# All Questions

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### In this simple redox reaction, why does the Hydrogen oxidize the calcium metal?

I am understanding that the Hydrogen ions oxidize the calcium metal, neutralizing itself and creating a calcium cation. My question is why does the Hydrogen oxidize the calcium? Doesn't it prefer to ...
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### Determine the “full” notation of the reactions O16,C13 & Be9,C12

$\binom{16}{8}$O (n,$\alpha$)$\binom{13}{6}$C and $\binom{9}{4}$Be ($\alpha$,n)$\binom{12}{6}$C I had initially thought the products & reactants may be O-16 $\to$ C-13 + He-2 + p$^+$ from alpha ...
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### How does different diffraction grating effect resolution and sharpness of lines in a line spectrum?

In my lab notebook it asks us to think about the spectroscope further than the reading goes on. It asks if we use a diffraction grating that contains 600 lines/mm in the spectroscope what do we ...
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### How to get back my beautiful crystals made from iron and sulphuric acid

I have put some old nails and screws in the 30% sulfuric acid to prepare an electrolyte for plating. After some bubbling and horribly irritating smell (probably $\ce{SO2}$), the reaction slowed down. ...
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### Spectroscopy and photometric error

What is meant by the lowest photometric error and why it is important to work in the 0.2 to 0.7 absorbance range for a single beam instrument? Why 0.4 to 1.4 for double-beam instrument?
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### Water+Light+Temperature+Time = Life?

If we would put together to ~one place: Water enough Light optimal Temperature enough Time etc. Then atoms will be formed and according to Organic Chemistry, we would get "Life"? Is this an ...
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### Determining perovskite crystal structure

I've been reading that perovskite presents a sort of pseudocubic crystalline system, however it can be stretched and suffer modifications to become orthorhombic etc. The thing is, if I consider it ...
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### How many types of molecules exist? And how many exist only by synthesis?

I'm interested in how many distinct types (not total number) of unique molecules (of all types: organic and inorganic, etc), exist in the universe? what subset of those distinct types are only in ...
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### Conditions for making amines from halogenoalkanes?

From what I understand, to make an amine from a halogenoalkane you need to heat the halogenoalkane with a mixture of ammonia and ethanol. I just had a few quick questions: Do both the ammonia and ...
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### Which is more basic, hydrazine or ammonia?

Which of the following will be more basic, hydrazine $\ce{H2N-NH2}$ or ammonia $\ce{NH3}$? My chemistry teacher said that $\ce{NH3}$ is more basic since after giving $\ce{H+}$ to hydrazine results in ...
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### Can functional groups exist by themselves

Just started to study organic compounds and I am curious about functional groups. I want to know if functional groups can exist as molecules themselves.
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### Prevent molten glass from cracking when cooling down

My mother works in a ceramics workshop. Besides giving lessons she creates various ceramic dishes, cups and plates. She often uses the effect of colored glass melting in the product and then leaving ...
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### Can I use piranha solution to clean copper out of impurities?

I have some old pieces of wire. Since I want to use copper in homemade fireworks, I'm trying to gather it from the wires. I could buy it, however harvesting is much more fun. Sulphuric acid doesn't ...
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### Electrochemical potentials

I was carrying out an experiment into the effect of temperature changes on the standard potential of a cell. $$\ce{Zn(s) +2Fe^{3+}->Zn^{2+} +2Fe^{2+}}$$ I used equi-molar concentrations of ...
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### Show the vibrational frequency of F2- is much lower than that of F2

Basically I need to draw the molecular orbital for $\ce{F2}$ and then answer a bunch of questions about it. I have drawn it correctly, as far as I know, but I don't know how to use it to show that the ...
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### Which of the following represents dissociated hydrogen carbonate ions, HCO3-(aq) , reacting with water, H2O(l)? [on hold]

Which of the following represents dissociated hydrogen carbonate ions, $\ce{HCO3- (aq)}$ , reacting with water, $\ce{H2O (l)}$? \begin{align} \ce{H2O(l) + HCO3- (aq) &-> OH- (aq) + ...
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### 13C NMR peak location in butanone

The above is the correct $^{13}C$ NMR spectrum of butanone. In the $^{13}C$ NMR spectrum of butanone, I figure that the peak locations of the first and third carbons should be switched (27.3, ...
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### Why do atoms “want” to have a full outer shell?

Okay, so I know that this is about filling the orbitals of the atom, and I understand that. What I don't understand is why? For example, an Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons spinning around ...
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### Conical intersections - phase

Can anyone explain why at a conical intersection the wavefunction changes sign? My understanding is that it is a test to see if the crossing IS indeed a conical intersection or just a coincidence of ...
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### giving a conclusion from observation

There is a question I come across of an examination. I know the answer and also know the solution. Well when I first saw this problem I don't know how to approach this problem and I think I will ...
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### Relation between thermodynamic reversible process and reversible reaction

I know it seems to be a weird question. But for long I have been thinking whether there is any relation between thermodynamic reversible process and reversible reaction. Do they have any connection ...
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### Relation in the sign (+/-) for gyromagnetic ratio and magnetic susceptibility

Is there a relation (or formula) between the sign of the magnetic susceptibility and the gyromagnetic ratio of a nucleus in NMR?
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### Dextro,Levo rotatory and D/L Configuration

What does D(-) tartaric acid mean? D is always (+) Glyceraldehyde, therefore it should be +? If I am not wrong, the D indicates (+) Glyceraldehyde and L indicates (-) Glyceraldehyde and the (+) and ...
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### Nomenclature in Other languages

