# All Questions

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### Orange juice gas

Ok, so I forgot a bootle of 1L Orange Juice (100% orange juice with pulp) in the fridge for about a week, the bottle was previously open so air got inside as well. After a week the bottle got ...
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### Why conductivity of electrolyte decreases on dilution, but molar conductivity increases?

I learnt that on dilution of an electrolytic solution, it's conductivity decreases. However, there is an increase in the molar conductivity of the solution. The book explained the reason by comparing ...
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### How actually do we decide acidity and basicity order?

In a book, I read two quite contradictory statements.: $\ce{HIO > HBrO > HClO}$ wrt acidity while $\ce{HF > HCl > HBr}$. Aren't they contradictory? If not can anyone please ...
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### Replacement for optical calcite (Glan Thompson prism)?

I notice that Glan Thompson prisms seem to be the preferred optics for doing polarimetry and have been for at least 75 years. One instrument maker says that polaroid films can be used but they tend to ...
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### Bipyridyl complex isomers

What type of stereoisomers do these two complex compounds represent?
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### Working out the number of Moles adsorbed of Ethanoic acid

I'm currently trying to work out the Freundlich isotherm constants of Ethanoic Acid or Acetic acid. The equation is $$\frac{X}{M}=AC^{(1/n)}$$ with X being number of moles of acid that are adsorbed, ...
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### Why is Cr²⁺ is a good reducing agent but Mn³⁺ is a good oxidising agent?

The question is the same as the title states. In my text book,the following is written $\ce{Cr^{2+}}$ gets converted to $\ce{Cr^{3+}}$ as the +3 oxidation state hase half filled $\mathrm{t_2g}$ ...
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### How can you predict relative Rf values of cis-trans isomers in thin layer chromatography?

This is a "homework" question. I'm writing up a lab in which we synthesized 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene. We analyzed the products using TLC with 4:1 Hexane:Ethyl Acetate as the solvent. One of ...
210 views

### Possible to grow optical calcite?

I notice that most optical calcite for sale seems to be from natural (mined) sources. Also, I know in World War 2, mining optical calcite was a strategic objective. Is there some reason why ...
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### What's the relation between the octet rule and quantum exclusion and how is it related to oxidation state?

What in the quantum nature of electrons gives rise to the octet rule? How is it related to the fact that an element cannot have an oxidation state higher/lower than the complementary to 8?
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### Related to chemical kinetic [duplicate]

I have no idea about this question's title, so please correct me. I have general knowledge on rate reaction, but these questions are still puzzled me. First, consider this question as an example: ...
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### Gaps between shells

The question asks: why is the difference in atomic radii between $\ce{K}$ and $\ce{Na}$ larger than the difference in atomic radii between $\ce{Cs}$ and $\ce{Rb}$? I do have some kind of notion that ...
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### Calculating concentration and volume in acid metal reactions [on hold]

In the reaction: $$\ce{3 Zn + 2 H3PO4 -> Zn3(PO4)2 + 3H2}$$ I know the initial mass of $\ce{Zn}$ to be 13.08 g and the volume of phosphoric acid to be 0.5 $\mathrm{dm^3}$. How do I work out the ...
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### Why would this reaction occur? Won't it be unfavourable? [duplicate]

I was just reading about how Nitrogen and Oxygen combine to form Nitric oxide. My question is, why would this reaction even occur? Isn't the valency of Nitrogen 3- and Oxygen 2-, and therefore this ...
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### How to predict the ³¹P NMR spectra?

What can I predict about the $\ce{^{31}P}$ spectra of $\ce{TiP2O7}$? To get the required information about the crystal structure of the compound, here is a screenshot from the ICSD website: Since ...
21 views

### On biological detergent breaking down organic material

This is again related to my crime story I'm working on. I would like to know how much and how long biological detergent in KG and water in L would it take to dissolve a 60kg organic material at 50 ...
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### Nuclear Testing and Carbon Dating

Will the nuclear testing done during the past decades or if a nuclear war happened in the present day, affect the accuracy of carbon dating in the future? (Hypothetically, we haven't developed a ...
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### How to determine enzyme inhibitor efficacy?

At what percentage reduction or increase in Km and Vmax is an enzyme inhibitor regarded as effective?- is any percentage increase or reduction regarded as being a clinically useful level of ...
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### What are the contribution of Greek in modern Chemistry? [on hold]

modern Chemistry which had their origin in Greek.
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### Ksp of calcium hydroxide

What would the Ksp of calcium hydroxide be at around room temp (66 Fahrenheit) and 1 atm of pressure? I know the Ksp value varies with temperature, but is there a notable difference from 20 degrees C ...
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### Calculating the angular momentum for these orbitals

Here is the question: I got through part a (with 1, -1, 0, and 0), but I'm stuck for part b. I looked up the radial and spherical harmonic wavefunctions for $n, l, m_l$ = 211 ; and I figure since ...
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### What is the heat of dissolution of sodium acetate trihydate?

Is the reaction endothermic since its crystallization is exothermic?
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### Conc. vs Time Graph for Second Order Reaction

From my understanding plotting the conc. over time for a 0-order reaction yield a negative linear slope. Plotting conc vs time for a first order reaction intuitively yields an exponential type slope. ...
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### Finding molarities of individual reagents given the chemical equation and total concentration in a container

I am given a table that gives me the different total pressures at certain times. The decomposition of phosphine is the reaction: $$\ce{4 PH3(g) <=> P4(g) + 6 H2(g)}$$ The time/pressure ...
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### Safety in handling of concentrated ammonium fluoride

I recently saw a protocol for extracting organic materials that are bound in the silica matrix formed by diatoms. The extraction protocol used 10 molar ammonium fluoride ($\ce{NH4F}$). I briefly ...
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### How to rationalise the difference in the melting points of acids and alcohols with inter molecular forces?

