# All Questions

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### Synthesis of glycerol from methane?

Any ideas on how to get $\ce{C3H8O3}$ (Glycerol) from $\ce{CH4}$? My theory is that by reacting $\ce{CH4}$ with $\ce{Cl2}$ (or $\ce{Br2}$), getting $\ce{CH3Cl}$, then Wurtz's method to $\ce{CH3CH3}$, ...
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### Can we define a new unit instead of specific heat that is constant with temperature rise?

Specific heat plays an important role in calculating energy and thus, heat, enthalpy and etc. But as I sighted the definition for calorie, I was surprised. A calorie is the amount of heat needed ...
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### Aspartame poisoning: Can it modify aminoacids?

I just accidentally closed a webpage (and did not find it later) which described that somehow, Aspartame poisoning victims had faults in the vital proteins of their body due to the reaction of ...
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### Why is water a poor solvent for organic molecules?

Few organic molecules dissolve in water but why is this the case?
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### Do Grignard reagents react with amides?

Clearly the amide will be unreactive given the poor quality of the leaving group and poor electrophilcity due to delocalization. However, does it react with organolithiums for example?
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### Does the ammonium ion hydrogen bond with water?

What about oxonium ions, such as hydronium ion? Do these hydrogen bond with water? If we see hydrogen bonding as a purely electrostatic phenomenon, then why not? Ammonium ion still has nitrogen ...
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### Why is the iodide anion a good nucleophile but a poor base?

The $pK_{aH}$ of $I^-$ is very low which indicated that it is not favourable for it to bond with a proton. However, why would it be likely to bond with any other atom (mostly carbon when considering ...
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### The difference between peptide bonds and the bonds between polypeptides?

I was doing some tests for the multiple-choice final we've got ahead. And it was on me to count the peptide bonds in an Insulin hormone with 51 aminoacids arranged in two polypeptides with 30 and 21 ...
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### Mathematical Statistics and Chemistry

I'm currently working towards a major in both chemistry and mathematical statistics as a part of my science degree, and I got to wondering: How will these two go hand in hand and help each other? ...
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### Grignard reagents react with epoxides but dissolve in THF, what happens in oxetane (four membered ether ring)?

Ring strain causes the epoxides to react and THF does not react because the ring strain is not large enough. Does the four membered ring react or not? Does it favor reaction with the harder or softer ...
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### Why is methanol toxic?

There are two points of view for the answer of this question: The biological view, the only one that I faced during my research, states that since it can trigger perilous conditions like metabolic ...
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### What defines an element's taste?

A useful post by @Martin indicated that probably the naming of Sweetwater town is because of the sweet tasting lead compounds in it's water. Then my question arose. I know that the taste of any ...
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### Search materials by HOMO, LUMO and work function

I need to search organic semiconductors for organic photovoltaics (OPV) by their HOMO, LUMO, work function at 300K (as I understand, WF cannot be derived from HOMO and LUMO because semiconductor can ...
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### How does grease become airborne?

When cooking in the kitchen you usually use some oil or butter to bake your meat and potatoes in. After some weeks without cleaning (which happens every now and then) the surroundings of the stove ...
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### What are the molecular orbitals of the hypothetical linear H₃⁺ molecule?

What would be the wave function of the lowest energy molecular orbital of a hypothetical linear H3+ molecule? According to the LCAO method, I feel the lowest energy MO will be 1s(A) + 1s(B) + 1s(C). ...
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### How do I calculate the density of propane assuming an ideal gas?

Assuming an ideal gas, calculate the density in $\mathrm{g/cm^3}$ of propane, $\ce{C3H8}$ at $0.000~^\circ\mathrm{C}$ and $1.000~\mathrm{atm}$. (3 significant figures) I have figured out that I ...
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### Why is water “the universal” solvent?

An old question that our textbook tried to answer but worsened the situation. Many things are soluble in water. So many, that studying solutions will always require studying aqueous ones. It is true ...
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### What is the origin of the naming of Desoxycorticosterone acetate?

Desoxy- means the compound misses an Oxygen comparing to the name without the prefix. Acetate means ethanoate in IUPAC language. Many biologists still abide old rules and call it acetate. And finally, ...
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### I need to identify a substance

It is flat, brittle, greyish/teal colored and is white in the inside (broke with scopula.) It has a low melting point (melts into a clear liquid with the dye concentrating on the bottom) but cools ...
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### Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Using Alkenes: Mechanism

What is the mechanism by which benzene, cyclohexene and $\ce{AlCl3}$ form cyclohexylbenzene? I believe that cyclohexene will form a bond with Al with its double bond. However, how do we get rid of ...
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### Na2CO3 and HNO3 titration

As the title says, I am trying to find the pH of the followng problem (ANs: pH=10.77) Calculate the pH of a 100 mL solution containing 40.0 g of $\ce{Na2CO3}$ after 400 mL of ...
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### Molality of solution having more than one solute?

So here is my question, Question: A water sample contains 9.5% $\mathrm{MgCl_2}$ and 11.7% $\mathrm{NaCl}$ (by weight). Assuming 80% ionization of each salt. Boiling point of water will be ...
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### Chemistry Quiz Question [on hold]

A solution is created by measuring 3.90 x 10-5 moles of $\ce{NaOH}$ and 5.85 x 10-4 moles of $\ce{HCl}$ into a container and then water is added until the final volume is 2.00 L. What is the pH of ...
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### What other factors can make a compound dissolve into water?

I am doing some homework just right now, and I encountered this problem. I know that the polarity of the water molecules allows them to be a solvent for a variety of polar species or even species ...
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### How to calculate the heat of dissolution from a calorimeter experiment?

