2
votes
0answers
8 views

IR fluorescent material for outdoor use

I am experimenting with IR video cameras. They have a broad sensitivity peak at 940 nm. There is a filter blocking 750 nm and shorter in front of the sensor. I am looking for an IR fluorescent ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

I recently learned I'm allergic to potassium dicromate or chromium

are eye drops with inactive ingredients called potassium chloride or sodium chloride the same as potassium dichromate and should I stop using those eye drops?
1
vote
0answers
8 views

Can one figure out an optical absorption spectrum from EPR data?

I'm wondering if it's worthwhile for me as an optical spectroscopist to read up a bit on EPR. Do EPR signals reveal where, in terms of wavelength, features in the optical spectrum can be expected to ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Why does the quantum number n limit the value of l, and why does l, likewise, limit the value of m?

Any quantum number that represents the size of an orbital is a positive integer, $n$. Any quantum number that represents the shape of an orbital is a non-negative integer, $l : l < n$. Any ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

When a carboxylic acid acts as a nucleoplile, why does it attack through the carbonyl bond?

Here's a couple of examples of what I mean. Firstly, in the reaction with thionyl chloride to make a carboxylic acid: Secondly, in this specific example of a hydroboration reaction: I don't ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

How to distinguish open-pored polymer foam and foam with closed pores?

I was looking at two foam materials, where I had expected one to have closed pores. Unfourtunately, the microscope was showing the upper layer of cut cells the same in both cases with no indication ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Finding a reaction from a set of compounds

Consider the following reaction: http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?R00529 It is a reversible reaction with C00002 and C00059 forming one side of the reaction and C00013 and C00224 forming the ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Ether cleavage with conc HBr

Ive been asked to draw the mechanism by which benzene with $\ce{Me}$ on position 1 and $\ce{OMe}$ on position 2 goes to benzene with $\ce{Me}$ on 1 and $\ce{OH}$ on 2 by reaction with concentrated ...
3
votes
1answer
26 views

In what sense is the Inductive effect a permanent effect?

Almost everywhere I checked, the Inductive effect is described as a permanent effect with almost no mention of what that actually means. What exactly is permanent about the effect? If the effect is ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Photograph of Light as Wave and Particle

What is this? Actually its the first photo of light as wave and a particle The bottom "slice" of the image shows the particles, while the top image shows light as a wave. I have questions: How ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Reaction of cyclic aldehydes with hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide

What is the product of this reaction, which I found in our high school textbook? Initially At first, I thought this was a typical Wolff-Kishner reduction, but then I saw the reagents didn't match up ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Why doesn't EDTA complex with alkali metal ions?

EDTA complexes with all the other metal ions in the periodic table except those from the group 1. Why is this so ? What is the coordination chemistry behind this ?
2
votes
0answers
21 views

The Health Effects of Alkaline Ionized Water?

I came across alkaline ionized water as my aunts bought a system called Kangen Water from Enagic Inc. The water produced by this system is claimed to contain smaller water clusters (4-6 molecules) ...
5
votes
1answer
74 views

How to find pH by mixing two solutions of different concentrations?

A mixture is made by combining 110 mL of 0.15 M $\ce{HCl}$ and 215 mL of 0.055 M $\ce{HI}$. What is the pH of the solution? $$\ce{HCl -> H+ + Cl-}$$ $$\ce{HI -> H+ + I-}$$ According to ...
8
votes
3answers
473 views

Are electron shells probability distributions?

I know that orbitals are probability distributions. Are electron shells probability distributions too?
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Quick and simple explanation of molar mass, molecular mass and atomic mass

As a physics student, I hardly deal with such quantities and when I do, I blunder through. I think it’s a good time to be given a good explanation for these since I’m in a class of Nuclear physics. I ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Is there a theoretically greatest atomic number? [duplicate]

Is there any law of nature/chemistry that would prevent an ideal chemist (i.e. one that knows everything about chemistry and that can synthesize any physically possible chemical element)from ...
-1
votes
0answers
10 views

Finding the height of a column of Mercury with certain pressure and gravity [on hold]

A moon of Saturn has been estimated to be $146.7 kPa$ -one and a half times that of Earth. However the force of gravity is only 1.352 ms2. How high would a column of mercury be at the moon's ...
0
votes
2answers
40 views

Why isn't helium always He 1s?