Acids: arachidic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, etc. Alcohols: butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, etc. The melting points of acids with $\ce{-COOH}$ at the end compared to melting points of alcohols, ...
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### Purifying washing soda

I bought a box of A&H Washing Soda, the packaging of which implied that it was pure washing soda (sodium carbonate). On dissolving it in osmotically-purified water, however, I found that the ...
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### Chemistry of sodium dihydrogen phosphate [on hold]

How much sodium dihydrogen phosphate/monobasic sodium phosphate $\ce{Na2HPO4.3H2O}$ needs to be added to 1 litre of pH 9.5 water to lower the pH to 8.5?
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### How can I determine the molarity of a base solution using the volume and molarity of the acid? [on hold]

Molarity of Acid = 0.1687 M Volume of acid = 25 mL Volume of base needed to neutralise acid = 19.56 mL If you could explain procedure would be great!
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### Salicylic acid - polarity and solubility

Really confused about this, since there is carbon and two other types of atoms: should be polar, right? However, some people online say it is non-polar. Also, is it soluble in water?
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### Is carbohydrate alcohol inebriant?

First of all, though I think that my question is related to this society, if you think reverse, tell me to delete the question: I would like to know if carbohydrate alcohol is inebriant; Can anyone ...
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### Will all thermodynamic equations have a linear dependence with moles?

I'm taking chemical thermodynamics this semester, and currently seeing things like the Maxwell's Relations. My professor never uses explicitly the variable "n" and always works with molar quantities ...
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### Does the added component (intended to disturb equilibrium) always ends up being more than the original amount, in the new equilibrium?

The title can be a little unclear. But what I am basically saying is say we add a reactant to a reaction to push the reaction forward toward the product side, that reactant which was increased in ...
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### Conductivity as a function of acid concentration

I have conducted an experiment measuring the conductivity of both hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid in solution respectively, with varying concentration. Wikipedia as well as a question on the site ...
34 views

### Can I react a Grignard reagent (ethylmagnesium bromide) with water and then ammonia?

I came across this question where I had to convert $\ce{CH3-CH2-Mg-Br}$ to $\ce{CH3-CH2-NH2}$. If I need to do so can I just react the given compound with water to get ethane and then react it with ...
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### Amine addition to nitro group

What is the mechanisms of this reaction? How feasible is this reaction? Can it happen under not too much vigorous conditions if it were intermolecular?
501 views

### Why is ethyne and not ethene used for welding?

Ethyne (Acetylene) is used with $\ce{O2}$ for welding. My question is that why is ethene not used? What properties of ethyne make it suitable for welding?
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### Purifying an organic liquid [on hold]

I'm looking for an experiment that would enable me to purify an organic liquid. Should I distill the liquid and then use a drying agent to dry it? I would also like to know what equipment I would ...
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### Microorganism preventative solution safe for using on a roof and will last in the sun

Information is scarce in the roof cleaning industry and the big guys are making a killing selling chemicals that are harmful to the person using it and everything around the home. I would like to find ...
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### Pathway from Sucrose to Cholesterol

I was reading Linus Pauling's book How to Live Longer and Feel Better, and in various places in the book he discusses a correlation between increased sucrose intake and increased blood plasma ...
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### What will be the major product on chlorination of m-nitro phenol?

I came across a question asking for the major product on chlorination of m-nitrophenol. On my opinion I allowed more preference to the deactivating nature of nitro group but I found out that the ...
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### Does the bond dissociation energy of a C-H bond be affected by the increasing halogenation in methane? [on hold]

what will be the effect of increasing halogenation to the bond dissociation of $\ce{C-H}$ in methane? What will be the effect also of varying the halogens from flourine to iodine?
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### A Question About the Signs of the Exchange and Correlation Potentials

The exchange and correlation potentials refer to those defined in density functional theory. (See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local-density_approximation) Define the exchange potential as ...
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### Washing a solvent?

Why would you wash a solvent with $\ce{NaOH}$ solution? Does $\ce{NaOH}$ solution help water and solvent separate like $\ce{NaCl}$ solution does (salting out)? Would you wash with hot or cold ...
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### condensation of tellurium on inside of ampoule?

After heating an ampoule of tellurium around its melting point in a furnace for about a day, I've noticed drops of the element on the upper inside surface of the ampoule, as if it condensed there. ...
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### Why is ionic strength (mu) calculated differently for these 2 examples?

In the following examples; I don't understand why $\ce{Na_3PO_4}$ is a much more complicated process when calculating $\mu$ compared to $\ce{NaH_2PO_4}$ and $\ce{Na_2HPO_4}$. Specifically, I don't ...
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### Why is snow white?

I know that this is a rather ambiguous question; but my question is, whenever we take water and freeze it in the freezer it tends to still stay clear. Since snow is just frozen water, why is it white? ...
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### When does a solute form ions?

If I have $\ce{HCl}$ and I put it in water, it will form ions. But, if I take $\ce{HCl}$ and put in benzene, it won't. How do you know that? If I had other substances, how would I know if it forms ...