A $1.50~\mathrm{g}$ sample of $\ce{KCl}$ is added to $35.0~\mathrm{g}$ $\ce{H2O}$ in a Styrofoam cup and stirred until dissolved. The temperature of the solution drops from $24.8$ to ...
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### In E1 reactions, does carbocation stability have impact on the final product?

In this question, I believe there is a mistake for iii). I think that there the tertiary carbocation would be formed (more stable), which would lead to the tetra substituted alkene (even more ...
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### DFT Calculations, Atomic Ionization Potentials — Which Exchange-Correlation Functional to Use, to Preserve Koopmans Theorem?

I have a program which can perform density-functional calculations for atoms, given a density functional. Of course the simplest form of exchange potential to use is one relevant for a uniform ...
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### What makes R-MgX a more reactive Grignard reagent than R-CuX?

What makes $\ce{R-MgX}$ a more reactive Grignard reagent than $\ce{R-CuX}$? Has it to do with solvation, bond enthalpy, electronegativity?
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### Why do Grignard reagents react with epoxides but not THF?

THF is used as a solvent for Grignard reagents, but epoxides react with Grignard reagents. There is only a small difference between epoxides and THF, what causes the difference in reactivity towards ...
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### Some help with calculations and solutions

I got this assignment from my teacher to prepare for a small research project. However, I have no idea what I'm supposed to do (her teaching isn't the greatest) and how to continue from here. My buddy ...
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### A misunderstanding about the energy profile of reactions with a catalyst involved

All of us are aware of the importance of the catalysts in bio-chemistry. For a high school learner like me, catalysts ,and therefore, enzymes play a bridge-like role that connect high school bio to ...
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### Delocalization of pi electrons in nitrate ion

In my textbook, as examples of delocalization of pi electrons, benzene and nitrate ion have been considered. Benzene, due to symmetry of its resonating structures is simple enough. We assume that ...
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### Why do some solid chemicals dissolve better in colder water?

I just discovered that some solid chemicals, such as $\ce{Na2SO4}$, dissolve better in cold water than hot water from here and would like to know if there is any particular reason as to why. Is it ...
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### What kind of carbon ions exist?

I think there are $\ce{C^{4-}}$ and $\ce{C^{2-}}$ existing. How can we find the charge of ions in the elements? Should we look at the group or valence?
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### Ratio of MbO2/Mb in a satured solution of dissolved oxygen from dry air

What is the ratio of $\ce{MbO2/Mb}$ if the solution is saturated with air? Details of the question: \begin{align} &&\ce{Mb + O2 (aq) &-> MbO2}\\ &&\Delta G' &= ...
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### Which matter is easier to be controlled in synthesis & decomposition? More or less dense matter? [on hold]

Which matter is easier to be controlled in synthesis & decomposition? More or less dense matter? For example, lithium is lighter than carbon. Is it easy to be controlled? Also, in synthesis ...
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### Will dissociated ions in water increase the polarity of the solution? [on hold]

If NaCl is dissociated into Na+ and Cl- ions in water, will it increase the polarity of the solution?
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### A paradox in the philosophy of instability

The heavier the atom, the more unstable it gets, right? That is not true about Uranium and we know it. I wondered why. A brief explanation stated that since more neutrons are there in the nucleus ...
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### How to find the possible valence states of elements in the lower end of the d block and the f block?

For silver, why don't the electrons in the 4d orbital move to the 5p orbital? Is it possible for any elements to move their electrons between $n$d and $(n+1)$p orbitals? When the f orbital is ...
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### How to list elements according to their ray (concept question) when Z is given?

I guess the best way is to find the groups and periods and make a table, with the periods on the left and groups on the top. Then see which elements are on the left down, they have the largest ray. ...
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### How do sunscreens protect the skin from UV rays?

I was unsure to the largest extent about whether I should post this question in chemistry Q & A or bio Q & A until I just read that sunscreens "absorb" UV rays, not allowing the most of those ...
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### Why is Graphene So Strong?

There has been a lot of news about Graphene since its discovery in 2004. And as we are all told it is a revolutionary material which is very strong, conductive and transparent. But what is it about ...
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### Is HLB only defined for nonionic surfactants?

Most textbooks only talk about the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) for nonionic surfactants. I'm wondering if the same concept is well defined for other types of surfactants such as anionic and ...
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### About the meaning of the names of f orbitals

Our chemistry teacher encouraged us to study the history and naming of the orbitals on the web. (actually, our textbook did, but that's irrelevant to the problem) I easily could find the reason behind ...
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### why is the electronegativity of the hydrogen 2.20?

Well, I was doing a research about the ways we can measure electronegativity and I just relized there must be an arbitrary electronegativity set for an specific element to give us the relative amounts ...
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### Why is Al³⁺ considered a hard acid if it forms covalently bonded compounds like aluminium oxide?

If something is a hard acid, it tends to form ionic bonds as it is polarizing. So why is the aluminium ion a hard acid when it forms bonds with covalent character. A similar argument follows for why ...
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### How to calculate how much glucose has been burnt to form a certain amount of carbon dioxide? [on hold]

If we monitor the production of $\ce{CO2}$ and see that $5~\mathrm{g}$ have been produced, how much glucose has been consumed? How much energy has been released?
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### Which is the most basic oxide among group 15 oxides? [on hold]

Of $\ce{N2O3}$, $\ce{N2O}$, $\ce{P2O3}$, $\ce{Bi2O3}$ which oxides is the most basic? And how to determine the order of increasing basic nature for oxides of any group?