Part 1: According to what I've learned so far, helium is in the first row of the periodic table, so its $n$ should always equal $1$. However, a question in my text asks about helium 2s. What is helium ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

What is the theoretical and percent yield in sulfur trioxide based on the reaction of sulfur dioxide and oxygen? [on hold]

Consider the following reaction: $$\ce{2SO2(g) + O2(g)->2SO3(g)}$$ If $275.9~\mathrm{mL}$ of $\ce{SO2}$ is allowed to react with $167.6~\mathrm{mL}$ of $\ce{O2}$, both measured at ...
7
votes
0answers
27 views

Why do halogen-metal exchanges happen?

I'm trying to understand organometallic raegents but am stuck at halogen-metal exchanges. For example if you have $\ce{PhBr + BuLi}$ you get $\ce{PhLi + BuBr}$, I don't understand why $\ce{PhBu + ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

What's the simplest way to etch Nickel and Chromium sputtered layers?

I have to etch a very thin film (50 nm) of Nickel ($\ce{Ni}$) on a 100 nm $\ce{SiO2}$/$\ce{Si}$ substrate. Additionally, there is a ~5 nm adhesion layer of $\ce{Cr}$ under the $\ce{Ni}$ that I'd also ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

Catalyzation in Carbonic Acid

I understand the basics of carbonic acid + 1 kcal breaking down into water and carbon dioxide. However, my professor wants me to draw an energy map showing the catalyst in human blood reducing the ...
4
votes
1answer
126 views

Bohr's model of atom

"the most remarkable success of the Bohr's theory is that it provides a satisfactory explanation for the line spectrum of hydrogen." But what is the problem with line spectrum of hydrogen which ...
3
votes
2answers
220 views

Le Chatelier principal Homework question

$\ce{Fe(OH)2 (s) <=> Fe^{2+} + 2OH-}$ The reaction will be more active in the reverse direction if ... is added a) $\ce{KOH}$ b) $\ce{Na2S}$ c) $\ce{Fe(OH)2}$ d) $\ce{Fe(NO3)2}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
23 views

Which has greater +R strength Toluene or Anisole

I read that resonance in Toluene is initiated with the help of hyper-conjugation. Also hyper-conjugation is less stronger than Resonance/Mesomeric effect. But in toluene its resonance thats taking ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Stability of radium oxide

Why is radium oxide yet to be isolated when a wide range of other radium (II) compounds are known ?
2
votes
1answer
24 views

PMMA cross-link temperature

I premise, I'm a physicist and I'm working on a transfer procedure for graphene via CVD, which involves the use of PMMA as a resist layer. Studying this polymer, I still haven't found what is the ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

What are the steps to creating synthetic glucose?

I need to know how to go about creating synthetic glucose with generally available materials. As I am aware of both photosynthesis and glucose in nature, I will not need lessons in how plants produce ...
8
votes
1answer
50 views

Unit consistency in rate equations

I suppose that my problem is not one of great profundity, but it is an annoying one. The problem is related to the measurement units involved in rate equations of different order. Not being a chemist ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

How Kc indicates the extent of a chemical reaction [on hold]

How can $K_c$ indicate the extent of reaction when position of equilibrium can still change if conditions e.g pressure are altered?
2
votes
2answers
46 views

Fitting parameters of Lennard-Jones potential to properties of real materials

I'm using the Lennard-Jones potential for some (very simple) protein docking simulation* and couldn't find parameters for different materials (like $\ce{C}$, $\ce{N}$, $\ce{O}$, …). Does it even make ...
6
votes
1answer
44 views

Selective alkylation of carboxylic acid vs. phenol

A is the reactant and b is the product. There are two couplings to be done. 1 and 2. Which sequence should be followed, ie. 1 should be coupled first or 2 should be coupled first? for coupling 1 , ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

Clemmensen reduction vs. Wolff-Kishner reduction

In which cases is the Clemmensen reduction is preferred over the Wolff-Kishner reduction? One thing is that the Clemmensen reduction is done under acidic conditions whereas the Wolff-Kishner ...
3
votes
2answers
44 views

