalyst. I think Raney is a name of chemist who discovered Raney nickel catalyst.I think Raney nickel catalyst and nickel ...
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### Are homemade batteries economically practical?

Every kid who has been to a science fair knows that you can make a battery with a lemon, a potato, a penny and a nail. I've never done this and I'm not entirely clear on how it works beyond a hazy ...
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### Which azo compounds are found in DVD-R and CD-R media?

Does anyone know which specific azo compounds are used in DVD-R/CD-R recordable media?
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### How to find out if ions are oxidised/ reduced based on half cell potentials

I have a hw question that I keep getting wrong and I need some help on? Assuming standard conditions, answer the following questions. (yes/no) Is $\ce{Fe^{2+}(aq)}$ capable of reducing ...
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### Chemistry of Walter Mitty's negative developer/stop bath/fixer?

I asked a question here How can Walter Mitty examine the negatives of photos in the bright sunny day? Commonly known, there are three steps using chemical baths to bring out the images of negatives: ...
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### Why is B2 paramagnetic?

Why is B2 paramagnetic? It's just 2 borons with a triple bond between them. Aren't all the electrons paired?
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### can sodium persulfate etch or damage a titanium heater?

I use Sodium Persulfate to etch copper on a PCB process. I have been using glass heater on the etching tank but the glass is too fragile; it breaks too easily. I read that titanium heater is used ...
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### Why is the Chlorine missing an electron in Chlorine Monoxide?

I was asked to draw the lewis-dot structure for ClO and I drew this: .. .. :Cl- O. .. .. The correct answer is apparently this: ...
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### Electronic model with highest prediction rate

Among many models, including the valence bond model (VB) or the molecular orbital (MO) model, which are the ones with best predictive power? (e.g. the MO is thought to predict spectroscopic ...
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### Electric field effect on reactions

What would be the effect of putting a solution in a strong electric field? Would the reactions in the solution be affected? I'm thinking yes - lots (if not all) - chemistry is dependent on charge ...
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### Relationship between rate equation and equilibrium constant

I have read mannaia's answer on the question of 'rate order and confusion', as well as Nicolau Saker Neto's answer to a related question. They have both been very helpful. As I understand, the ...
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### is this statement always true? : The more -OH functional groups in the molecule, the more is its viscosity

Is the following statement always true? The more $\ce{-OH}$ functional groups in the molecule, the more is its viscosity? I think it is true, because it is known that weak intermolecular forces ...
I understand that the molecule $\ce{IBrF2}$ is T-shaped, with three ligand atoms and two non-bonding pairs. However, how many unique bond angles can this molecule exhibit? My professor argues for ...