Even one letter can make a huge difference in Chemistry Nomenclature. So I am looking for credible resources that is specifically published for explaining Nomenclature rules, examples in Spanish. Any ...
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### What are derived names? [on hold]

Q)The derived name of (CH3)4C is A)Tetramethylmethane B)2,2-Dimethylpropane C)Neopentane D)None of these The answer was A. What is a derived name?Never heard of it in any book. Thanks
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### Methods for Determining Partial Charges

I want to run classical molecular dynamics simulations of a periodically replicated surface (rutile $\ce{TiO2}$ with grooves). In order to do so, I first need to solve for the partial charges residing ...
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### Quantifying CO2 generated/released by the soft drink industry and breweries

I need some help in developing a method by which to calculate how many tons of "evil" CO2 are routinely being released into the atmosphere SOLELY due to our beverage addictions, notably beer and soft ...
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### How can we recreate old pharaos' perfumes?

There is ongoing research where efforts were launched to find out the original constituents of a perfume for the female pharaoh Hatshepsut: (Source) In a perfume flask that was found in her tomb, ...
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### t-butylbenzene in highly acidic medium

Why would the following mechanism be valid for the conversion of t-butylbenzene to benzene in highly acidic medium followed by an aqueous workup? The main problem I have with this mechanism is the ...
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### Complete the following reactions and write the spectators for each if any

A.) cobalt (ii) chloride (aq) and cesium phosphate (aq) I am not quite sure if I have the correct answer to this equation, but I have $\ce{ CoCl2(aq) + Cs(PO4)(aq)}$ (for the equation setup) and for ...
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### Synthesis of benzophenone

Would his be a valid synthesis? I'm just unsure about the oxidative clevage step. I know that there is a Benzylic hydrogen. So should oxidative clevage work here? What happens to the fragment that is ...
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### Electrolysis not running, maybe dependant on distance of electrodes?

So I created a DC power supply of 15 V (special transformator connected to the net) and I have a graphite anode and stainless steel cathode. When I put them in a beaker next to each other in water, ...
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### Question about 1-butene structure [on hold]

How do I write out 1-butene in structure? I know its basically butene. The textbook answer is above. Is the double bond always at the end of the molecule ? And secondly, this question is a bit ...
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### Simple and cheap anti-graffiti layer based non-paint solvent

I have this issue with a group of people intentionally damaging a bench. So far, they would paint curses over the bench with permanent marker. However after I removed the curses with ethanol, they ...
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### Ionic Equilibrium

Calculate the pH of a solution which contains 100mL of 0.1M HCl and 9.9mL of 1.0M NaOH. While calculating the concentration of H+ ions, why shouldn't we consider the H+ ion concentration from water?
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### Can a Cl atom bond with a non-carbon atom?

so when I am currently doing the questions: 1) Write equations for the reaction of Chlorine with Propene and 2-butene using structural So I know that Propene is CH3-CH=CH2 and Cl is Cl(2) diatomic. ...
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### Making metal powders using electrolysis - chosing the right electrolyte

Really fine metal powders are good for two things: making paints and pyrotechnics. For this purposes, I can see people usually use thing called ball mill. It's basically a barell stuffed with heavy ...
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### Synthesis of synthetic detergent with Friedel Crafts Acylation

I propose the following synthesis. 1) Oxidation of aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. This sets me up for FC acylation once I ... 2) Attack the -OH with thionyl chloride ad form the acid chloride. 3) ...
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### NMR: Most deshielded protons (electron withdrawal)

Of these two molecules, which one would be expected to have the most deshielded signal? First off, I think the wording of this question is wack because neither of these molecules has only one NMR ...
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### Regarding preservatives in food

Can sugars like fructose-glucose or high-fructose corn syrup that are found in many types of processed food contribute to shortening a products shelf life? Don't bacteria love things like sugar so if ...
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### Calculating destabilization energy of axial and equatorial cyclohexane [on hold]

I cannot figure out how to do this question. "Calculate the destabilization energy of the axial conformation if i-propyl cyclohexane in comparison to the equatorial conformation. Do this by ...
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### What is the Natural abundance of Potassium

The three naturally occurring isotopes of potassium are $\ce{^39K}$, 38.963707 u; $\ce{^40K}$, 39.963999 u; and $\ce{^41K}$. The percent natural abundances of $\ce{^39K}$ and $\ce{^41K}$ are 93.2581% ...
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### Heats of combustion and stability of rings

Can anyone explain why? If you think about it, without having the data of the heat of combustion of each type of bond, you can't really answer this question. I know that cyclopropane has a higher ...
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### How does steric hindrance cause sulphur hexafluoride to have almost no reaction chemistry?

Sulphur hexafluoride ($\ce{SF6}$) is, according to the Wikipedia page, a hypervalent substance. However, according to the page in regards to $\ce{SF6}$ reactions: There is virtually no reaction ...
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### How can I turn Pine-Sol into an oil?

I'm wanting to make a Pine-Sol scented candle. However, in candle making you have to add a fragrance oil. People make them all the time by adding vanilla, etc and canola oil, vegetable oil, etc. ...
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### What is 250 cubic meters of natural gas to energy (kWh) [on hold]

250 cubic meters of natural gas Convert to energy (kWh)
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### Why does K+ have 0 valence electrons?

If we take a K atom and take away an electron why does it now have 0 valence electrons as it states in my General Chemistry textbook? I would think that if we do this, it would have the same exact ...