Naming double bond sidechain [duplicate]

In IUPAC naming double bonds take preference over an alkane chain of any length, right? So the above should be named as 2-ethylnon-1-ene. However, when I verify ...
4
votes
0answers
51 views

Electrochemistry galvanic cell problem

A galvanic cell consists of a standard hydrogen electrode and a copper electrode. $$\begin{alignat}{2} \ce{2 H+ (aq) \;&<=> H2 (g)}\quad &&E^\circ = 0.00\ \mathrm{V}\\ \ce{Cu^2+ ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

What is the solubility of AgCl in aqueous ammonia? [on hold]

What is the solubility of $\ce{AgCl}$ in $0.20~\mathrm{M}$ $\ce{NH3}$ Given \begin{align} K_\mathrm{sp} (\ce{AgCl}) &= 1.7 \cdot 10^{-10}~\mathrm{M}\\ K_\mathrm{f}(\ce{AgNH3+}) &= ...
6
votes
1answer
60 views

Thermodynamics of photochemical reactions

Suppose I have a photochemical reaction in gas phase, such as $$ \ce{CO2 + {$h\nu$} -> CO + O}. $$ I would like to work through the thermodynamics of such a reaction and understand the meaning of ...
5
votes
0answers
40 views

How to simulate surface tension?

I am trying to create a water drop simulation for measuring hydrophobicity of surface. I don't know how to simulate the contact angle which is related by younges equation to the surface tensions for ...
-1
votes
0answers
38 views

Solutions and Titration [on hold]

What does the # mol acid and # mol base mean in the following equation $$\frac{\text{mol(base)}}{1}\times \frac{\#\ \text{mol acid}}{\#\ \text{mol base}} = \text{moles acid}$$
-3
votes
1answer
45 views

Nitric acid reaction on skin [on hold]

I have some confusion as: 1) $\ce{AgNO3 -> Ag+ + NO3-}$ 2) $\ce{NO3- + H2O -> HNO3 + OH-}$ i) $\ce{HNO3 + H2O -> H+ + NO3-}$ ii) $\ce{H+ + OH- -> H2O}$ [From equation 2) and i)] ...
3
votes
0answers
17 views

Burning formaldehyde gas: can this be done for disposal?

Since formaldehyde gas is flammable, is there a safe way to burn it, and can this be done to dispose of the gas or neutralize its harmful effects (tear production, respiratory problems, etc.)? This ...
11
votes
2answers
112 views

Are the bonding orbitals in methane equivalent - photoelectron spectrum

The low energy portion (the part dealing with the $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ electrons) of the photoelectron (PE) spectrum of methane is reproduced below. (image source) The reaction being examined ...
5
votes
1answer
36 views

Dieckmann condensation's final protonation step

This is the Wikipedia image for the reaction mechanism: In the final protonation step, why does the enol tautomerize to the keto form? In the enol form the carbon-carbon double bond is in ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Organic Skin Adhesive

Working on a project that requires the use of a preferably 'organic' skin adhesive. Looking for suggestions of any known products or natural compound solutions for adhering thin cloth or paper to ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

Doubts regarding Wittig Reaction

Ok so this is the proposed mechanism for the Wittig Reaction as stated by my textbook LG Wade. I have some doubts regarding this mechanism: 1)Why is only Triphenyl phosphine used here.Why not ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

Choose: $$\ce{Energy + 2KClO3 (s) <=> 2KCl(s) + 3O2 (g)}$$ The reaction will be more active in the reverse direction if: 1) $\ce{O_2}$ is added 2) more $\ce{KCl}$ salt is added. 3) More ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Sugar dissolution test

Is there a way to detect whether sugar is completely dissolved in a cup of water other than looking at the bottom of the cup? I was wondering if there is a test or something that can be carried out ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Deformation of the nematic phase of liquid crystals surviving in the solid state

Does anyone know if I were to cool a liquid crystal with a deformed nematic phase quickly, if it will preserve the deformation in the crystal lattice? I didn't find any information in classical ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Can electrophoresis be done with insulated electrodes?

I have been reading up on electrophoresis, where ions are separated in a solution due to an applied electric field but I can't find out whether or not the electrodes can be insulated or do they have ...

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